Arkansas's 4th congressional district
Arkansas's 4th congressional district is a congressional district located in the southwestern portion of the U. S. state of Arkansas. Notable towns in the district include Camden, Hot Springs, Pine Bluff, Texarkana; the district is represented by Republican Bruce Westerman. George W. Bush received 51% of the vote in this district in 2004. John McCain won the district in 2008 with 58.14% of the vote while Barack Obama received 39.33%. The 2018 election will be held on November 6, 2018; as of April 2017, there are four former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Arkansas's 4th congressional district that are living; the most recent representative to die was Jay Dickey on April 20, 2017. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Interstate 30 is a 366.76-mile-long expressway in the southern states of Texas and Arkansas in the United States, part of the Interstate Highway System. I-30 travels from I-20 west of Fort Worth, northeast via Dallas, Texarkana, Texas, to I-40 in North Little Rock, Arkansas; the highway parallels U. S. Route 67 except for the portion west of downtown Dallas. Between the termini, I-30 has interchanges with I-35W, I-35E and I-45. I-30 is known as the Tom Landry Freeway between I-35W and I-35E, within the core of the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. I-30 is the shortest two-digit Interstate ending in zero in the Interstate system; the Interstates ending in zero are the longest east–west Interstates. It is the second-shortest major Interstate, behind I-45; the largest areas that I-30 travels through include the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the Texarkana metropolitan area, the Little Rock metropolitan area. The section of I-30 between Dallas and Fort Worth is designated the Tom Landry Highway in honor of the long-time Dallas Cowboys coach.
Though I-30 passed well south of Texas Stadium, the Cowboys' former home, their new stadium in Arlington, Texas is near I-30. However, the freeway designation was made; this section was known as the Dallas–Fort Worth Turnpike, which preceded the Interstate System. Although tolls had not been collected for many years, it was still known locally as the Dallas–Fort Worth Turnpike until its renaming; the section from downtown Dallas to Arlington was widened to over 16 lanes in some sections, by 2010. From June 15, 2010, through February 6, 2011, this 30-mile section of I-30 was temporarily designated as the "Tom Landry Super Bowl Highway" in commemoration of Super Bowl XLV, played at Cowboys Stadium. In Dallas, I-30 is known as East R. L. Thornton Freeway between downtown Dallas and the eastern suburb of Mesquite. I-30 picks up the name from I-35E south at the Mixmaster interchange; the Mixmaster is scheduled to be reconstructed as part of the Horseshoe project, derived from the larger Pegasus Project.
The section from downtown Dallas to Loop 12 is eight lanes plus an HOV lane. This section will be reconstructed under the East Corridor project to 12 lanes by 2025/2030. From Rockwall to a point past Sulphur Springs, I-30 runs concurrent with US 67. Through the city of Greenville, I-30 is known as Martin Luther King Jr. Freeway. I-30 continues northeasterly through East Texas until a few miles from the Texas-Oklahoma border, when the route turns east, towards Arkansas. I-30 enters southwestern Arkansas at the twin city of Texarkana, Texas. I-30 intersects I-49, after which it travels northeast. I-30 passes through Hope, birthplace of former President Bill Clinton. I-30 serves Prescott, Gurdon and Malvern. At Malvern, drivers can use US 70 or US 270 to travel into historic Hot Springs or beyond into Ouachita National Forest. There, US 70 and US 67 stay with the interstate into the Little Rock city limits. Northeast of Malvern, I-30 passes before reaching the Little Rock city limits. From Benton to its end at I-40, I-30 is a six-lane highway with up to 85,000 vehicles per day.
As I-30 enters Little Rock, I-430 leaves its parent route to create a western bypass of the city. Just south of downtown, I-30 meets the western terminus of I-440 and the northern terminus of another auxiliary route in I-530. I-530 travels 46 miles south to Pine Bluff. At this three-way junction of interstates, I-30 turns due north for the final few miles of its route. Here I-30 passes through the capitol district of Little Rock. I-30 creates one final auxiliary route in I-630, or the Wilbur D. Mills Freeway, which splits downtown Little Rock in an east–west direction before coming to its other end at I-430 just west of downtown. After passing I-630, I-30 crosses the Arkansas River into North Little Rock and comes to its eastern terminus, despite facing north, at I-40. At its end, I-30 is joined by US 65, US 67, US 167. US 65 joins I-40 westbound, while US 167 join I-40 eastbound from I-30's eastern terminus; the Dallas–Fort Worth Turnpike was a 30-mile toll highway in the Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex.
It operated between 1957 and 1977, afterward becoming a nondescript part of I-30. The road, three lanes in each direction but widened, is the only direct connection between downtown Fort Worth and downtown Dallas, Texas. In October 2001, the former turnpike was named the Tom Landry Highway, after the late Dallas Cowboys coach Tom Landry; the proposed expressway was studied as early as 1944, but was turned down by the state engineer due to the expense. However, in 1953, the state legislature created the Texas Turnpike Authority, which in 1955 raised $58.5 million to build the project. Construction started that year. On August 27, 1957, the highway was open to traffic, but the official opening came a week on September 5; the turnpike's presence stimulated growth in Arlington and Grand Prairie and facilitated construction of Six Flags Over Texas. At the end of 1977, the bonds were paid off and the freeway was handed over to the state Department of Transportation, toll collection ceased, the tollbooths were removed in the first week of 1978.
It served as I-20 between Dallas and Fort Worth until the current I-20 route to the south was opened in 1971. Afterwards, I-30 was extended from its end at the "Dallas Mixmaster" interchange with I-35E to follow the turnpike, the former I-20 in downtown Fort Worth, west to modern-day I-20; the existing US 67 route was in heavy use in the early
Lake Bistineau is a long, narrow waterway of 15,550 acres, 1.25 miles wide and 14 miles long located in Webster and Bienville parishes in northwestern Louisiana. The lake is fed by Dorcheat Bayou, Clark's Bayou, other smaller streams. Bistineau is connected to hence the Mississippi through Loggy Bayou; the name "Bistineau", derived from the Caddo Indians, means "big broth", a reference to the variety of plant life found in the water on the surface of the lake. Bistineau was formed in 1800, when several thousand acres of land flooded because of a major log jam in the Red River, a hindrance eliminated by Captain Henry Miller Shreve, for whom Shreveport is named; as the area was dredged, the lake began to drain. During the American Civil War, King's Salt Works, located on Lake Bistineau, employed up to 1,500 men in salt-making. According to the historian John D. Winters in The Civil War in Louisiana: "Water was taken from the brine wells and springs and boiled in huge pots and pans, the wet salt further dried in the sun.
As the war continued, the price of salt increased, more and more people engaged in the salt industry."Early settlers used Loggy Bayou, Lake Bistineau, Dorcheat Bayou as a route to a new home having remained temporarily on the banks of the streams before planting permanent habitations. The Dorcheat was populated by yeoman farmers seeking fertile soil in which to plant their crops. Few adventure seekers came into the back country. In 1935, a permanent dam built across Loggy Bayou created the modern lake; the dam has since been enlarged. The reservoir has a surface area of 26.9 square miles, with an average depth of seven feet ranging to a maximum of twenty-five feet. Many farmers who owned property bordering Dorcheat Bayou were paid pennies on the dollar for their land when the government decided to construct a permanent dam. Prime farmland was lost due to this. Many farms lost well over half of the acreage. Lake Bistineau remains a popular recreational site in north Louisiana. In 1942, a large dam and spillway were completed at the southern end of the lake in an effort to maintain a constant water level.
Lake Bistineau State Park, headquartered in Doyline, a village in Webster Parish southwest of Minden, was established on July 6, 1938, the day that Governor Richard W. Leche signed legislation to authorize creation of the park. Caney Lakes Recreation Area, located north of Minden opened to the public in 1938. In 1948, a larger tract of land was acquired, construction began on Bistineau park. In 1959 Clyde Connell, an abstract impressionist artist, moved into a cottage by Lake Bistineau with her husband and used the environment to inspire her work. In 2009, Bistineau and Caney Lakes were again engulfed by the non-native giant salvinia fern, which chokes up the water and reduces its level; the salvinia appeared in the late 1990s at Toledo Bend Reservoir near Many in Sabine Parish. Other vegetation, such as water hyacinths, have clogged the lake over the years. State officials, citing inadequate funding, have thus far been unable to resolve the problem, which impairs boating activities and detracts from the scenic beauty.
The water level of Bistineau will be lowered after the Labor Day weekend in another effort to combat the salvinia. Such drawdowns have been undertaken many times with exceptions. Media related to Lake Bistineau at Wikimedia Commons
U.S. Route 371
U. S. Route 371 is a north–south United States highway in the U. S. states of Louisiana. The highway's northern terminus is in De Queen, Arkansas at an intersection with U. S. Highway 70, it is co-signed for its last 13 miles between Lockesburg, Arkansas and DeQueen with U. S. Highway 59 and U. S. Highway 71, its southern terminus is 5 miles west of Coushatta, Louisiana at an intersection with Interstate 49. U. S. 371 is an afterthought in the federal highway system. Within Louisiana it was the 1990s renumbering and re-signing of the post-1955 Louisiana Highway 7, which after the 1990s change ceased to exist as a number for a state highway in Louisiana; the section south of US 71 was the post-1955 Louisiana Highway 179, which after the 1990s change ceased to exist as a number for a state highway in Louisiana. It replaced a section of Louisiana Highway 177. Although signage is on I-49, US 371 begins just north of Coushatta, Louisiana at an intersection with US 71. Intersecting I-20 and US 80 at Minden, it crosses the Arkansas Line at Springhill, Louisiana.
US 371 contains about 134 miles in South Arkansas. US 371 enters Arkansas in Columbia County; the route runs north to intersect AR 160 in winds east to Magnolia. A concurrency with US 82 begins in Magnolia, continues north to the city limits. US 371 continues west to meet AR 98 in Waldo, before heading north to enter Nevada County; the route next meets AR 32 and AR 76 before entering Rosston, where a short concurrency with US 278 forms. US 371 meets AR 372 before entering Prescott, where the route runs with AR 24 and is intersected by Interstate 30 before entering Hempstead County. US 371 winds through Hempstead County west and north, concurring with AR 195 and entering Howard County; the route passes through Nashville, again meeting US 278, runs west through rural land and into Sevier County. In Sevier County, US 371 meets US 59/US 71, which form a northern concurrency adding US 70 as well; these four routes run together west to De Queen. Referenced as the Bi-State Corridor, the Arkansas State Highway Commission designated several state highways as a proposed corridor to seek AASHTO approval as a US highway in January 1994.
Upon receiving approval, the route was commissioned in Arkansas as Highway 371 on August 24, 1994. A prior, unrelated US 371 was decommissioned in Minnesota in 1971; the route still bears the designation of MN 371. Related routes: U. S. Route 71 U. S. Route 171 U. S. Route 271 LA 7 in the pre-1955 Louisiana Highway numbering Endpoints of US highway 371
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, netting and trapping. “Fishing” may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs, cephalopods and echinoderms. The term is not applied to catching farmed fish, or to aquatic mammals, such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. In addition to being caught to be eaten, fish are caught as recreational pastimes. Fishing tournaments are held, caught fish are sometimes kept as preserved or living trophies; when bioblitzes occur, fish are caught and released. According to the United Nations FAO statistics, the total number of commercial fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people in developing countries. In 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms.
Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back to at least the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period about 40,000 years ago. Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000-year-old modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he consumed freshwater fish. Archaeology features such as shell middens, discarded fish bones, cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities. Fishing in Africa is evident early on in human history. Neanderthals were fishing by about 200,000 BC to have a source of food for their families and to trade or sell. People could have developed basketry for fish traps, spinning and early forms of knitting in order to make fishing nets to be able to catch more fish in larger quantities. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity on the move. However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are always associated with fishing as a major source of food.
The British dogger was an early type of sailing trawler from the 17th century, but the modern fishing trawler was developed in the 19th century, at the English fishing port of Brixham. By the early 19th century, the fishermen at Brixham needed to expand their fishing area further than before due to the ongoing depletion of stocks, occurring in the overfished waters of South Devon; the Brixham trawler that evolved there was of a sleek build and had a tall gaff rig, which gave the vessel sufficient speed to make long distance trips out to the fishing grounds in the ocean. They were sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water; the great trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the title of'Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries'. This revolutionary design made large scale trawling in the ocean possible for the first time, resulting in a massive migration of fishermen from the ports in the South of England, to villages further north, such as Scarborough, Grimsby and Yarmouth, that were points of access to the large fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean.
The small village of Grimsby grew to become the largest fishing port in the world by the mid 19th century. An Act of Parliament was first obtained in 1796, which authorised the construction of new quays and dredging of the Haven to make it deeper, it was only in the 1846, with the tremendous expansion in the fishing industry, that the Grimsby Dock Company was formed. The foundation stone for the Royal Dock was laid by Albert the Prince consort in 1849; the dock covered 25 acres and was formally opened by Queen Victoria in 1854 as the first modern fishing port. The elegant Brixham trawler spread across the world. By the end of the 19th century, there were over 3,000 fishing trawlers in commission in Britain, with 1,000 at Grimsby; these trawlers were sold to fishermen including from the Netherlands and Scandinavia. Twelve trawlers went on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet; the earliest steam powered fishing boats first appeared in the 1870s and used the trawl system of fishing as well as lines and drift nets.
These were large boats 80–90 feet in length with a beam of around 20 feet. They travelled at 9 -- 11 knots; the earliest purpose built fishing vessels were designed and made by David Allan in Leith, Scotland in March 1875, when he converted a drifter to steam power. In 1877, he built. Steam trawlers were introduced at Hull in the 1880s. In 1890 it was estimated; the steam drifter was not used in the herring fishery until 1897. The last sailing fishing trawler was built in 1925 in Grimsby. Trawler designs adapted as the way they were powered changed from sail to coal-fired steam by World War I to diesel and turbines by the end of World War II. In 1931, the first powered drum was created by Laurie Jarelainen; the drum was a circular device, set to the side of the boat and would draw in the nets. Since World War II, radio navigation aids and fish finders have been used; the first trawlers fished over the side, rather than over the stern. The first purpose built stern trawler was Fairtry built in 1953 at Scotland.
The ship was much larger than any other trawlers in operation and inaugurated the era of the'super trawler'. As the ship pulled its nets over the stern, it could lift out a much greater haul of up to 60 tons; the ship served as a basis for the expansion of'su