Quantum of Solace
Quantum of Solace is a 2008 British spy film, the twenty-second in the James Bond series produced by Eon Productions, directed by Marc Forster and written by Paul Haggis, Neal Purvis and Robert Wade. It is the second film to star Daniel Craig as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond; the film stars Olga Kurylenko, Mathieu Amalric, Gemma Arterton, Jeffrey Wright, Judi Dench. In the film, Bond seeks revenge for the death of his lover, Vesper Lynd, is assisted by Camille Montes, plotting revenge for the murder of her own family; the trail leads them to wealthy businessman Dominic Greene, a member of the Quantum organisation, who intends to stage a coup d'état in Bolivia to seize control of their water supply. Producer Michael G. Wilson developed the film's plot while the previous film in the series, Casino Royale, was being shot. Purvis and Haggis contributed to the script. Craig and Forster had to write some sections themselves due to the Writers' Strike, though they were not given the screenwriter credit in the final cut.
The title was chosen from a 1959 short story in Ian Fleming's For Your Eyes Only, though the film does not contain any elements of that story. Location filming took place in Mexico, Chile, Italy and Wales, while interior sets were built and filmed at Pinewood Studios. Forster aimed to make a modern film that featured classic cinema motifs: a vintage Douglas DC-3 was used for a flight sequence, Dennis Gassner's set designs are reminiscent of Ken Adam's work on several early Bond films. Taking a course away from the usual Bond villains, Forster rejected any grotesque appearance for the character Dominic Greene to emphasise the hidden and secret nature of the film's contemporary villains; the film was marked by its frequent depictions of violence, with a 2012 study by the University of Otago in New Zealand finding it to be the most violent film in the franchise. Whereas Dr. No featured 109 "trivial or violent" acts, Quantum of Solace had a count of 250—the most depictions of violence in any Bond film—even more prominent since it was the shortest film in the franchise.
Quantum of Solace premiered at the Odeon Leicester Square on 29 October 2008, gathering mixed reviews, which praised Craig's gritty performance and the film's action sequences, but felt that the film was less impressive than its predecessor Casino Royale. As of September 2016, it is the fourth-highest-grossing James Bond film, without adjusting for inflation, earning $586 million worldwide, becoming the seventh highest-grossing film of 2008. James Bond is driving from Lake Garda to Siena, with the captured Mr. White in the boot of his Aston Martin DBS V12. After evading pursuers Bond delivers White to M, who interrogates him regarding his organisation, Quantum. M's bodyguard, Craig Mitchell, is a double agent and he attacks M, enabling White to escape. Bond kills him. Bond and M return to London and search Mitchell's flat, discovering Mitchell had a contact in Haiti, Edmund Slate. Bond learns Slate is a hitman sent to kill Camille Montes at the behest of her lover, environmentalist entrepreneur Dominic Greene.
Observing her subsequent meeting with Greene, Bond learns Greene is helping exiled Bolivian General Medrano, who murdered Camille's family, to overthrow his government and become the new president, in exchange for a barren piece of desert. After rescuing Camille from Medrano, Bond follows Greene to a performance of Tosca in Bregenz, Austria. Meanwhile, the head of the CIA's South American section, Gregg Beam, strikes a noninterference deal with Greene for access to putative stocks of Bolivian oil. Bond infiltrates Quantum's meeting at the opera, identifying members of Quantum's executive board, a gunfight ensues. A Special Branch bodyguard working for Quantum member Guy Haines, is killed by one of Greene's men after Bond throws him off a roof. M assumes Bond killed him, has Bond's passports and credit cards revoked. Bond convinces his old ally René Mathis to accompany him to Bolivia, they are greeted by Strawberry Fields, a consular employee who demands Bond return to the UK immediately. Bond seduces her and they attend a fundraising party Greene holds that night.
At the party, Bond again rescues Camille from Greene. Leaving and Camille are pulled over by Bolivian police working for Medrano, they had earlier put his body in Bond's car to frame Bond. In the ensuing struggle and the cops are killed; the following day and Camille survey Quantum's intended land acquisition by air. They skydive into a sinkhole, discover Quantum is damming Bolivia's supply of fresh water to create a monopoly. Back in La Paz, Bond meets M and learns Quantum killed Fields by drowning her in crude oil. Bond meets CIA Agent Felix Leiter, who discloses Greene and Medrano will meet in the Atacama Desert to finalise their agreement. Warned by Leiter, he evades the CIA's Special Activities Division. At an eco hotel in the desert, Greene tells Medrano that now he controls the majority of Bolivia's water supply, Medrano must accept a new contract that makes Greene Planet Bolivia's sole water utility company at higher rates. Bond infiltrates the complex, kills the chief of police for betraying Mathis, single-handedly assaults the hotel.
After killing the security detail, he confronts Greene. Meanwhile, Camille kills Medrano; the struggle leaves the hotel destroyed by fire. Bond captu
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
Futura is a geometric sans-serif typeface designed by Paul Renner and released in 1927. It was designed as a contribution on the New Frankfurt-project, it is based on geometric shapes the circle, similar in spirit to the Bauhaus design style of the period. It was developed as a typeface by the Bauer Type Foundry, in competition with Ludwig & Mayer's seminal Erbar typeface of 1926. Futura has an appearance of efficiency and forwardness. Although Renner was not associated with the Bauhaus, he shared many of its idioms and believed that a modern typeface should express modern models, rather than be a revival of a previous design. Renner's design rejected the approach of most previous sans-serif designs, which were based on the models of signpainting, condensed lettering and nineteenth-century serif typefaces, in favour of simple geometric forms: near-perfect circles and squares, it is based on strokes of near-even weight. The lowercase has tall ascenders, which rise above the cap line, uses nearly-circular, single-story forms for the "a" and "g", the former more common in handwriting than in printed text.
The uppercase characters present proportions similar to those of classical Roman capitals. The original metal type showed extensive adaptation of the design to individual sizes, several divergent digitisations have been released by different companies. Futura was extensively marketed by Bauer and its American distribution arm by brochure as capturing the spirit of modernity, using the German slogan "die Schrift unserer Zeit" and in English "the typeface of today and tomorrow", it has remained popular since. Paul Renner began sketching his letters that would become Futura in 1924. Matrices for machine composition were made by Intertype. Despite its clean geometric appearance, some of Futura's design choices recalled classic serif typefaces. Unlike many sans-serif designs intended for display purposes, Futura has quite a low x-height, reducing its stridency and increasing its suitability for body text; the original Futura design concept included small old-style figures. These were dropped from the original metal issue of the type and first offered digitally by Neufville Digital under the Futura ND family.
The design of Futura avoids the decorative, eliminating nonessential elements, but makes subtle departures from pure geometric designs that allow the letterforms to seem balanced. This is visible in the almost round stroke of the o, nonetheless ovoid, in how the circular strokes of letters like b thin as they merge with the verticals. Renner's biographer Christopher Burke has noted the important role of the Bauer Foundry's manufacturing team in adapting the design for different sizes of text, a feature not seen in digital releases. However, Renner expressed some disappointment with the slow design and release process, as it allowed Erbar to precede his design and other typefaces of similar design to appear in the same year as its release. Renner's original plan was for two versions: a more conventional version suitable for general use, a more eccentric, geometric lower case based on the circle and triangle; this plan was scrapped, although the characters did appear on an early specimen and more on at least one digitisation.
Futura was very successful, due to its combination of classicism and modernity. It spawned a range of derivative geometric sans-serif typefaces from competing foundries in the United States. In the UK Futura, while sometimes used, was overshadowed by Gill Sans, which became popular for similar reasons in the UK and came to define 1930s and 1940s printing. While more humanist, it has geometric leanings which are visible in the capitals. Futura remains an important typeface family and is used on a daily basis for print and digital purposes as both a headline and body font; the font is used extensively in advertisements and logos, notably by IKEA, Party City, Royal Dutch Shell, FremantleMedia and HP in their print ads. Until the 1950s it was used extensively by the publishing industry as a general-purpose font. A Cyrillic variant of the Futura Medium typography was made by Anatoli Muzanov for the 1980 Summer Olympics held in Moscow. Futura is employed by Fox News Channel, the RAI for its logo and is used in the Italian railway system for signs.
Futura has been used extensively in video. It is used for the title logo of the 1999 film American Beauty, it was used in various TV shows including Doug, Warehouse 13, the American version of Sesame Street, which had the capital "I", lowercase "j", numbers "1" and "4" in simplified forms, etc. Futura is featured ubiquitously throughout the film adaptation of V for Vendetta, for everything from the title logo and ending credits, to signs, computer screens and other props. Wes Anderson is used it in some of his films. Futura was Stanley Kubrick's favorite typeface. Transport is another important area where Futura has been used extensively due to its ability to be read from a distance. Futura is used extensively in aviation for instruments and control legends — most Boeing airliners use Futura within their cockpit controls, for example. NASA used Futura during the Apollo space program, with charts, techncial documents, spacecraft instrumentation lab
A type foundry is a company that designs or distributes typefaces. Before desktop publishing, type foundries manufactured and sold metal and wood typefaces and matrices for line-casting machines like the Linotype and Monotype machines designed to be used with letterpress printers. Today's digital type foundries accumulate and distribute typefaces created by type designers, who may either be freelancers operating their own independent foundry, or employed by another foundry. Type foundries may provide custom type design services. In England, type foundries began in 1476. Thereafter the City of London became a major centre for the industry, until the end of the 20th century when famous metal-based printing districts such as Fleet Street came to the close of their era; the industry was important in Victorian times, when education became available to all due to the new school boards, firms such as Charles Reed & Sons, the printer and type founders were in their heyday. The St Bride Printing Library in the City of London encourages wider public interest in the history of type founding for the printed book and newspaper.
Adobe Type, a division of Adobe Systems Apple Inc. Letraset URW Type Foundry Monotype Imaging Ascender Corporation a subsidiary of Monotype Imaging Bitstream a subsidiary of Monotype Imaging FontShop a subsidiary of Monotype Imaging, Located in Germany International Typeface Corporation a subsidiary of Monotype Imaging Linotype GmbH a subsidiary of Monotype Imaging, Located in Germany Berthold Type Foundry Elsner+Flake Emigre Font Bureau Hoefler & Co. House Industries Microsoft Typography, a division of Microsoft Corp Neufville Typefoundry Punchcut — Distributors of typefaces for handheld screens The League of Moveable Type — The first open-source type foundry Quaker City Type Foundry Offizin Parnassia Type Foundry The Dale Guild Type Foundry Mackenzie & Harris Type Foundry Skyline Type Foundry Bell Type and Rule Company - a 78-year-old type foundry. Rainer Gerstenberg American Type Founders Barnhart Brothers & Spindler Bauer Type Binny & Ronaldson Bruce's New York Type Foundry Charles Reed & Sons Deberny & Peignot Grafotechna Gujarati Type Foundry John Haddon & Co Inland Type Foundry Louis Pouchée Mackellar, Smiths & Jordan Missouri-Central Type Foundry, Wichita Stephenson Blake St Louis Type Foundry VEB Typoart Creative Fabrica Font Bros Fontever FontHaus Fonts.com FontShop Fontspring HypeForType.co.uk MyFonts Phil's Fonts type.co.uk Typekit Veer YouWorkForThem Creativepro.com – Commercial Foundries list Microsoft Typography – All foundries and font related product vendors Typophile: Type Foundry List MyFonts: Font Foundries Luc Devroye: Font vendors
Richard Joseph Neutra was an Austrian-American architect. Living and building for the majority of his career in Southern California, he came to be considered among the most important modernist architects. Neutra was born in Leopoldstadt, the 2nd district of Vienna, Austria Hungary, on April 8, 1892 into a wealthy Jewish family, his Jewish-Hungarian father Samuel Neutra was a proprietor of a metal foundry, his mother, Elizabeth "Betty" Glaser Neutra was a member of the IKG Wien. Richard had two brothers who emigrated to the United States, a sister Pepi Weixlgärtner, an artist who emigrated to Sweden where her work can be seen at The Museum of Modern Art. Neutra attended the Sophiengymnasium in Vienna until 1910, he studied under Max Fabiani and Karl Mayreder at the Vienna University of Technology, attended the private architecture school of Adolf Loos. In 1912 he undertook a study trip to Italy and the Balkans with Ernst Ludwig Freud. In June 1914, Neutra's studies were interrupted, he took a leave in 1917 to return to the Technische Hochschule to take his final examinations.
After World War I Neutra went to Switzerland where he worked with the landscape architect Gustav Ammann. In 1921 he served as city architect in the German town of Luckenwalde, in the same year he joined the office of Erich Mendelsohn in Berlin. Neutra contributed to the firm's competition entry for a new commercial centre for Haifa, to the Zehlendorf housing project in Berlin, he married Dione Niedermann, the daughter of an architect, in 1922. They had three sons, Frank L, Dion an architect and his father's partner, Raymond Richard a physician and environmental epidemiologist. Neutra moved to the United States by 1923 and became a naturalized citizen in 1929. Neutra worked for Frank Lloyd Wright before accepting an invitation from his close friend and university companion Rudolf Schindler to work and live communally in Schindler's Kings Road House in California. Neutra’s first work in Los Angeles was in landscape architecture, where he provided the design for the garden of Schindler’s beach house, designed for Philip Lovell, Newport Beach, for a pergola and wading pool for Wright and Schindler’s complex for Aline Barnsdall on Olive Hill, Hollywood.
Schindler and Neutra collaborated on an entry for the League of Nations Competition of 1926–7. He subsequently developed his own practice and went on to design numerous buildings embodying the International Style, twelve of which are designated as Historic Cultural Monuments, including the Lovell Health House and the Richard and Dion Neutra VDL Research House. In California, he became celebrated for rigorously geometric but airy structures that symbolized a West Coast variation on the mid-century modern residence. Clients included Edgar J. Kaufmann, Galka Scheyer, Walter Conrad Arensberg. In the early 1930s, Neutra's Los Angeles practice trained several young architects who went on to independent success, including Gregory Ain, Harwell Hamilton Harris, Raphael Soriano. In 1932, he tried to move to the Soviet Union, to help design workers' housing that could be constructed, as a means of helping with the housing shortage. In 1932, Neutra was included in the seminal MoMA exhibition on modern architecture, curated by Philip Johnson and Henry-Russell Hitchcock.
In 1949 Neutra formed a partnership with Robert E. Alexander that lasted until 1958, which gave him the opportunity to design larger commercial and institutional buildings. In 1955, the United States Department of State commissioned Neutra to design a new embassy in Karachi. Neutra's appointment was part of an ambitious program of architectural commissions to renowned architects, which included embassies by Walter Gropius in Athens, Edward Durrell Stone in New Delhi, Marcel Breuer in The Hague, Josep Lluis Sert in Baghdad, Eero Saarinen in London. In 1965 Neutra formed a partnership with his son Dion Neutra. Between 1960 and 1970, Neutra created eight villas in Europe, four in Switzerland, three in Germany, one in France. Prominent clients in this period included Gerd Bucerius, publisher of Die Zeit, as well as figures from commerce and science. Richard Joseph Neutra died in Wuppertal, Germany, on April 16, 1970, at the age of 78, he was famous for the attention he gave to defining the real needs of his clients, regardless of the size of the project, in contrast to other architects eager to impose their artistic vision on a client.
Neutra sometimes used detailed questionnaires to discover his client's needs, much to their surprise. His domestic architecture was a blend of art and practical comfort. In a 1947 article for the Los Angeles Times, "The Changing House," Neutra emphasizes the "ready-for-anything" plan – stressing an open, multifunctional plan for living spaces that are flexible and modified for any type of life or event. Neutra had a sharp sense of irony. In his autobiography and Shape, he included a playful anecdote about an anonymous movie producer-client who electrified the moat around the house that Neutra designed for him and had his Persian butler fish out the bodies in the morning and dispose of them in a specially designed incinerator; this was a much-embellished account of an actual client, Josef von Sternberg, who indeed had a moated house but not an electrified one. The novelist/philosoph
In typography, a slab serif typeface is a type of serif typeface characterized by thick, block-like serifs. Serif terminals rounded. Slab serifs were invented in and most popular during the nineteenth century. Slab serifs form a large and varied genre; some such as Memphis and Rockwell have a geometric design with minimal variation in stroke width: they are sometimes described as sans-serif fonts with added serifs. Others such as those of the Clarendon genre have a structure more like most other serif fonts, though with larger and more obvious serifs; these designs may have bracketed serifs which increase width along their length before merging with the main strokes of the letters, while on geometrics the serifs have a constant width. Display-oriented slab serifs are extremely bold, intended to grab the reader's attention on a poster, while slab serifs oriented towards legibility at small sizes show less extreme characteristics; some fonts oriented towards small print use and printing on poor-quality newsprint paper may have slab serifs to increase legibility, while their other features are closer to conventional book type fonts.
Slab serif fonts were often used in typewriters, most famously Courier, this tradition has meant many monospaced text fonts intended for computer and programming use are slab serif designs. Slab serif lettering and typefaces appeared in the early nineteenth century, having little in common with previous letterforms; as the printing of advertising material began to expand in the early nineteenth century and notionally more attention-grabbing letterforms became popular. Poster-size types began to be developed that were not magnified forms of book type, but different and bolder; some were developments of designs of the previous fifty years: ultra-bold types known as "fat faces", which were related to "Didone" text faces of the period but much bolder. Others had new structures: sans-serif letters, based on classical antiquity, reverse-contrast letterforms; some of the type designs appearing around this time may be based on signpainting and architectural lettering traditions, or vice versa. The first known example of a slab-serif letterform is woodblock lettering on an 1810 lottery advertisement from London.
Slab-serif type was first commercially introduced by London typefounder Vincent Figgins under the name "Antique", appearing in a type-specimen dated 1815. Writing in 1825, the printer and social reformer Thomas Curson Hansard wrote with amusement that slab-serif and other such display types were'the outrageous kind of face only adapted for placards, posting-bills, invitations to the wheel of Fortune... Fashion and Fancy frolic from one extreme to another.'Slab serifs declined following the growing popularity of sans-serif faces, with which they always competed, the revival of interest in old-style serif fonts as part of the Arts and Crafts movement. However, they have been revived and redesigned since the nineteenth century both in modernised forms and in retro use inspired by the exuberance of Victorian design, a style of design known as Victoriana. Notable collections of original wood type are held by the Hamilton in Wisconsin and the University of Texas at Austin, collected by Rob Roy Kelly, writer of a well-known book on American poster types.
Adobe Systems has released a large collection of digitisations inspired by nineteenth-century wood type. At first in Britain ` Egyptian' was ` Antique' for slab-serifs. Following Napoleon's Egyptian campaign and dissemination of images and descriptions via publications like Description de l'Égypte an intense cultural fascination with all things Egyptian followed. Suites of contemporary parlor furniture were produced resembling furniture found in tombs. Multicolored woodblock printed wallpaper could make a dining room in Edinburgh or Chicago feel like Luxor. While there was no relationship between Egyptian writing systems and slab serif types, either shrewd marketing or honest confusion led to slab serifs being called Egyptians. Historian James Mosley has shown that the first typefaces and letters called'Egyptian' were all sans-serifs. However, Egyptian came to refer to slab serifs by the late nineteenth century; some twentieth-century slab serifs, have'Egyptian' names as a reminder of this: Cairo and Memphis are examples of this.
The term Egyptian was adopted by German foundries, where it became Egyptienne. A lighter style of slab serif with a single width of strokes was called'engravers face' since it resembled the monoline structure of metal engravings; the term'slab-serif' itself is recent twentieth-century. A second aspect in the development of slab-serifs was the influence of geometric design of the 1920s, many slab-serifs were produced that had a more monoline structure similar to geometric sans-serifs popular around this time, such as Futura; these are called "geometric" designs. Because of the clear, bold nature of the large serifs, designs with some slab serif characteristics are often used for small print, for example in printing with typewriters and on newsprint paper. For example, Linotype's Legibility Group, in which most newspapers were printed during much of the twentieth century, were based on the "Ionic" or "Clarendon" style adapted for continuous body text. More loosely, TheSerif, FF Meta Serif and Guardian Egyptian are other examples of newspaper and small print-orientated typefaces that have regular, monoline serifs (sometimes more vi
In typography, the x-height, or corpus size, is the distance between the baseline and the mean line of lower-case letters in a typeface. This is the height of the letter x in the font, as well as the v, w, z. One of the most important dimensions of a font, x-height is used to define how high lower-case letters are compared to upper-case letters. Display typefaces intended to be used at large sizes, such as on signs and posters, vary in x-height. Many have high x-heights to be read from a distance. This, though, is not universally the case: some display typefaces such as Cochin and Koch-Antiqua intended for publicity uses have low x-heights, to give them a more elegant, delicate appearance, a mannerism, common in the early twentieth century. Many sans-serif designs that are intended for display text have high x-heights, such as Helvetica or, more Impact. Medium x-heights are found on fonts intended for body text, allowing more balance and contrast between upper- and lower-case letters and a brighter page.
They increase again for optical sizes of font designed for small print, such as captions, so that they can be read printed small. High x-heights on display typefaces were common in designs in the 1960s and 70s, when International Typeface Corporation released popular variations of older designs with boosted x-heights. More some typefaces such as Mrs Eaves and Brandon Grotesque have been issued with distinctively low x-heights to try to create a more elegant appearance. While computers allow fonts to be printed at any size, professional font designers such as Adobe issue fonts in a range of optical sizes optimized to be printed at different sizes; as an example of this, Mrs Eaves exists in two versions: an original style intended to give an elegant, bright appearance, a less distinctive'XL' design intended for body text. Some research has suggested that while higher x-heights may help with reading smaller text, a high x-height may be counterproductive because it becomes harder to identify the shape of a word if every letter is nearly the same height.
For the same reason, some sign manuals discourage all-capitals text. In computing one use of x-height is as a unit of measurement in web pages. In CSS and LaTeX the x-height is called an ex; the use of ex in dimensioning objects, however, is less stable than use of the em across browsers. Internet Explorer, for example, dimensions ex at one half of em, whereas Mozilla Firefox dimensions ex closer to the actual x-height of the font, rounded relative to the font's current pixel height. Thus, the exact ratio of ex to em can vary by font size within a browser if the determined values are rounded to the nearest whole unit. For example, a browser calculating an x-height of 45% on a font 10 pixels tall may round ex to either 4 pixels or 5 pixels or leave it at 4.5 pixels. Lowercase letters whose height is greater than the x-height either have descenders which extend below the baseline, such as y, g, q, p, or have ascenders which extend above the x-height, such as l, k, b, d; the ratio of the x-height to the body height is one of the major characteristics that defines the appearance of a typeface.
The height of the capital letters is referred to as Cap height. X-height is most important in regular designs, such as most sans-serif designs. Em En Small caps Typographic unit Definition of x-height at typophile.com In the search of ideal line-height