A neuroscientist is a scientist who has specialised knowledge in the field of neuroscience, the branch of biology that deals with the physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology of neurons and neural circuits and their association with behaviour and learning. Neuroscientists work as researchers within a college, government agency, or private industry setting. In research-oriented careers, neuroscientists spend their time designing and carrying out scientific experiments that contribute to the understanding of the nervous system and its function, they can engage in applied research. Basic research seeks to add information to our current understanding of the nervous system, whereas applied research seeks to address a specific problem, such as developing a treatment for a neurological disorder. Biomedically-oriented neuroscientists engage in applied research. Neuroscientists have a number of career opportunities outside the realm of research, including careers in industry, science writing, government program management, science advocacy, education.
These individuals most hold doctorate degrees in the sciences, but may hold a master's degree. The Neuroscientists day is celebrated on August 13. Neuroscientists focus on the study and research of the nervous system; the nervous system is composed of spinal cord and nerve cells. Studies of the nervous system may focus on the cellular level, as in studies of the ion channels, or instead may focus on a systemic level as in behavioural or cognitive studies. A significant portion of nervous system studies is devoted to understanding the diseases that affect the nervous system, like multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Lou Gehrig's. Research occurs in private and public research institutions and universities; some common tasks for neuroscientists are: Developing experiments and leading groups of people in supporting roles Conducting theoretical and computational neuronal data analysis Research and development of new treatments for neurological disorders Working with doctors to perform experimental studies of new drugs on willing patients Following safety and sanitation procedures and guidelines Dissecting experimental specimens The overall median salary for neuroscientists in the United States was $79,940 in May 2014.
Neuroscientists are full-time employees. Below, median salaries for common work places in the United States are shown. Neuroscientists research and study both the biological and psychological aspects of the nervous system. Once neuroscientists finish their post doctoral programs, 39% go on to perform more doctoral work, while 36% take on faculty jobs. Neuroscientists use a wide range of mathematical methods, computer programs, biochemical approaches and imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography angiography, diffusion tensor imaging. Imaging techniques allow scientists to observe physical changes in the brain. Neuroscientists can be part of several different neuroscience organizations where they can publish and read different research topics. Neuroscience is expecting a job growth of about 8% from 2014 to 2024, a average job growth rate when compared to other professions. Factors leading to this growth include an aging population, new discoveries leading to new areas of research, an increasing utilization of medications.
Government funding for research will continue to influence the demand for this specialty. Neuroscientists enroll in a four-year undergraduate program and move on to a PhD program for graduate studies. Once finished with their graduate studies, neuroscientists may continue doing postdoctoral work to gain more lab experience and explore new laboratory methods. In their undergraduate years, neuroscientists take physical and life science courses to gain a foundation in the field of research. Typical undergraduate majors include biology, behavioral neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience. Many colleges and universities now have PhD training programs in the neurosciences with divisions between cognitive and molecular, computational and systems neuroscience. Neuroscience has a unique perspective in that it can be applied in a broad range of disciplines, thus the fields neuroscientists work in vary. Neuroscientists may study topics from the large hemispheres of the brain to neurotransmitters and synapses occurring in neurons at a micro-level.
Some fields that combine psychology and neurobiology include cognitive neuroscience, behavioural neuroscience. Cognitive neuroscientists study human consciousness the brain, how it can be seen through a lens of biochemical and biophysical processes. Behaviorial neuroscience encompasses the whole nervous system and the brain how these areas show us aspects of motivation and motor skills along with many others; some of the first writings about the brain come from the Egyptians. In about 3000 BC the first known written description of the brain indicated that the location of brain injuries may be related to specific symptoms; this document contrasted common theory at the time. Most of the Egyptians' other writings are spiritual, describing thought and feelings as responsibilities of the heart; this idea was accepted and can be found into 17th century Europe. Plato believed. However, Aristotle believed instead the heart to be the source of mental processes and that the brain acted as a cooling system for the cardiovascular system.
The Devil and Father Amorth is a 2017 documentary film directed by William Friedkin showing the ninth exorcism of an Italian woman in the village of Venafro referred to as "Cristina", this time performed by Father Gabriele Amorth. Gabriele Amorth Robert Barron William Friedkin Mark Kermode, a British film critic and long-time admirer of Friedkin, was invited to assist in writing narration; the film premiered at the 74th Venice International Film Festival on August 31, 2017. It had a wide release in the United States on April 20, 2018. On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 44% based on 39 reviews, with an average rating of 4.88/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "The Devil and Father Amorth sets out to interrogate age-old questions of faith, but fails to find enough compelling answers -- or reasons for viewers to watch." On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 46 out of 100, based on 16 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews".
Robbie Collin of The Telegraph wrote that the film "feels amateurish and arguably exploitative although that lends it credibility: in this context, too much polish would certainly be cause for suspicion." Owen Gleiberman of Variety called the film "a rather tawdry charade." The Devil and Father Amorth on IMDb
Heinrich Wilhelm Augustus Musculus was a Swedish-Norwegian businessperson. He was born in Germany, but hailed from Scania, took education as a cement technician and construction engineer, he emigrated to Kristiania in Norway at the age of 22. After working one year in Slemmestad Fabrikker he started his own company in 1891. Among others, his company Christiania Cementstøperi, H. Musculus constructed a drydocks for Akers Mekaniske Verksted and a grain silo at Vippetangen; the company traded in building tools, until 1923 when this business area was delegated to the company Christiania Cementstøperi, P. Paaske, he owned the company Korkindustri with a factory in Gamlebyen, but it burned down in 1934. Musculus co-founded the employers' association Entreprenørenes Landssammenslutning in 1910, chaired it for the first ten years, he was a central board member of the Norwegian Employers' Confederation, a member of the executive committee in the Federation of Norwegian Industries. He was a board member of Norges Hypotekforening for Næringslivet.