Thermal energy storage
Thermal energy storage is achieved with differing technologies. Depending on the specific technology, it allows excess thermal energy to be stored and used hours, days, or months at scales ranging from individual process, multiuser-building, town, or region. Usage examples are the balancing of energy demand between daytime and nighttime, storing summer heat for winter heating, or winter cold for summer air conditioning. Storage media include water or ice-slush tanks, masses of native earth or bedrock accessed with heat exchangers by means of boreholes, deep aquifers contained between impermeable strata. Other sources of thermal energy for storage include heat or cold produced with heat pumps from off-peak, lower cost electric power, a practice called peak shaving. Heat storage, both seasonal and short term, is considered an important means for cheaply balancing high shares of variable renewable electricity production and integration of electricity and heating sectors in energy systems or fed by renewable energy.
Most practical active solar heating systems provide storage from a few hours to a day's worth of energy collected. However, there are a growing number of facilities that use seasonal thermal energy storage, enabling solar energy to be stored in summer for space heating use during winter; the Drake Landing Solar Community in Alberta, has now achieved a year-round 97% solar heating fraction, a world record made possible only by incorporating STES. The use of both latent heat and sensible heat are possible with high temperature solar thermal input. Various eutectic mixtures of metals, such as Aluminium and Silicon offer a high melting point suited to efficient steam generation, while high alumina cement-based materials offer good thermal storage capabilities. Sensible heat of molten salt is used for storing solar energy at a high temperature. Molten salts can be employed as a thermal energy storage method to retain thermal energy. Presently, this is a commercially used technology to store the heat collected by concentrated solar power.
The heat can be converted into superheated steam to power conventional steam turbines and generate electricity in bad weather or at night. It was demonstrated in the Solar Two project from 1995-1999. Estimates in 2006 predicted an annual efficiency of 99%, a reference to the energy retained by storing heat before turning it into electricity, versus converting heat directly into electricity. Various eutectic mixtures of different salts are used. Experience with such systems exists in non-solar applications in the chemical and metals industries as a heat-transport fluid; the salt melts at 131 °C. It is kept liquid at 288 °C in an insulated "cold" storage tank; the liquid salt is pumped through panels in a solar collector where the focused sun heats it to 566 °C. It is sent to a hot storage tank. With proper insulation of the tank the thermal energy can be usefully stored for up to a week; when electricity is needed, the hot molten-salt is pumped to a conventional steam-generator to produce superheated steam for driving a conventional turbine/generator set as used in any coal or oil or nuclear power plant.
A 100-megawatt turbine would need a tank of about 9.1 metres tall and 24 metres in diameter to drive it for four hours by this design. Single tank with divider plate to hold both cold and hot molten salt, is under development, it is more economical by achieving 100% more heat storage per unit volume over the dual tanks system as the molten-salt storage tank is costly due to its complicated construction. Phase Change Material are used in molten-salt energy storage. Several parabolic trough power plants in Spain and solar power tower developer SolarReserve use this thermal energy storage concept; the Solana Generating Station in the U. S. can store 6 hours worth of generating capacity in molten salt. During the summer of 2013 the Gemasolar Thermosolar solar power-tower/molten-salt plant in Spain achieved a first by continuously producing electricity 24 hours per day for 36 days. A steam accumulator consists of an insulated steel pressure tank containing hot water and steam under pressure; as a heat storage device, it is used to mediate heat production by a variable or steady source from a variable demand for heat.
Steam accumulators may take on a significance for energy storage in solar thermal energy projects. Large stores are used in Scandinavia to store heat for several days, to decouple heat and power production and to help meet peak demands. Interseasonal storage in caverns appears to be economical. Water has one of the highest thermal capacities Heat capacity - 4.2 J/ whereas concrete has about one third of that. On the other hand, concrete can be heated to much higher temperatures – 1200 °C by e.g. electrical heating and therefore has a much higher overall volumetric capacity. Thus in the example below, an insulated cube of about 2.8 m would appear to provide sufficient storage for a single house to meet 50% of heating demand. This could, in principle, be used to store surplus wind or PV heat due to the ability of electrical heating to reach high temperatures. At the neighborhood level, the Wiggenhausen-Süd solar development at Friedrichshafen has received international attention; this features a 12,000 m3 r
Energy Information Administration
The U. S. Energy Information Administration is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment. EIA programs cover data on coal, natural gas, electric and nuclear energy. EIA is part of the U. S. Department of Energy; the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 established EIA as the primary federal government authority on energy statistics and analysis, building upon systems and organizations first established in 1974 following the oil market disruption of 1973. EIA conducts a comprehensive data collection program that covers the full spectrum of energy sources, end uses, energy flows. EIA disseminates its data products, analyses and services to customers and stakeholders through its website and the customer contact center. Located in Washington, D. C. EIA has about 325 federal employees and a budget of $122 million in fiscal year 2017.
By law, EIA’s products are prepared independently of policy considerations. EIA neither advocates any policy conclusions; the Department of Energy Organization Act allows EIA’s processes and products to be independent from review by Executive Branch officials. More than 2 million people use the EIA’s information online each month; some of the EIA’s products include: General Interest Energy Information Energy Explained: Energy information written for a general, non-technical audience. A nonpartisan guide to the entire range of energy topics from biodiesel to uranium. Energy Kids: Educates students and policymakers and journalists about energy. Energy Glossary: Common energy terms defined in plain language. Timely Analysis Today in Energy: Informative content published every weekday that includes a graph or map and a short, timely story written in plain language that highlights current energy issues and data trends; this Week in Petroleum: Weekly summary and explanation of events in United States and world petroleum markets, including weekly data.
Natural Gas Weekly Update: Weekly summary and discussion of events and trends in U. S. natural gas markets. Data and Surveys Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update: Weekly price data for U. S. national and regional averages. Monthly Energy Review: Provides statistics on monthly and annual U. S. energy consumption going back in some cases to 1949. The figures are given in units of quads Annual Energy Review: EIA's primary report of historical annual energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949; this report has been superseded by the Monthly Energy Review and was not produced for 2012. Country Energy Profiles: Data by country and commercial group for 219 countries with additional country analysis notes for 87 of these. Country Analysis Briefs: EIA's in-depth analyses of energy production, consumption and exports for 36 individual countries and regions. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: EIA's comprehensive survey and analysis of residential energy consumption, household characteristics, appliance saturation.
Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: A national sample survey that collects information on the stock of U. S. commercial buildings, including their energy-related building characteristics and energy usage data. Projections and Outlooks Short-Term Energy Outlook: Energy projections for the next 13-24 months, updated monthly. Annual Energy Outlook: Projection and analysis of U. S. energy supply and prices through 2040 based on EIA's National Energy Modeling System. Projections are based on existing legislation, without assumption of any future congressional action or technological advancement. In 2015, EIA has been criticized by the Advanced Energy Economy Institute after its release of the AEO 2015-report to "consistently underestimate the growth rate of renewable energy, leading to'misperceptions' about the performance of these resources in the marketplace". AEE points out that the average power purchase agreement for wind power was at $24/MWh in 2013. PPA for utility-scale solar PV are seen at current levels of $50–$75/MWh.
These figures contrast with EIA's estimated LCOE of $125/MWh for solar PV in 2020. This criticism has been repeated every year since. International Energy Outlook: EIA's assessment of the outlook for international energy markets through 2040; the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 created the Federal Energy Administration, the first U. S. agency with the primary focus on energy and mandated it to collect, assemble and analyze energy information. It provided the FEA with data collection enforcement authority for gathering data from energy producing and major consuming firms. Section 52 of the FEA Act mandated establishment of the National Energy Information System to “… contain such energy information as is necessary to carry out the Administration’s statistical and forecasting activities …” The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977, P
Solar thermal energy
Solar thermal energy is a form of energy and a technology for harnessing solar energy to generate thermal energy or electrical energy for use in industry, in the residential and commercial sectors. Solar thermal collectors are classified by the United States Energy Information Administration as low-, medium-, or high-temperature collectors. Low-temperature collectors are unglazed and used to heat swimming pools or to heat ventilation air. Medium-temperature collectors are usually flat plates but are used for heating water or air for residential and commercial use. High-temperature collectors concentrate sunlight using mirrors or lenses and are used for fulfilling heat requirements up to 300 deg C / 20 bar pressure in industries, for electric power production. Two categories include Concentrated Solar Thermal for fulfilling heat requirements in industries, Concentrated Solar Power when the heat collected is used for power generation. CST and CSP are not replaceable in terms of application; the largest facilities are located in the American Mojave Desert of Nevada.
These plants employ a variety of different technologies. The largest examples include, Ivanpah Solar Power Facility, Solar Energy Generating Systems installation, Crescent Dunes. Spain is the other major developer of solar thermal power plant; the largest examples include, Solnova Solar Power Station, the Andasol solar power station, Extresol Solar Power Station. Augustin Mouchot demonstrated a solar collector with a cooling engine making ice cream at the 1878 Universal Exhibition in Paris; the first installation of solar thermal energy equipment occurred in the Sahara in 1910 by Frank Shuman when a steam engine was run on steam produced by sunlight. Because liquid fuel engines were developed and found more convenient, the Sahara project was abandoned, only to be revisited several decades later. Systems for utilizing low-temperature solar thermal energy include means for heat collection. In some cases more than one of these functions is inherent to a single feature of the system; some systems are passive, others are active.
Heating is the most obvious application, but solar cooling can be achieved for a building or district cooling network by using a heat-driven absorption or adsorption chiller. There is a productive coincidence that the greater the driving heat from insolation, the greater the cooling output. In 1878, Auguste Mouchout pioneered solar cooling by making ice using a solar steam engine attached to a refrigeration device. In the United States, heating and air conditioning systems account for over 25% of the energy used in commercial buildings and nearly half of the energy used in residential buildings. Solar heating and ventilation technologies can be used to offset a portion of this energy; the most popular solar heating technology for heating buildings is the building integrated transpired solar air collection system which connects to the building's HVAC equipment. According to Solar Energy Industries Association over 500,000 m2 of these panels are in operation in North America as of 2015. In Europe, since the mid-1990s about 125 large solar-thermal district heating plants have been constructed, each with over 500 m2 of solar collectors.
The largest are about 10,000 m2, with capacities of 7 MW-thermal and solar heat costs around 4 Eurocents/kWh without subsidies. 40 of them have nominal capacities of 1 MW-thermal or more. The Solar District Heating program has participation from 14 European Nations and the European Commission, is working toward technical and market development, holds annual conferences. Glazed solar collectors are designed for space heating, they recirculate building air through a solar air panel where the air is heated and directed back into the building. These solar space heating systems require at least two penetrations into the building and only perform when the air in the solar collector is warmer than the building room temperature. Most glazed collectors are used in the residential sector. Unglazed solar collectors are used to pre-heat make-up ventilation air in commercial and institutional buildings with a high ventilation load, they turn building walls or sections of walls into low cost, high performance, unglazed solar collectors.
Called, "transpired solar panels" or "solar wall", they employ a painted perforated metal solar heat absorber that serves as the exterior wall surface of the building. Heat transfer to the air takes place on the surface of the absorber, through the metal absorber and behind the absorber; the boundary layer of solar heated air is drawn into a nearby perforation before the heat can escape by convection to the outside air. The heated air is drawn from behind the absorber plate into the building's ventilation system. A Trombe wall is a passive solar heating and ventilation system consisting of an air channel sandwiched between a window and a sun-facing thermal mass. During the ventilation cycle, sunlight stores heat in the thermal mass and warms the air channel causing circulation through vents at the top and bottom of the wall. During the heating cycle the Trombe wall radiates stored heat. Solar roof ponds are unique solar heating and cooling systems developed by Harold Hay in the 1960s. A basic system consists of a roof-mounted water bladder with a movable insulating cover.
This system can control heat exchange be
Concentrated solar power
Concentrated solar power systems generate solar power by using mirrors or lenses to concentrate a large area of sunlight, or solar thermal energy, onto a small area. Electricity is generated when the concentrated light is converted to heat, which drives a heat engine connected to an electrical power generator or powers a thermochemical reaction. CSP had a world's total installed capacity of 4,815 MW in 2016, up from 354 MW in 2005; as of 2017, Spain accounted for half of the world's capacity, at 2,300 MW, making this country the world leader in CSP. The United States follows with 1,740 MW. Interest is notable in North Africa and the Middle East, as well as India and China; the global market has been dominated by parabolic-trough plants, which accounted for 90% of CSP plants at one point. The largest CSP projects in the world are the Ivanpah Solar Power Facility in the United States and the Mojave Solar Project in the United States. In most cases, CSP technologies cannot compete on price with photovoltaic solar panels, which have experienced huge growth in recent years due to falling prices and much smaller operating costs.
CSP needs large amount of direct solar radiation, its energy generation falls with cloud cover. This is in contrast with photovoltaics, which can produce electricity from diffuse radiation. However, the advantage of CSP over PV is that as a thermal technology, running a conventional thermal power block, a CSP plant can store the heat of solar energy in molten salts, which enables these plants to continue to generate electricity whenever it is needed, whether day or night; this makes CSP a dispatchable form of solar. This is valuable in places where there is a high penetration of PV, such as California because an evening peak is being exacerbated as PV ramps down at sunset. CSP has other uses than electricity. Researchers are investigating solar thermal reactors for the production of solar fuels, making solar a transportable form of energy in the future; these researchers use the solar heat of CSP as a catalyst for thermochemistry to break apart molecules of H2O, to create hydrogen from solar energy with no carbon emissions.
By splitting both H2O and CO2, other much-used hydrocarbons – for example, the jet fuel used to fly commercial airplanes – could be created with solar energy rather than from fossil fuels. In 2017, CSP represented less than 2% of worldwide installed capacity of solar electricity plants. However, in recent years falling prices of CSP plants are making this technology competitive with other base-load power plants using fossil and nuclear fuel in high moisture and dusty atmosphere at sea level, such as the United Arab Emirates. Base-load CSP tariff in the dry Atacama region of Chile reached below ¢5.0/kWh in 2017 auctions. A legend has it that Archimedes used a "burning glass" to concentrate sunlight on the invading Roman fleet and repel them from Syracuse. In 1973 a Greek scientist, Dr. Ioannis Sakkas, curious about whether Archimedes could have destroyed the Roman fleet in 212 BC, lined up nearly 60 Greek sailors, each holding an oblong mirror tipped to catch the sun's rays and direct them at a tar-covered plywood silhouette 49 m away.
The ship caught fire after a few minutes. In 1866, Auguste Mouchout used a parabolic trough to producе steam for the first solar steam engine; the first patent for a solar collector was obtained by the Italian Alessandro Battaglia in Genoa, Italy, in 1886. Over the following years, invеntors such as John Ericsson and Frank Shuman developed concentrating solar-powered dеvices for irrigation, refrigеration, locomоtion. In 1913 Shuman finished a 55 HP parabolic solar thermal energy station in Maadi, Egypt for irrigation; the first solar-power system using a mirror dish was built by Dr. R. H. Goddard, well known for his research on liquid-fueled rockets and wrote an article in 1929 in which he asserted that all the previous obstacles had been addressed. Professor Giovanni Francia designed and built the first concentrated-solar plant, which entered into operation in Sant'Ilario, near Genoa, Italy in 1968; this plant had the architecture of today's power tower plants with a solar receiver in the center of a field of solar collectors.
The plant was able to produce 1 MW with superheated steam at 100 bar and 500 °C. The 10 MW Solar One power tower was developed in Southern California in 1981. Solar One was converted into Solar Two in 1995, implementing a new design with a molten salt mixture as the receiver working fluid and as a storage medium; the molten salt approach proved effective, Solar Two operated until it was decommissioned in 1999. The parabolic-trough technology of the nearby Solar Energy Generating Systems, begun in 1984, was more workable; the 354 MW SEGS was the largest solar power plant in the world, until 2014. No commercial concentrated solar was constructed from 1990 when SEGS was completed until 2006 when the Compact linear Fresnel reflector system at Liddell Power Station in Australia was built. Few other plants were built with this design although the 5 MW Kimberlina Solar Thermal Energy Plant opened in 2009. In 2007, 75 MW Nevada Solar One was built, a trough design and the first large plant since SEGS.
Between 2009 and 2013, Spain built over standardized in 50 MW blocks. Due to the success of Solar Two, a commercial power plant, called Solar Tres Power Tower, was buil
Solar power in Spain
Spain is one of the top ten countries by solar photovoltaics installed capacity and the first country for concentrated solar power in the world. In 2016, the cumulative total solar power installed was 6,969 MW, of which 4,669 MW were solar PV installations and 2,300 MW were concentrated solar power. In 2016, nearly 8 TWh of electrical power was produced from photovoltaics, 5 TWh from CSP plants. During 2016 Photovoltaics accounted for 3% of total electricity generation and solar thermal an additional 1.9%. Spain is one of the European countries with the most hours of sunshine; the country had a leading role in the development of solar power. However, in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, the Spanish government drastically cut its subsidies for solar power and capped future increases in capacity at 500 MW per year, with effects upon the industry worldwide. Between 2013 and 2016, new installations stagnated in Spain whilst growth accelerated in other leading countries leaving Spain to lose much of its world leading status to countries such as Germany and Japan.
As a legacy from Spain's earlier development of solar power, the country remains a world leader in concentrated solar power, accounting for a third of solar power installed capacity in the country, a much higher ratio than that for other countries as of 2017. Many large concentrated solar power stations remain active in Spain and may have provided some of the impetus for large CSP developments in neighboring Morocco. In 2017 Spain held large auctions for renewable energy capacity to be constructed by 2020: solar and wind projects each won 4 GW. Installed capacity grew until 2013. Since 2013 growth has been negligible in Spain, the country has fallen behind many other European countries in the development of capacity, although it retains its leading position in the deployment of solar thermal power. In May 2017, Spain held an auction for new renewable capacity to be online by 2020. Solar projects won. After complaints by the solar industry which felt the auction terms favored wind power, another auction occurred in July.
In this auction, solar projects received 3,909 MW and wind received 1,128 MW. Financing, land acquisition and solar panel price fluctuations could reduce the actual amount of solar power installed. No new solar capacity is added during this period following the removal of government feed in tariffs. Having promoted the solar industry with large government subsidies during earlier periods, the system now operates under a 180 degree turn with a punitive "solar tax" applied to new PV systems which would otherwise flourish. Spain has been cited as a model in ``; the hoped for growth in self consumption solar generation during 2016 fails to materialize due to delays to reforms following the extended time taken to form a government, albeit with just one party opposed to reforms in this area. By the end of 2012, 4.5 GW of solar photovoltaics had been installed, in that year 8.2 TWh of electricity was produced. Since new installations of solar photovoltaics have slowed down significantly. By the end of 2012 Spain had installed over 2,000 MW of CSP.
Since 2010, Spain has been the world's leader in concentrated solar power. In 2008 the Spanish government committed to achieving a target of 12% of primary energy from renewable energy by 2010 and by 2020 expected the installed solar generating capacity of 10 GW. Spain added a record 2.6 GW of solar photovoltaic power in 2008, a figure five times that of the next record year, increasing capacity to 3.5 GW. PV capacity added during 2008 would still account for more than half of total capacity as of 2016. Through a ministerial ruling in March 2004, the Spanish government removed economic barriers to the connection of renewable energy technologies to the electricity grid; the Royal Decree 436/2004 equalized conditions for large-scale solar thermal and photovoltaic plants and guaranteed feed-in tariffs. In March 2007, Europe's first commercial concentrating solar power tower plant was opened near the sunny Andalusian city of Seville; the 11 MW plant, known as the PS10 solar power tower, produces electricity with 624 large heliostats.
Each of these mirrors has a surface measuring 120 square meters that concentrates the Sun's rays to the top of a 115-meter high tower where a solar receiver and a steam turbine are located. The turbine drives a generator; the Andasol 1 solar power station is Europe’s first parabolic trough commercial power plant, located near Guadix in the province of Granada in Andalusia. The Andasol 1 power plant went online in November 2008, has a thermal storage system which absorbs part of the heat produced in the solar field during the day; this heat is stored in a molten salt mixture and used to generate electricity during the night, or when the sky is overcast. A 15 MWe solar-only power tower plant, the Solar Tres project, is in the hands of the Spanish company SENER, employing molten salt technologies for receiving and energy storage, its 16-hour molten salt storage system will be able to deliver power around the clock. The Solar Tres project has received a €5 million grant from the EC’s Fifth Framework Programme.
Solar thermal power plants designed for solar-only generation are well matched to summer noon peak loads in prosperous areas with significant cooling demands, such as Spain. Using thermal energy storage systems, solar thermal operating periods can be extended to meet base-load needs. Abengoa Solar began commercial operation of a 20-megawatt solar power tower plant near Seville in late April, 2009. Called the PS20, the plant uses a field of 1,255 flat mirrors, or heliostats, to concentra
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Duke Energy Corporation headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina, is an electric power holding company in the United States, with assets in Canada and Latin America. Based in Charlotte, North Carolina, Duke Energy owns 58,200 megawatts of base-load and peak generation in the United States, which it distributes to its 7.2 million customers. The company has 29,000 employees. Duke Energy's service territory covers 104,000 square miles with 250,200 miles of distribution lines. In addition, Duke Energy has more than 4,300 megawatts of electric generation in Latin America, it operates eight hydroelectric power plants in Brazil with an installed capacity of 2,307 megawatts. All of Duke Energy's Midwest generation comes from coal, natural gas, or oil, while half of its Carolinas generation comes from its nuclear power plants. During 2006, Duke Energy generated 148,798,332 megawatt-hours of electrical energy. Duke Energy Renewable Services, a subsidiary of Duke Energy, specializes in the development and operation of various generation facilities throughout the United States.
This segment of the company operates 1,700 megawatts of generation. 240 megawatts of wind generation were under construction and 1,500 additional megawatts of wind generation were in planning stages. On September 9, 2008, DERS updated its projections for future wind power capacity. By the end of 2008, it would have over 500 MW of nameplate capacity of wind power online, an additional 5,000 MW in development. Duke Energy Carolinas Duke Energy Ohio Duke Energy Kentucky Duke Energy Indiana Duke Energy Florida Duke Energy Progress Duke Energy Renewables Duke Energy Retail Duke Energy International The company began in 1900 as the Catawba Power Company when Dr. Walker Gill Wylie and his brother financed the building of a hydroelectric power station at India Hook Shoals along the Catawba River near India Hook, South Carolina. In need of additional funding to further his ambitious plan for construction of a series of hydroelectric power plants, Wylie convinced James Buchanan Duke to invest in the Southern Power Company, founded in 1905.
In 1917 the Wateree Power Company was formed as a holding company for several utilities, founded and/or owned by Duke, his family, or his associates, in 1924 the name was changed to Duke Power. In 1927, most of the subsidiary companies, including Southern Power Company, Catawba Power Company, Great Falls Power Company, Western Carolina Power Company were merged into Duke Power, although Southern Public Utilities, 100% owned by Duke Power, maintained a separate existence for the retail marketing of Duke-generated power to residential and commercial customers. A 1973 labor dispute between mine workers and Duke Power was the subject of the documentary Harlan County, USA; the film documents the use of "gun thugs" to intimidate striking workers. In 1988, Nantahala Power & Light Co. which served southwestern North Carolina, was purchased by Duke and is now operated under the Duke Power Nantahala Area brand. Duke Power merged with a natural gas company, in 1997 to form Duke Energy; the Duke Power name continued as the electric utility business of Duke Energy until the Cinergy merger.
With the purchase of Cinergy Corporation announced in 2005 and completed on April 3, 2006, Duke Energy Corporation's customer base grew to include the Midwestern United States as well. The company operates nuclear power plants, coal-fired plants, conventional hydroelectric plants, natural-gas turbines to handle peak demand, pumped hydro storage. During 2006, Duke Energy acquired Chatham, Ontario-based Union Gas, regulated under the Ontario Energy Board Act. On January 3, 2007, Duke Energy spun off its gas business to form Spectra Energy. Duke Energy shareholders received 1 share of Spectra Energy for each 2 shares of Duke Energy. After the spin-off, Duke Energy now receives the majority of its revenue from its electric operations in portions of North Carolina, South Carolina, Kentucky and Indiana; the spinoff to Spectra included Union Gas, which Duke Energy acquired the previous year. In 2011, Duke Energy worked with Charlotte’s business leader community to help build Charlotte into a smart city.
The group called the initiative “Envision Charlotte.” At the time, the group decided on a goal to reduce energy use in the “urban core of the city by 20 percent.” To do so, the group focused on making energy consumption changes to commercial buildings larger than 10,000 square feet. On July 3, 2012, Duke Energy merged with Progress Energy Inc with the Duke Energy name being retained along with the Charlotte, North Carolina, headquarters. Duke announced on June 18, 2013 that CEO Jim Rogers was retiring and Lynn Good would become the new CEO. Rogers has been CEO and Chairman since 2006, while Good was Chief Financial Officer of Duke since 2009, having joined Duke in the 2006 Cinergy merger. Rogers' retirement was part of an agreement to end an investigation into Duke's Progress Energy acquisition in 2012; the company expects to spend $13 billion upgrading the North Carolina grid from 2017. On March 16, 2006, Duke Power announced that a Cherokee County, South Carolina site had been selected for a potential new nuclear power plant.
The site is jointly owned by Southern Company. Duke plans to develop the site for two Westinghouse Electric Company AP1000 pressurized water reactors; each reactor is capable of producing 1,117 megawatts. On December 14, 2