Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the central and peripheral nervous systems, including their coverings, blood vessels, all effector tissue, such as muscle. Neurological practice relies on the field of neuroscience, the scientific study of the nervous system. A neurologist is a physician specializing in neurology and trained to investigate, or diagnose and treat neurological disorders. Neurologists may be involved in clinical research, clinical trials, basic or translational research. While neurology is a nonsurgical specialty, its corresponding surgical specialty is neurosurgery. Significant overlap occurs between the fields of neurology and psychiatry, with the boundary between the two disciplines and the conditions they treat being somewhat nebulous. Many neurological disorders have been described as listed; these can affect the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, the autonomic nervous system, the muscular system.
The academic discipline began between the 15th and 16th centuries with the work and research of many neurologists such as Thomas Willis, Robert Whytt, Matthew Baillie, Charles Bell, Moritz Heinrich Romberg, Duchenne de Boulogne, William A. Hammond, Jean-Martin Charcot, John Hughlings Jackson. Many neurologists have additional training or interest in one area of neurology, such as stroke, neuromuscular, sleep medicine, pain management, or movement disorders. In the United States and Canada, neurologists are physicians having completed postgraduate training in neurology after graduation from medical school. Neurologists complete, on average, about 8 years of medical college education and clinical training, which includes obtaining a four-year undergraduate degree, a medical degree, which comprises an additional four years of study completing one year of basic clinical training and four years of residency; the four-year residency consists of one year of internal medicine internship training followed by three years of training in neurology.
Some neurologists receive additional subspecialty training focusing on a particular area of the fields. These training programs are called fellowships, are one to two years in duration. Subspecialties include brain injury medicine, clinical neurophysiology, epilepsy and palliative medicine, neurodevelopmental disabilities, neuromuscular medicine, pain medicine, sleep medicine, neurocritical care, vascular neurology, behavioral neurology, child neurology, multiple sclerosis, neurorehabilitation. In Germany, a compulsory year of psychiatry must be done to complete a residency of neurology. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, neurology is a subspecialty of general medicine. After five years of medical school and two years as a Foundation Trainee, an aspiring neurologist must pass the examination for Membership of the Royal College of Physicians and complete two years of core medical training before entering specialist training in neurology. Up to the 1960s, some intending to become neurologists would spend two years working in psychiatric units before obtaining a diploma in psychological medicine.
However, uncommon and, now that the MRCPsych takes three years to obtain, would no longer be practical. A period of research is essential, obtaining a higher degree aids career progression. Many found it was eased after an attachment to the Institute of Neurology at London; some neurologists enter the field of rehabilitation medicine to specialise in neurological rehabilitation, which may include stroke medicine, as well as brain injuries. During a neurological examination, the neurologist reviews the patient's health history with special attention to the current condition; the patient takes a neurological exam. The exam tests mental status, function of the cranial nerves, coordination and sensation; this information helps the neurologist determine whether the problem exists in the nervous system and the clinical localization. Localization of the pathology is the key process by which neurologists develop their differential diagnosis. Further tests may be needed to confirm a diagnosis and guide therapy and appropriate management.
Neurologists examine patients who are referred to them by other physicians in both the inpatient and outpatient settings. Neurologists begin their interactions with patients by taking a comprehensive medical history, performing a physical examination focusing on evaluating the nervous system. Components of the neurological examination include assessment of the patient's cognitive function, cranial nerves, motor strength, reflexes and gait. In some instances, neurologists may order additional diagnostic tests as part of the evaluation. Employed tests in neurology include imaging studies such as computed axial tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound of major blood vessels of the head and neck. Neurophysiologic studies, including electroencephalography, needle electromyography, nerve conduction studies and evoked potentials are commonly ordered. Neurologists perform lumbar punctures to assess characteristics of a patient's cerebrospinal fluid. Advances in genetic testing have made genetic testing an important tool in the classification of inherited neuromuscular disease and diagnosis of many other neurogenetic dis
Dahida is a village in Dhari Taluka of Amreli district, India. It is a former non-salute princely state; the separate tribute-paying princely state under Lakhapadar thana in Sorath prant was ruled by Vala Kathi chieftains. In 1901 it comprised three villages, with a combined population of 915, yielding 13,500 Rupees state revenue, but paying no tribute; the population was 491 according to the census of 1872 and 770 according to that of 1881. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Kathiawar. VIII. Printed at the Government Central Press, Bombay. 1884. P. 408
Athenaeum Illustre, or Amsterdamse Atheneum, was a city-sponsored'illustrous school' founded after the beeldenstorm in the old Agnieten chapel on the Oudezijds Voorburgwal 231 in Amsterdam. Famous scientists such as Caspar Barlaeus, Gerardus Vossius, Petrus Camper taught here; the chapel is all that remains of the Agnietenklooster built in 1470, illustrated by Cornelis Anthonisz in 1544. It was remodelled in 1631 to become the Atheneaeum Illustre, the same year the old gate from 1571 was moved. Though it is considered the predecessor to the University of Amsterdam, it was not possible to earn a degree there and it wasn't lawfully recognized for diplomas until 1815, it wasn't until 1877 that it was recognized for doctorates, and, the same year the name was changed to Gemeentelijke Universiteit van Amsterdam. Professors were appointed by the city council and the mayor of Amsterdam was chairman of the board; this situation remained in place until 1961, when the financial responsibility for the school reverted to the national ministry of education.
At the foundation of the Athenaeum Illustre, the City Library was moved to the attics of the Agnietenkapel and thus formed the origin of the present University Library. Athenaeum Illustre is window number 15 of the Canon of Amsterdam, by Piet de Rooy & Emma Los, Uitgeverij Boom, Amsterdam, 2008, ISBN 9789085066835
The Advanced Technology Leisure Application Simulator, or ATLAS, is a large hydraulic motion simulator. It was designed, for the theme park industry; the ATLAS is a product of Rediffusion Simulation in Sussex, now owned by Thales Group and known as Thales Training & Simulation. Disney filed multiple patents on their variant of the device, including US Utility Patent #5161104; the ATLAS was derived from military flight simulation technology. It uses six hydraulic actuators to provide a broad range of movement. In the half of the 1980s, Walt Disney Imagineering bought and refined this technology for two theme park attractions; the technology was used in 2016 for the Iron Man Experience at Hong Kong Disneyland. The Disney attractions feature large, 40-person cabins hidden from outside view, arranged lengthwise with four or six simulators per installation. There are four simulators at Disneyland's Star Tours and EPCOT's Body Wars, while the remaining Star Tours installations have six. At Hong Kong Disneyland's Iron Man Experience, there are five simulators.
Body Wars is now defunct and the simulators have been removed from the building in the years since the closure of the Wonders of Life pavilion
Palmer Land is the portion of the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica that lies south of a line joining Cape Jeremy and Cape Agassiz. This application of Palmer Land is consistent with the 1964 agreement between US-ACAN and UK-APC, in which the name Antarctic Peninsula was approved for the major peninsula of Antarctica, the names Graham Land and Palmer Land for the northern and southern portions, respectively; the line dividing them is 69 degrees south.. In its southern extreme, the Antarctic Peninsula stretches west, with Palmer Land bordering Ellsworth Land along the 80° W line of longitude. Palmer Land is bounded in the south by the ice-covered Carlson Inlet, an arm of the Filchner Ice Shelf, which crosses the 80° W line; this is the base of Cetus Hill. This feature is named after Captain Nathaniel B. Palmer. Aldebaran Rock is a conspicuous nunatak of bright red rock, located near the head of Bertram Glacier and 5 miles northeast of Pegasus Mountains in western Palmer Land. Named by United Kingdom Antarctic Place-Names Committee after Aldebaran, an orange-colored star, the brightest in the constellation of Taurus.
Engel Peaks Sverdrup Nunataks, a line of peaks named after Harald U. Sverdrup
North Central Province was an electorate of the Victorian Legislative Council. It was created in the redistribution of provinces in 1882 when the Central and Eastern Provinces were abolished; the new North Central Province, South Yarra, North Yarra, South Eastern and Melbourne Provinces were created. North Central Province was created and defined by the Legislative Council Act 1881 as consisting of the following divisions: McIvor, Pyalong, Glenlyon, Strathfieldsaye, Mount Alexander, Mount Franklin, Maldon, Castlemaine and Daylesford. North Central Province was abolished in 1904, with the creation of the new East Yarra, Melbourne East, Melbourne North, Melbourne South and Melbourne West Provinces. T Fitzgerald and Embling transferred to Southern Province June 1904.g Gray transferred to Bendigo Province June 1904