1960 Cannes Film Festival
The 13th Cannes Film Festival was held from 4 to 20 May 1960. The Palme d'Or went to the La Dolce Vita by Federico Fellini; the festival opened with Ben-Hur, directed by William Wyler. The following people were appointed as the Jury of the 1960 competition:Feature films Georges Simenon Jury President Marc Allégret Louis Chauvet Diego Fabbri Hidemi Ima Grigori Kozintsev Maurice Leroux Max Lippmann Henry Miller Simone Renant Ulises Petit de Murat Short films Georges Altman Nicolas Hayer Henri Storck Jean Vivie Dušan Vukotić The following feature films competed for the Palme d'Or: The following films were selected to be screened out of competition: Ben-Hur by William Wyler Orient-Occident by Enrico Fulchignoni The following short films competed for the Short Film Palme d'Or: The following films and people received the 1960 awards: Palme d'Or: La Dolce Vita by Federico Fellini Jury Prize: L'avventura by Michelangelo Antonioni Odd Obsession by Kon Ichikawa Best Actress: Jeanne Moreau for Seven Days...
Seven Nights Melina Mercouri for Never on Sunday Best participation:The Lady with the Dog by Iosif Kheifits Ballad of a Soldier by Grigori ChukhraiShort films Short Film Palme d'Or: Le sourire by Serge Bourguignon Short Film Jury Prize: Paris la belle by Pierre Prévert A City Called Copenhagen by Jørgen Roos Universe by Roman Kroitor Special Mention - Short Film: Dagen mijner jaren by Max De Haas FIPRESCI FIPRESCI Prize: The Virgin Spring by Ingmar BergmanOCIC Award Paw by Astrid Henning-JensenOther awards Special Mention: The Virgin Spring by Ingmar Bergman The Young One by Luis Buñuel 1960 Cannes Film Festival Official website Retrospective 1960 Cannes Film Festival Awards for 1960 at Internet Movie Database
Manos Hatzidakis was a Greek composer and theorist of Greek music. He was one of the main proponents of the "Éntekhno" form of music. In 1960 he received an Academy Award for Best Original Song for his song Never on Sunday from the film of the same name. Manos Hatzidakis was born on 23 October 1925 in Xanthi, Greece to lawyer Georgios Hatzidakis, who came from the village of Mirthios, Agios Vasileios in the Rethymno prefecture in Crete, his musical education began at the age of four and consisted of piano lessons from the Armenian pianist Altunian. At the same time, he learned to play the accordion. After the separation of his parents, Hatzidakis moved permanently to Athens in 1932 with his mother. A few years in 1938, his father died in an aircraft accident; this event, in combination with the beginning of World War II, brought the family into a difficult financial situation. The young Hatzidakis earned his livelihood as a docker at the port, an ice seller at the Fix factory, an employee in Megalokonomou's photography shop and as an assistant nurse at the 401 Military Hospital.
At the same time, he expanded his musical knowledge by studying advanced music theory with Menelaos Pallandios, in the period 1940-1943. At the same time, he studied philosophy at the University of Athens. However, he never completed this course. During this period, he met and connected with other musicians and intellectuals. Among these were Nikos Gatsos, George Seferis, Odysseas Elytis, Angelos Sikelianos and the artist Yannis Tsarouchis. During the last period of the Axis occupation of Greece, he was an active participant in the Greek Resistance through membership of the United Panhellenic Organization of Youth, the youth branch of the major resistance organisation EAM, where he met Mikis Theodorakis with whom he soon developed a strong friendship, his first work was the tune for the song "Paper Moon", from Tennessee Williams' A Streetcar Named Desire staged by Karolos Koun's Art Theatre of Athens, a collaboration which continued for 15 years. His first piano piece, "For a Small White Seashell", came out in 1947 and in 1948 he shook the musical establishment by delivering his legendary lecture on rembetika, the urban folk songs that flourished in Greek cities Piraeus, after the Asia Minor refugee influx in 1922 and until had heavy underworld and cannabis use connections and were looked down upon.
Hatzidakis focused on the economy of expression, the deep traditional roots and the genuineness of emotion displayed in rembetika, exalted the likes of composers like Markos Vamvakaris and Vassilis Tsitsanis. Putting theory to practice, he adapted classic rembetika in his 1951 piano work, Six Folk Paintings, also presented as a folk ballet. In 1949 he co-founded the Greek Dance Theatre Company with the choreographer Rallou Manou. At this point he began writing immensely popular "pop" songs and movie soundtracks alongside more serious works, such as 1954's The C. N. S. Cycle, a song cycle for piano and voice recalling the German lied in its form, if not in style. In 1955 he wrote the score for Michael Cacoyannis' film Stella, with actress Melina Mercouri, singing the movie's trademark song "Love that became a double-edged knife". Hatzidakis always maintained that he wrote his serious pieces for himself and his less serious ones to make a living. In 1958, Hatzidakis met Nana Mouskouri, his first "ideal interpreter", a skilled vocalist who shaped the sounds of his music.
It was 1960 that brought him international success, as his song "Never on Sunday", from Jules Dassin's film Never on Sunday, won him an Academy Award and became a worldwide hit. In 1962, he produced the musical Street of Dreams and completed his score for Aristophanes' Birds, another Art Theater production which caused an uproar over Karolos Koun's revolutionary direction; the score was used by Maurice Béjart's 20th Century Ballets. He wrote the music for a song which Arthur Altman added English lyrics to and gave to Brenda Lee; the song was "All Alone Am I". In 1964 he released the album 15 Vespers with the famous song "Mr Antonis. In 1965, his LP Gioconda's Smile was released on Minos-EMI. In 2004, it was re-released, digitally remastered as an audiophile LP and a CD in the EMI Classics collection. In 1966 he travelled to New York City for the premiere of Illya Darling, a Broadway musical based on Never on Sunday, which starred Mercouri, he did not return to Greece until 1972 due to his opposition to Greece's military dictatorship.
While in the United States he completed several more major compositions, including Rhythmology for solo piano, his compilation, Gioconda's Smile, the song cycle, Magnus Eroticus, in which he used ancient and modern Greek poems, as well as an excerpt from the Old Testament book "Song of Songs". His LP Reflections with the New York Rock & Roll Ensemble contained several of his most beautiful songs, either in orchestral form or with English lyrics written by the band – a record that preceded fusion trends by several decades. Hatzidakis returned to Greece in 1972 and recorded Magnus Eroticus with opera-trained alto Fleury Dantonaki and singer Dimitris Psarianos. Follo
Motion picture content rating system
A motion picture content rating system is designated to classify films with regard to suitability for audiences in terms of issues such as sex, substance abuse, impudence or other types of mature content. A particular issued rating can be called a certification, certificate or rating. Most countries have some form of rating system carrying age recommendations in an advisory or restrictive capacity ranging up to adulthood, are given in lieu of censorship. In some jurisdictions the legal obligation of administering the rating may be imposed on movie theaters. In countries such as Australia and Singapore, an official government body decides on ratings. In most countries, films that are considered morally offensive have been censored, restricted, or banned. If the film rating system has no legal consequences, a film has not explicitly been restricted or banned, there are laws forbidding certain films, or forbidding minors to view them; the influence of specific factors in deciding a rating varies from country to country.
In countries such as the United States, films with strong sexual content tend to be restricted to older viewers, though those same films are often considered suitable for all ages in countries such as France and Germany. In contrast, films with violent content which would be rated leniently in the United States and Australia are subject to high ratings and sometimes censorship in countries such as Germany and Finland. Other factors may or may not influence the classification process, such as being set within a non-fictional historical context, whether the film glorifies violence or drug use, whether said violence or drug use is carried out by the protagonist, with whom the viewer should empathize, or by the antagonist. In Germany, for example, films depicting explicit war violence in a real war context are handled more leniently than films with purely fictional settings. A film may be produced with a particular rating in mind, it may be re-edited if the desired rating is not obtained to avoid a higher rating than intended.
A film may be re-edited to produce an alternate version for other countries. A comparison of current film rating systems, showing age on the horizontal axis. Note however that the specific criteria used in assigning a classification can vary from one country to another, thus a color code or age range cannot be directly compared from one country to another. Key: White – No restrictions: Suitable for all ages / Aimed at young audiences / Exempt / Not rated / No applicable rating. Yellow – No restrictions: Parental guidance is suggested for designated age range. Purple – No restrictions: Not recommended for a younger audience but not restricted. Red – Restricted: Parental accompaniment required for younger audiences. Black – Prohibitive: Exclusively for older audience / Restricted to licensed premises / Purchase age-restricted / Banned. Through its Advisory Commission of Cinematographic Exhibition the National Institute of Cinema and Audiovisual Arts issues ratings for films based on the following categories: ATP: Suitable for all ages, ATP stands for "Apta Todo Público", meaning "for all public" +13: Suitable for 13-year-olds and over.
Children under the age of 13 are admitted. +16: Suitable for 16-year-olds and over. +18: Suitable for 18-year-olds and over. C: Suitable for 18-year-olds and over. Restricted to specially licensed venues; the Classification Board and Classification Review Board are government-funded organizations which classify all films that are released for public exhibition. Advisory categories General – General; the content is mild in impact. The G classification is suitable for everyone. Parental Guidance – Parental guidance recommended; the content is mild in impact. It is not recommended for viewing or playing by persons under 15 without guidance from parents or guardians. Mature – Recommended for mature audiences; the content is moderate in impact. Children under 15 may access this material because it is an advisory category. However, M classified films and computer games may include classifiable elements such as violence and nudity of moderate impact that are not recommended for children under 15 years. Restricted categories Mature Accompanied – Not suitable for people under 15.
Under 15s must be accompanied by a adult guardian. The content is strong in impact. Restricted – Restricted to 18 years and over; the content is high in impact. Despite this category being restricted, in Queensland the restriction is not applicable to persons under 2. Adult film categories Restricted – Restricted to 18 years and over; this classification is a special and restricted category which contains only sexually explicit content. That is, material which shows actual sexual intercourse and other sexual activity between consenting adults. X18+ films are only available for sale or hire in the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory. RC – Refused Classification. Banned from sale or hire in Australia and cannot be imported. Films are rated RC if their content is high in impact and exceeds the guidelines. Films intended to inform, educate or instruct or concerned with sport, religion or music are exempt from classification provided they do not contain material that would result in an "M" rating or higher if submitted for classification.
Motion pictures are rated by the Austrian Board of Media Classification for the Federal Ministry of Education and Culture (Bundesminist
Black and white
Black-and-white images combine black and white in a continuous spectrum, producing a range of shades of gray. The history of various visual media has begun with black and white, as technology improved, altered to color. However, there are exceptions to this rule, including black-and-white fine art photography and in motion pictures, many art films. Most early forms of motion pictures or film were white; some color film processes, including hand coloring were experimented with, in limited use, from the earliest days of motion pictures. The switch from most films being in black-and-white to most being in color was gradual, taking place from the 1930s to the 1960s; when most film studios had the capability to make color films, the technology's popularity was limited, as using the Technicolor process was expensive and cumbersome. For many years, it was not possible for films in color to render realistic hues, thus its use was restricted to historical films and cartoons until the 1950s, while many directors preferred to use black-and-white stock.
For the years 1940–1966, a separate Academy Award for Best Art Direction was given for black-and-white movies along with one for color. The earliest television broadcasts were transmitted in black-and-white, received and displayed by black-and-white only television sets. Scottish inventor John Logie Baird demonstrated the world's first color television transmission on July 3, 1928 using a mechanical process; some color broadcasts in the U. S. began in the 1950s, with color becoming common in western industrialized nations during the late 1960s. In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission settled on a color NTSC standard in 1953, the NBC network began broadcasting a limited color television schedule in January 1954. Color television became more widespread in the U. S. between 1963 and 1967, when major networks like CBS and ABC joined NBC in broadcasting full color schedules. Some TV stations in the US were still broadcasting in B&W until the late 80s to early 90s, depending on network.
Canada began airing color television in 1966 while the United Kingdom began to use an different color system from July 1967 known as PAL. The Republic of Ireland followed in 1970. Australia experimented with color television in 1967 but continued to broadcast in black-and-white until 1975, New Zealand experimented with color broadcasting in 1973 but didn't convert until 1975. In China, black-and-white television sets were the norm until as late as the 1990s, color TVs not outselling them until about 1989. In 1969, Japanese electronics manufacturers standardized the first format for industrial/non-broadcast videotape recorders called EIAJ-1, which offered only black-and-white video recording and playback. While used professionally now, many consumer camcorders have the ability to record in black-and-white. Throughout the 19th century, most photography was monochrome photography: images were either black-and-white or shades of sepia. Personal and commercial photographs might be hand tinted. Colour photography was rare and expensive and again containing inaccurate hues.
Color photography became more common from the mid-20th century. However, black-and-white photography has continued to be a popular medium for art photography, as shown in the picture by the well-known photographer Ansel Adams; this can take the form of black-and-white film or digital conversion to grayscale, with optional digital image editing manipulation to enhance the results. For amateur use certain companies such as Kodak manufactured black-and-white disposable cameras until 2009. Certain films are produced today which give black-and-white images using the ubiquitous C41 color process. Printing is an ancient art, color printing has been possible in some ways from the time colored inks were produced. In the modern era, for financial and other practical reasons, black-and-white printing has been common through the 20th century. However, with the technology of the 21st century, home color printers, which can produce color photographs, are common and inexpensive, a technology unimaginable in the mid-20th century.
Most American newspapers were black-and-white until the early 1980s. Some claim. In the UK, color was only introduced from the mid-1980s. Today, many newspapers restrict color photographs to the front and other prominent pages since mass-producing photographs in black-and-white is less expensive than color. Daily comic strips in newspapers were traditionally black-and-white with color reserved for Sunday strips.:Color printing is more expensive. Sometimes color is reserved for the cover. Magazines such as Jet magazine were either all or black-and-white until the end of the 2000s when it became all-color. Manga are published in black-and-white although now it is part of its image. Many school yearbooks are still or in black-and-white; the Wizard of Oz is in color when Dorothy is in Oz, but in black-and-white when she is in Kansas, although the latter scenes were in sepia when the film was released. The British film A Matter of Life and Death depicts the other world in black-and-white, earthly events in color.
Wim Wenders's film Wings of Desire uses sepia-tone black-and-white f
Young Ideas is a 1943 American romantic comedy film directed by Jules Dassin and starring Susan Peters, Herbert Marshall and Mary Astor. Josephine Evans and Professor Michael Kingsley are in a romantic relationship, something not approved of by Evan's two children, they try to disrupt the relationship with salacious incidents taken from their mother's fiction books, presenting them as true things their mother has done, hoping Kingsley would be displeased. Susan Peters as Susan Evans Herbert Marshall as Prof. Michael Kingsley Mary Astor as Josephine "Jo" Evans Elliott Reid as Jeff Evans Richard Carlson as Tom Farrell Allyn Joslyn as Adam Trent Dorothy Morris as Co-ed Frances Rafferty as Co-ed George Dolenz as Pepe Emory Parnell as Judge Canute J. Kelly Young Ideas at the American Film Institute Catalog Young Ideas on IMDb Young Ideas at the TCM Movie Database
Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities (Italy)
The Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities is the culture ministry of the Italian Republic. MiBAC's headquarters are located in the historic Collegio Romano Palace and the current Italian Minister of Cultural Heritage and Activities is Alberto Bonisoli. From 2013 to 2018 its official name was Ministry of Activities and Tourism, it was set up in 1974 as the Ministry for Cultural Assets and Environments by the Moro IV Cabinet through the decree read on 14 December 1974, n. 657, converted from the law of 29 January 1975, n. 5. The new ministry has the remit and functions under the Ministry of Public Education. To this remit and functions it some of those of the Ministry of the Interior and of the President of the Council of Ministers. Legislative decree number 368 of 20 October 1998 set up the Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, with all the old ministry's remits as well as some new ones: promotion of sports and sports arenas promotion of shows, in all their formsIn 2006, the sport portfolio was reassigned to the new Dipartimento per le Politiche Giovanili e le Attività Sportive.
The ministry is principally concerned with culture, the protection and preservation of artistic sites and property and tourism. At the end of 2006, the ministry's departments were abolished and their responsibilities returned to the ministry itself. In 2009 the Ministry’s organisational structure underwent significant changes: the coordination of ministerial functions is still entrusted to a Secretary General, the General Directorates have been reduced from nine to eight, with new denominations and a partial reshaping of their responsibilities; the eight General Directorates continue to be technically supported by high level scientific bodies. The peripheral ministerial structure of Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities is provided for, in 17 out of 20 regions, by Regional Directorates for Cultural Heritage and Landscape and by the local Soprintendenze; the Ministry is made up of a variety of internal divisions, including: Ufficio di gabinetto Segreteria del ministro Ufficio stampa Ufficio legislativo Organismo Indipendente di Valutazione della performance8 Direzioni Generali: Direzione generale per l'organizzazione, gli affari generali, l'innovazione e il bilancio - in charge of internal organisation Direzione generale per le antichità - in charge of ancient arts Direzione generale per la valorizzazione del patrimonio culturale - in charge of enhancement of cultural heritage Direzione generale per gli archivi - in charge of national archives Direzione generale per il paesaggio, le belle arti, l'architettura e l'arte contemporanee - in charge of the landscape, fine arts and art heritage Direzione generale per le biblioteche e gli istituti culturali - in charge of national libraries and cultural institutions Direzione generale per il cinema - in charge of cinematography Direzione generale per lo spettacolo dal vivo - in charge of music and theaterIstituti Centrali: Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione ed il Restauro - Central Institute of Restoration Opificio delle pietre dure - The Opificio is a global leader in the field of art restoration and provides teaching as one of two Italian state conservation schools Istituto centrale per il catalogo e la documentazione Istituto centrale per il restauro e la conservazione del patrimonio archivistico e librario Direzioni Regionali per i Beni Culturali e Paesaggistici Soprintendenze Soprintendenze per i Beni Architettonici e il Paesaggio Soprintendenze per il Patrimonio Storico, Artistico ed Etnoantropologico Soprintendenze per i Beni Archeologici Soprintendenze Archivistiche Archivi di Stato Biblioteche Statali Musei Comando Carabinieri per la Tutela del Patrimonio Culturale - Carabinieri Art Squad is the branch of the Italian Carabinieri responsible for combatting art and antiquities crimesFor more on the organization of the Ministry, see Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities 1974-1998: Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali 1998-2013: Ministero per i beni e le attività culturali 2013-2018: Ministero dei beni e delle attività culturali e del turismo since 2018: Ministero per i beni e le attività culturali Official site of the Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities - Organisation Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities - Organisation - ASEF Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities - Budget 2013-2015, pp. 477-501
Thieves' Highway is a 1949 film noir directed by Jules Dassin. The screenplay was written by A. I. Bezzerides, based on his novel Thieves' Market; the film was released on DVD as part of the Criterion Collection in 2005. A war-veteran-turned-truck driver Nico "Nick" Garcos arrives at home to find that his foreign-born father, a California fruit farmer, has lost his legs and was forced to sell his truck, he learns that his father was crippled at the hands of an unscrupulous produce dealer in San Francisco, Mike Figlia. Garcos vows revenge. Garcos goes into business with Ed Kinney, who bought the Garcos truck, drives a truckload of apples to San Francisco, where he runs into Figlia when his truck is immobilized with a suspiciously cut tire, blocking Figlia's busy wholesale stand, cannot be towed. Figlia hires a streetwalker, Rica, to seduce and preoccupy Figlia in her room while his men unload the apples without Nick's permission. Figlia pays Nick for his fruit, but that night his goons waylay and rob Nick of the cash.
Meanwhile, Kinney is killed when his own truck mechanically fails, veers off the road, burns after speeding out of control down a long hill. Foul play is suspected. Polly, Nick's hometown sweetheart arrives in the city ready to marry him, but leaves disillusioned after she finds him recovering from his beating in Rica's apartment and with no money. Nick and a friend confront the cowed bully Figlia at a tavern, have him arrested, restoring Nick's family honor. Richard Conte as Nico "Nick" Garcos Valentina Cortese as Rica Lee J. Cobb as Mike Figlia Barbara Lawrence as Polly Faber Jack Oakie as Slob Millard Mitchell as Ed Kinney Joseph Pevney as Pete Morris Carnovsky as Yanko Garcos Tamara Shayne as Parthena Garcos Kasia Orzazewski as Mrs. Polansky Norbert Schiller as Mr. Polansky Hope Emerson as Midge, a buyer Dana Andrews and Victor Mature were announced for the lead; the film was shot on location in San Francisco, is noted for its accurate depiction of the vibrant fruit and produce market in that city located adjacent to the Embarcadero north of the Ferry Building.
The Figlia Market is depicted on the corner of Davis Streets. The produce market was closed and moved to the southeastern part of the city by the end of the 1950s; the warehouses were demolished to make way for the Alcoa Building, the Golden Gateway residential and commercial development. The Hotel Colchester where Rica resides was located at 259 Embarcadero. Depicted is the old State Belt Line Railroad which provided service to the piers and warehouses of the entire Embarcadero; some of the outdoor produce market scenes were shot at the Oakland Produce Market, near today's Jack London Square. Thieves' Highway on IMDb Thieves' Highway at AllMovie Thieves' Highway at the TCM Movie Database Thieves' Highway at the American Film Institute Catalog Thieves’ Highway: Dangerous Fruit an essay by Michael Sragow at the Criterion Collection Thieves' Highway selected scene on YouTube