A neuron, neurone or nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that communicates with other cells via specialized connections called synapses. It is the main component of nervous tissue in all animals except sponges and placozoa. Plants and fungi do not have nerve cells. Neurons are classified into three types based on their function. Sensory neurons respond to stimuli such as touch, sound, or light that affect the cells of the sensory organs, they send signals to the spinal cord or brain. Motor neurons receive signals from the brain and spinal cord to control everything from muscle contractions to glandular output. Interneurons connect neurons to other neurons within the same region of spinal cord. A group of connected neurons is called a neural circuit. A typical neuron consists of a cell body, a single axon; the soma is compact. The axon and dendrites are filaments. Dendrites branch profusely and extend a few hundred micrometers from the soma; the axon leaves the soma at a swelling called the axon hillock, travels for as far as 1 meter in humans or more in other species.
It branches but maintains a constant diameter. At the farthest tip of the axon's branches are axon terminals, where the neuron can transmit a signal across the synapse to another cell. Neurons may have no axon; the term neurite is used to describe either a dendrite or an axon when the cell is undifferentiated. Most neurons send out signals down the axon. At the majority of synapses, signals cross from the axon of one neuron to a dendrite of another. However, synapses can connect an axon to a dendrite to another dendrite; the signaling process is electrical and chemical. Neurons are electrically excitable, due to maintenance of voltage gradients across their membranes. If the voltage changes by a large enough amount over a short interval, the neuron generates an all-or-nothing electrochemical pulse called an action potential; this potential travels along the axon, activates synaptic connections as it reaches them. Synaptic signals may be excitatory or inhibitory, increasing or reducing the net voltage that reaches the soma.
In most cases, neurons are generated by neural stem cells during brain childhood. Neurogenesis ceases during adulthood in most areas of the brain. However, strong evidence supports generation of substantial numbers of new neurons in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. Neurons are the primary components of the nervous system, along with the glial cells that give them structural and metabolic support; the nervous system is made up of the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system, which includes the autonomic and somatic nervous systems. In vertebrates, the majority of neurons belong to the central nervous system, but some reside in peripheral ganglia, many sensory neurons are situated in sensory organs such as the retina and cochlea. Axons may bundle into fascicles. Bundles of axons in the central nervous system are called tracts. Neurons are specialized for the processing and transmission of cellular signals. Given their diversity of functions performed in different parts of the nervous system, there is a wide variety in their shape and electrochemical properties.
For instance, the soma of a neuron can vary from 4 to 100 micrometers in diameter. The soma is the body of the neuron; as it contains the nucleus, most protein synthesis occurs here. The nucleus can range from 3 to 18 micrometers in diameter; the dendrites of a neuron are cellular extensions with many branches. This overall shape and structure is referred to metaphorically as a dendritic tree; this is. The axon is a finer, cable-like projection that can extend tens, hundreds, or tens of thousands of times the diameter of the soma in length; the axon carries nerve signals away from the soma, carries some types of information back to it. Many neurons have only one axon, but this axon may—and will—undergo extensive branching, enabling communication with many target cells; the part of the axon where it emerges from the soma is called the axon hillock. Besides being an anatomical structure, the axon hillock has the greatest density of voltage-dependent sodium channels; this makes it the most excited part of the neuron and the spike initiation zone for the axon.
In electrophysiological terms, it has the most negative threshold potential. While the axon and axon hillock are involved in information outflow, this region can receive input from other neurons; the axon terminal contains synapses. Synaptic boutons are specialized structures where neurotransmitter chemicals are released to communicate with target neurons. In addition to synaptic boutons at the axon terminal, a neuron may have en passant boutons, which are located along the length of the axon; the accepted view of the neuron attributes dedicated functions to its various anatomical components. Axons and dendrites in the central nervous system are only about one micrometer thick, while some in the peripheral nervous system are much thicker; the soma is about 10–25 micrometers in diameter and is not much larger than the cell nucleus it contains. The longest axon of a human motor neuron can be over a meter long, reaching from the base of the spine to the toes. S
The burning of the Parliament Buildings in Montreal was an important event in pre-Confederation Canadian history and occurred on the night of April 25, 1849, in Montreal in the Province of Canada. It is considered a crucial moment in the development of the Canadian democratic tradition as a consequence of how the matter was dealt with by co-prime ministers of the united Province of Canada, Sir Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine and Robert Baldwin; the St. Anne's Market building lodging the Legislative Council and Assembly of Canada was burned down by Tory rioters in retaliation for the Rebellion Losses Bill while the members of the Legislative Assembly were sitting in session; the episode is characterized by divisions in pre-Confederation Canadian society concerning whether Canada was the North American appendage of the British Empire or a nascent sovereign nation. In 1837 and 1838 Canadians rebelled against the oligarchic rule of the British colonial administration, first in Lower Canada in Upper Canada.
Political reforms followed the rebellions as Canada was of vital strategic interest to the British Empire. Put, the British did not want to lose the rest of North America given the inconclusive results of the War of 1812, they acquiesced to what evolved into full legal national sovereignty. Many key leaders of the Rebellions would play focal roles in the development of the political and philosophical foundations for an independent Canada, something achieved on July 1, 1867. Opposition to this movement was principally represented by the somewhat aristocratic British colonial administration and their extended community, in addition to organized fraternal associations, such as the Scotch-Irish Orange Order and the Anglo-Montreal bourgeoisie of the era; the Rebellion Losses Bill was intended to both offer amnesty to former rebels and an indemnity to individuals who had suffered financial losses as a consequence of the rebellions. Though the bill was passed by the majority of those sitting in the Legislative Assembly, it remained unpopular with the Loyalist population of Montreal, who decided to use violence to demonstrate their opposition.
As such, the Parliament buildings were destroyed amidst considerable mob violence, an invaluable collection of historical records kept in the parliamentary library was lost forever. Despite the tense situation and deplorable socio-cultural crime committed by the mob, Lafontaine proceeded cautiously, fought off armed thugs who had shot through his window, maintained restraint and resolve in his actions. Jailed members of the mob were released on bail soon after their arrest and a force of special constables established to keep the peace. Though there was public concern this might be a crushing blow to the reform movement, Lafontaine persevered despite the opposition, would continue in his role developing the tenets of Canadian federalism – peace and good government. Within a decade public opinion had shifted overwhelmingly in the development of a sovereign Canada; the Province of Canada was born out of the legislative union of the provinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada in February 1841. In 1844, its capital was moved in Canada West, to Montreal, in Canada East.
St. Anne's Market, located where Place d'Youville stands today, was renovated by architect John Ostell to host the provincial parliament; as part of the moving of the capital, all books in the two parliamentary libraries, as well as those of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council were transported by boat on the St. Lawrence. General elections were held in October 1844; the Tory party won a majority and Governor Metcalfe had its principal spokesmen enter the Executive Council. The first session of the second parliament opened on November 28 of the same year. In 1843, the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the Canadian Corn Act, which favoured Canada's exports of wheat and flour on the UK markets through the reduction of duties; the protectionist policy of Lord Stanley and Benjamin Disraeli, in continuity with Great Britain's colonial practice during the first half of the 19th century, was overturned in 1846, by the repeal of the Corn Laws and the promotion of free trade by the government of Robert Peel.
Canada's chambers of commerce feared an imminent disaster. The Anti-Corn Law League was triumphant, but the commercial class and ruling class of Canada, principally English-speaking and conservative, experienced an important setback; the repercussions of the repeal were felt as early as 1847. The Canadian government put pressure on Colonial Secretary Earl Grey to have Great Britain negotiate a lowering of the duties imposed on Canadian products entering the United States market, which had become the only lucrative path to export. A reciprocity treaty was negotiated, but only eight years in 1854. During the interval, Canada experienced an important political crisis and influential members of society discussed three alternatives to the political status quo: annexation to the United States, the federation of the colonies and territories of British North America, the independence of Canada. Two citizens' associations appeared in the wake of the crisis: the Annexation Association and the British American League.
After 1847, the fears of the chambers of commerce in Canada were confirmed, bankruptcies kept accumulating. Property values were in freefall in the cities in the capital. In February 1849, the introduction in Parliament of an indemnity bill only aggravated the discontent of a part of the population who had watched d'un mauvais œil the passing of a series of legislative
The News-Times is a daily newspaper based in Danbury, United States. It is operated by the Hearst Corporation; the paper covers Danbury, a city in Fairfield County in southwestern Connecticut, as well as the towns of Brookfield, New Fairfield, Bethel, Redding, New Milford, Kent, Bridgewater and Southbury. The News-Times owns and operates The Greater New Milford Spectrum, a weekly newspaper that covers New Milford, Kent, Bridgewater and Roxbury; when it comes to covering different news stories, The News-Times reports on stories at the local and national level. Most crime stories that are published by The News-Times are about events that occurred in the greater Danbury area, their crime stories range from break-ins to homicides. The paper's local news coverage ranges from town politics, to infrastructure, to city traditions and events; the News-Times reports on major stories that take place throughout the state of Connecticut, as well as stories of national interest that have Connecticut roots in them.
The News-Times was founded on September 8, 1883 as the Danbury Evening News by James Montgomery Bailey. In 1933 it merged with the Danbury Times, thereafter to be known as the Danbury News-Times; the Ottaway Community Newspapers chain purchased the paper in 1955. Ottaway, which became a division of Dow Jones & Company, owned the newspaper until November 2006, when its sale to Community Newspaper Holdings was announced. Five months on April 1, 2007, the newspaper, along with the weekly Spectrum, was sold for US$75 million to Hearst Corporation of New York. Hearst owns the Connecticut Post in Bridgeport and the Brooks Community Newspapers chain of weeklies in lower Fairfield County; the current average daily net press run is 7,511 copies as reported in The Publisher's statement dated October 1, 2018. Dean Singleton and chief executive officer of MediaNews, told News-Times employees the paper would remain independent of the larger Connecticut Post though the Danbury paper’s publisher will report to the publisher of the Post, The News-Times reported.
MediaNews announced that it will buy the News-Times building at 333 Main Street, which had not been part of the sale to Community Newspaper Holdings. On August 8, 2008 the Hearst Corporation acquired the Connecticut Post and www.ctpost.com, including seven non-daily newspapers, from MediaNews Group, Inc. and assumed management control of three additional daily newspapers in Fairfield County, Conn. including The Advocate, Greenwich Time, The News-Times, managed for Hearst by MediaNews under a management agreement that began in April 2007. In 2018, The News-Times editorial office moved from 333 Main Street to 345 Main Street in Danbury. Official website The News-Times on Facebook The News-Times on Twitter