A neutron star is the collapsed core of a giant star which before collapse had a total mass of between 10 and 29 solar masses. Neutron stars are the smallest and densest stars, excluding black holes, hypothetical white holes, quark stars and strange stars. Neutron stars have a radius on a mass of about 1.4 solar masses. They result from the supernova explosion of a massive star, combined with gravitational collapse, that compresses the core past white dwarf star density to that of atomic nuclei. Once formed, they no longer generate heat, cool over time. Most of the basic models for these objects imply that neutron stars are composed entirely of neutrons. Neutron stars are supported against further collapse by neutron degeneracy pressure, a phenomenon described by the Pauli exclusion principle, just as white dwarfs are supported against collapse by electron degeneracy pressure; however neutron degeneracy pressure is not by itself sufficient to hold up an object beyond 0.7M☉ and repulsive nuclear forces play a larger role in supporting more massive neutron stars.
If the remnant star has a mass exceeding the Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit of around 2 solar masses, the combination of degeneracy pressure and nuclear forces is insufficient to support the neutron star and it continues collapsing to form a black hole. Neutron stars that can be observed are hot and have a surface temperature of around 600000 K, they are so dense that a normal-sized matchbox containing neutron-star material would have a weight of 3 billion tonnes, the same weight as a 0.5 cubic kilometre chunk of the Earth from Earth's surface. Their magnetic fields are between 1015 times stronger than Earth's magnetic field; the gravitational field at the neutron star's surface is about 2×1011 times that of Earth's gravitational field. As the star's core collapses, its rotation rate increases as a result of conservation of angular momentum, hence newly formed neutron stars rotate at up to several hundred times per second; some neutron stars emit beams of electromagnetic radiation. Indeed, the discovery of pulsars by Jocelyn Bell Burnell and Antony Hewish in 1967 was the first observational suggestion that neutron stars exist.
The radiation from pulsars is thought to be emitted from regions near their magnetic poles. If the magnetic poles do not coincide with the rotational axis of the neutron star, the emission beam will sweep the sky, when seen from a distance, if the observer is somewhere in the path of the beam, it will appear as pulses of radiation coming from a fixed point in space; the fastest-spinning neutron star known is PSR J1748-2446ad, rotating at a rate of 716 times a second or 43,000 revolutions per minute, giving a linear speed at the surface on the order of 0.24 c. There are thought to be around 100 million neutron stars in the Milky Way, a figure obtained by estimating the number of stars that have undergone supernova explosions. However, most are old and cold, neutron stars can only be detected in certain instances, such as if they are a pulsar or part of a binary system. Slow-rotating and non-accreting neutron stars are undetectable. Soft gamma repeaters are conjectured to be a type of neutron star with strong magnetic fields, known as magnetars, or alternatively, neutron stars with fossil disks around them.
Neutron stars in binary systems can undergo accretion which makes the system bright in X-rays while the material falling onto the neutron star can form hotspots that rotate in and out of view in identified X-ray pulsar systems. Additionally, such accretion can "recycle" old pulsars and cause them to gain mass and spin-up to fast rotation rates, forming the so-called millisecond pulsars; these binary systems will continue to evolve, the companions can become compact objects such as white dwarfs or neutron stars themselves, though other possibilities include a complete destruction of the companion through ablation or merger. The merger of binary neutron stars may be the source of short-duration gamma-ray bursts and are strong sources of gravitational waves. In 2017, a direct detection of the gravitational waves from such an event was made, gravitational waves have been indirectly detected in a system where two neutron stars orbit each other. Any main-sequence star with an initial mass of above 8 times the mass of the sun has the potential to produce a neutron star.
As the star evolves away from the main sequence, subsequent nuclear burning produces an iron-rich core. When all nuclear fuel in the core has been exhausted, the core must be supported by degeneracy pressure alone. Further deposits of mass from shell burning cause the core to exceed the Chandrasekhar limit. Electron-degeneracy pressure is overcome and the core collapses further, sending temperatures soaring to over 5×109 K. At these temperatures, photodisintegration occurs; as the temperature climbs higher and protons combine to form neutrons via electron capture, releasing a flood of neutrinos. When den
The Michigan Motor Sports Hall of Fame is a non-profit hall of fame for Michigan auto racers. It was founded in 1982 by Dick Lee and was incorporated April 19, 1982, as a non-profit 501 non-stock Michigan corporation; the Michigan Motor Sports Hall of Fame display is located at the Gilmore Car Museum in Hickory Corners. It is in conjunction with their "History of Stock Car Racing" display; the Michigan Motor Sports Hall of Fame exhibit was located at the R. E. Olds Transportation Museum in Lansing from 1994 thru 2006; the initiation of the Michigan Motor Sports Hall of Fame was to: Preserve the history of all types of motor racing in the state of Michigan, make this history available to the public. Recognize and pay tribute to those citizens of Michigan who have given of themselves, whatever their roles in racing may have been. Enshrine and acknowledge the deeds of those people that excelled in motor sports. Have a permanent museum where the public can examine motor sports racing memorabilia and recognize those who have been enshrined.
Michigan Motor Sports Hall of Fame is governed by a Board of Directors, Vice President, Corresponding Secretary coupled with several Standing Committees. Bios can be submitted either digitally by email or sent via USPS to the address listed on the Michigan Motor Sports Hall of Fame website All nominee candidates must have started their racing career 25 years prior to being submitted for consideration; the candidate has to be a past or present legal resident of Michigan, or, if a non-resident, competed the vast majority of their career within the State of Michigan. The Michigan Motor Sports Hall of Fame Board appreciates and welcomes all legitimate biography submittals; the voting process involves all living inductees, all past and present board members. Over 100 persons are eligible for the sealed ballot voting. Michigan Motor Sports Hall of Fame Michigan Motor Sports Hall of Fame website
The Goya Museum is an art museum located in Castres, France. It is named after the Spanish painter Francisco Goya and has the largest collection of Spanish paintings in France, with works by Goya, Zurbarán, Velázquez, Ribera.... The museum was established in 1840 and has 28,000 visitors annually; the museum is located in the old Bishop's Palace, built in 1675 and is based on the design of Jules Hardouin Mansart, an architect of the Palace of Versailles. The gardens were designed by André Le Nôtre, who worked at Versailles. In 1947, it became the only museum of Spanish paintings from the 14th/15th century onwards in France. Goya Museum — Castres, The Techno-Impressionist Journal: A year in the life…, 20 October 2006
The Santuario de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe is a historic Catholic shrine in Santa Fe, New Mexico. It is the oldest church in the United States dedicated to Our Lady of Guadalupe and is listed on the New Mexico State Register of Cultural Properties, it is a contributing property in the Santa Fe Historic District. The church is a simple cruciform building with thick adobe walls and has been remodeled several times, most in the 1970s; the church was built sometime between the late 1700s and early 1800s, though its exact date of construction is unknown. The records of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe suggest it was built around 1795, as a license authorizing its construction was issued that year. However, the church's existence was not definitively documented until 1821. Conversely, at least one source claimed the church is much older, dating to before the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, though this is apocryphal; the famous altar screen depicting Our Lady of Guadalupe, transported in pieces from Mexico City over the Camino Real, is signed by José de Alcíbar and dated 1783.
The church remained active until the 1830s, but by the time the U. S. Army occupied the city in 1846, it was little-used and in disrepair. A visitor in 1881, John Gregory Bourke, wrote It shows great age in its present condition quite as much as in the archaic style of its construction; the exterior is time-worn. The pictures are nearly all venerable daubs, with few pretensions to artistic merit. At present, I am not informed upon this point and cannot speak with assurance, but I am suspect that most of them were the work of priests connected with the early missions of Mexico. Many of the frames are tin; the arrangement for lighting this chapel are the old-time tapers in tin sconces referred to in the description of San Francisco and San Miguel. The beams and timber exposed to sight have been chopped out with axes or adses, which would seem to indicate that this sacred edifice was completed or at least commenced before the work of colonization had made much progress. At the time of Bourke's description, the church was only being used once a year for the festival of Our Lady of Guadalupe on December 12.
However, after the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad arrived in Santa Fe in 1880, Archbishop Jean-Baptiste Lamy arranged to have it repaired to serve the new English-speaking population brought by the railroad. A native of France, Lamy preferred European architectural styles over the local adobe vernacular and had the church remodeled with a pitched roof and steeple starting in 1881. On June 27, 1922, the steeple and roof were destroyed by a fire that damaged the interior, though the altar screen survived; the church was rebuilt in the Mission Revival style with curved parapets and a tiled roof. It was remodeled again in 1976–78 to bring it closer to the original appearance, though some of the Mission details remain in place. Since the opening of a new church next door in 1961, it is no longer an active parish church but is still used for monthly masses. Media related to Santuario de Guadalupe at Wikimedia Commons
Gonçalo Filipe Carvalho Quinaz Pereira, known as Quinaz, is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays as a left winger. Born in Lisbon, Quinaz joined local Odivelas FC's youth system at the age of 9, he competed in the lower leagues until the age of 26 representing Clube Atlético Pêro Pinheiro, Atlético Clube do Cacém and C. D. Pinhalnovense. Quinaz signed with C. D. Aves in summer 2011, making his debut as a professional on 21 August as he started and scored in a 2−3 away loss against C. F. União, he split the 2012−13 season with fellow Segunda Liga clubs Atlético Clube de Portugal and Portimonense SC, helping the latter vie for promotion to the Primeira Liga in his first year in an eventual sixth-place finish. In early August 2014, Quinaz returned to Atlético after an unsuccessful trial in Spain with CD Atlético Baleares, he scored six goals in 32 games in the first year in his second spell, but the campaign ended in relegation from the second level. Quinaz had a relationship with model Nereida Gallardo, who dated Cristiano Ronaldo.
In October 2015, he suspended his contract with Atlético to enter the reality show A Quinta as an anonymous contestant. Gonçalo Quinaz at ForaDeJogo Gonçalo Quinaz at Soccerway
Mausam is a 2011 Indian romantic drama film written and directed by Pankaj Kapur under the Vistaar Religare Film Fund banner. The film stars Shahid Kapoor, opposite Sonam Kapoor in the lead roles; the film was scheduled to release on 16 September 2011, but due to the delay in obtaining the NOC from the Indian Air Force, it was pushed back further by a week, releasing on 23 September 2011. The main story of the film spans over a period 10 years, from 1992 to 2002 and includes references to Demolition of Babri Masjid, Bombay riots, 1993 Bombay bombings, Kargil War, 9/11 attacks and Post-Godhra Riots. Mausam is the story of Harinder Singh, known as Harry and Aayat. Harry is a happy-go-lucky Punjabi guy. In 1992 Aayat and her Bua Fatima escape from Kashmir due to Militancy. Aayat's parents are murdered by the Militants, thus forcing her Uncle Ghulam Rasool and her chacha Maharaj Kishan to send her along with her Aunt to Mallukot. In Mallukot, Aayat meets a young Happy-Go-Lucky boy named Harinder'Harry' Singh.
Harry is the son of a College Professor. He and his friends are popular locals. A Mallukot girl named Rajjo however nurses a deep crush on Harry, but he rejects her, but when Harry meets Aayat for the first time he is smitten and falls in love with her. Aayat is hesitant but reciprocates his love, they both grow close during the preparations of Pammo's wedding. Pammo gets married to Harry's friend from London. However, after hearing the news of the Demolition of the Babri Masjid the following day and her family flee to Mumbai. Aayat does not inform Harry before making him heartbroken. Meanwhile, Harry gets selected in the Indian Air Force, he leaves Mallukot. In 1999, Harry and Aayat again meet in Edinburgh. Aayat has been staying there for the past seven years, after losing her relative in the 1993 Bombay bombings, Harry has been sent there by the Indian Air Force on a special assignment. In London, they again grow closer. Aayat invites Harry over to her place. On the day of the visit, the Kargil War breaks out, Harry is recalled to India.
On arrival, Harry is posted with a Mirage 2000 Squadron in Jodhpur. Meanwhile, Aayat's uncle passes away, forcing her entire family to relocate from London back to Mallukot. Aayat and Harry both fail. Harry is deployed to the Adampur Air Base, where he is attached with No. 7 Squadron "Battleaxes". Aayat goes from there returns to London. In order to dislodge the enemy from Tiger Hill, Indian Air Force resorts to heavy aerial bombardment. Harry is selected to lead a special bombing mission over Tiger Hill; the mission is successful but Harry's aircraft malfunctions, causing him to crash-land. Harry's left arm becomes semi-paralyzed. Aayat, has left London, she stays with a family friend's son, in New York, while her aunt has returned to Ahmedabad. Two months while Harry is in Switzerland for the birth of his nephew, he is convinced by Pammo not to let go of Aayat, he realizes that she is in New York. However while travelling in a train in Switzerland, Harry spots Aayat with his son. Mistakenly believing that Aayat is married, he begins to feel that all hope is lost, decides to forget her.
Terrorists bomb New York WTC Towers on 11 September 2001. As a result of these attacks there is a sudden surge in hate Crimes against Muslims in USA and Europe, prompting Akram and Aayat to return to Ahmedabad. Coincidentally, Harry is in Ahmedabad for his friend's wedding. Aayat decides to marry Akram. However, in 2002 when the wedding is about to take place, Ahmedabad is engulfed in Riots. Aayat runs for her safety and is saved by Harry, hiding. Harry and Aayat wait until the rioters leave. Harry and Aayat run into a blazing fire, where they rescue a baby girl. Aayat laments their fate. In the epilogue it is revealed that and Aayat get married, they adopt the baby girl, they themselves are expecting a child. Shahid Kapoor as Sqn. Leader Harinder Singh Sonam Kapoor as Aayat Rasool/Aayat Harinder Singh Anupam Kher as Maharaj Kishan Supriya Pathak as Fatima Shayan Munshi as Yasin Kamal Chopra as Ghulam Rasool, Ayaat's father Maya Mankotia as Pamela Singh, Harry's sister Kamal Tiwari as Prof. Sadprakash Singh, Harry's father Herry Tangri as Katar Mahindar Pral Singh, Pammo's fiancé/husband Aditi Sharma as Rajjo Surjit Singh Dhami as Darji Arvinder Singh Bhatti as Dr. Balvinder Singh Manoj Pahwa as Gulzari Jass Bhatia as Kartar Maninder Velli as Deepa Amandeep Singh as Jeeta Vaibhav Talwar as Akram Lorna Anderson as Maria Ankit Mohan as Flt Lt Ashfaq Hussain rahul vohra as Flt Lt T.
N. Ayyar In early August 2010, Nawman Malik claimed that the title Mausam is registered under his name and filed a complaint with the Association of Motion Pictures and TV Programme Producers, he was claiming that the story of Mausam is his. Now, Mallik has moved the Mumbai High Court asking for an injunction against producer Sheetal Talwar and director Pankaj Kapur for using the title, he has demanded a compensation of Rs10 million for the title and has submitted a digital film called Mausam, which he claims he made. The film was shot primari