In military science, a blockhouse is a small fortification consisting of one or more rooms with loopholes, allowing its defenders to fire in various directions. It refers to an isolated fort in the form of a single building, serving as a defensive strong point against any enemy that does not possess siege equipment or, in modern times, air force and cruise missiles. A fortification intended to resist these weapons is more to qualify as a fortress or a redoubt, or in modern times, be an underground bunker. However, a blockhouse may refer to a room within a larger fortification a battery or redoubt; the term "blockhouse" is of uncertain origin related to Middle Dutch blokhus and 18th-century French blocus. Blockhouses existed for example the one near Mycenae. Early blockhouses were designed to protect a particular area by the use of artillery, they had accommodation only for the short-term use of the garrison; the first known example is the Cow Tower, built in 1398, of brick and had three storeys with the upper storeys pierced for six guns each.
The major period of construction was in the maritime defence programmes of Henry VIII between 1539 and 1545. They were built to protect important maritime approaches such as the Thames Estuary, the Solent, Plymouth. Sited in pairs, the blockhouses were not built to a common design, but consisted of a stone tower and bastion or gun platform, which could be semi-circular, rectangular or irregular in shape; the last blockhouse of this type was Cromwell's Castle, built in Scilly in 1651. Blockhouses were an ubiquitous feature in Malta's coastal fortifications built in the 18th century by the Order of St. John. Between 1714 and 1716, dozens of batteries and redoubts were built around the coasts of the Maltese Islands, while a few others were built in the subsequent decades; every battery and redoubt had a blockhouse, which served as gun crew accommodation and a place to store munitions. Many of the batteries consisted of a semi-circular or polygonal gun platform, with one or two blockhouses at the rear.
The blockhouses had musketry loopholes, in some cases were linked together by redans. Surviving batteries include Mistra Battery and Ferretti Battery, which both have two blockhouses, Saint Mary's Battery and Saint Anthony's Battery, which have a single blockhouse. Many of the redoubts consisted of a pentagonal platform with a rectangular blockhouse at the rear, although a few had semi-circular or rectangular platforms. Surviving redoubts with blockhouses include Baħar iċ-Ċagħaq Redoubt and Briconet Redoubt, both of which have a pentagonal plan. A few of the redoubts consisted of a single tower-like blockhouse without a platform, were known as tour-reduits. Of the four tour-reduits that were built, only the Vendôme Tower survives today. Blockhouses were constructed as part of a large plan, to "block" access to vital points in the scheme, but from the Age of Exploration to the nineteenth century standard patterns of blockhouses were constructed for defence in frontier areas South Africa, New Zealand and the United States.
Blockhouses may be made of masonry where available, but were made from heavy timbers, sometimes logs arranged in the manner of a log cabin. They were two or three floors, with all storeys being provided with embrasures or loopholes, the uppermost storey would be roofed. If the structure was of timber the upper storey would project outward from the lower so the upper storey defenders could fire on enemies attacking the lower storey, or pour water on any fires; when the structure had only one storey, its loopholes were placed close to the ceiling, with a bench lining the walls inside for defenders to stand on, so that attackers could not reach the loopholes. Blockhouses were entered via a sturdy, barred door at ground level. Most blockhouses were square in plan, but some of the more elaborate ones were hexagonal or octagonal, to provide better all-around fire. In some cases, blockhouses became the basis for complete forts, by building a palisade with the blockhouse at one corner, a second tower at the opposite corner.
Many historical stone blockhouses have survived, a few timber ones have been restored at historical sites. In New Zealand, the Cameron Blockhouse, near Whanganui, is one of the few blockhouses to survive from the New Zealand land wars. During the Second Boer War the British forces built a large number of fortifications in South Africa. Around 441 were solid masonry blockhouses, many of which stand today. Different designs were used in the construction of these blockhouses, but most were either two or three story structures built using locally quarried stone; however the vast scale of British strategy led the British to develop cheaper, double-skinned corrugated iron structures. These could be prefabricated, delivered to site by armoured train, have locally sourced rocks or rubble packed inside the double skin to provide improved protection. A circular design developed by Major Rice in February 1901 had good all round visibility, the lack of corners did away with the need for a substructure. Failure due to wood rot and splintering when hit by bullets or shrapnel were eliminated.
The steel door to the blockhouse was sheltered by another piece of corrugated iron. The Major Rice blockhouse could be erected in six hours by six trained men. With the change from square gabled roofs to a circular design, they were given the nickname "Pepperpot blockhouse". With mass production the cost to build a blockhouse dropped down to £16, compared to several hundred pounds for masonry ones; these blockhouses played a vital role in the p
Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben
Friedrich Wilhelm August Heinrich Ferdinand Steuben referred to as Baron von Steuben, was a Prussian and an American military officer. He served as Inspector General and a Major General of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, he is credited with being one of the fathers of the Continental Army in teaching them the essentials of military drills and disciplines. He wrote Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States, the book that served as the standard United States drill manual until the War of 1812, he served as General George Washington's chief of staff in the final years of the war. Baron von Steuben was born in the fortress town of Magdeburg, Germany, on September 17, 1730, the son of Royal Prussian Engineer Capt. Baron Wilhelm von Steuben and his wife, Elizabeth von Jagvodin; when his father entered the service of Empress Anna of Russia, young Friedrich went with him to Crimea and to Kronstadt, staying until the Russian war against the Turks under General Burkhard Christoph von Münnich.
In 1740, Steuben's father returned to Prussia and Friedrich was educated in the garrison towns Neisse and Breslau by Jesuits. Despite his military education by a Catholic order, von Steuben remained critical of Roman Catholicism. Von Steuben's family were Protestants in the Kingdom of Prussia, after his emigration to America he became a member of the Reformed German Church, a Reformed congregation in New York, it is said that at age 14 he served as a volunteer with his father in one of the campaigns of the War of the Austrian Succession. Baron von Steuben joined the Prussian Army at age 17, he served as a second lieutenant during the Seven Years' War in 1756, was wounded at the 1757 Battle of Prague. He served as adjutant to the free battalion of General Johann von Mayr and was promoted to first lieutenant in 1759. In August 1759 he was wounded a second time at the Battle of Kunersdorf. In the same year, he was appointed deputy quartermaster at the general headquarters. In 1761 he became adjutant of the Major General Von Knobloch upon being taken prisoner by the Russians at Treptow.
He subsequently attained the rank of captain, served as aide-de-camp to Frederick the Great. Upon the reduction of the army at the end of the war, in 1763, Steuben was one of many officers who found themselves unemployed. Towards the end of his life, Steuben indicated in a letter that "an inconsiderate step and an implacable personal enemy" led to his leaving the Prussian army. In 1764 Steuben became Hofmarschall to Fürst Josef Friedrich Wilhelm of Hohenzollern-Hechingen, a post he held until 1777. In 1769 the Duchess of Wurttemberg, niece of Frederick the Great, presented him with the Cross of the Order of De la Fidelite. In 1771 he began to use the title baron; that same year he accompanied the prince to France. Failing to find funds, they returned to Germany in 1775 in debt. In 1763 Steuben had been formally introduced to the future French Minister of War, Claude Louis, Comte de Saint-Germain, in Hamburg, they met again in Paris in 1777. The Count realizing the potential of an officer with Prussian general staff training, introduced him to Benjamin Franklin.
Franklin, was unable to offer Steuben a rank or pay in the American army. The Continental Congress had grown tired of foreign mercenaries coming to America and demanding a high rank and pay. Promoting these men over qualified American officers caused discontent in the ranks. Von Steuben would have to go to America as a volunteer, present himself to Congress. Steuben returned to Prussia. Steuben found waiting for him allegations that he engaged in homosexual relationships with young men while in the service of Prince Josef Friedrich Wilhelm of Hohenzollern-Hechingen; the allegations were never proven, but Steuben knew they would stymie his chances at an officer's position in Europe. Threatened with prosecution for his alleged homosexuality, Steuben returned to Paris. Rumors followed him from Prussia to America that he was homosexual, but there never was an investigation of von Steuben and he received a congressional pension after the war. Upon the Count's recommendation, Steuben was introduced to future president George Washington by means of a letter from Franklin as a "Lieutenant General in the King of Prussia's service", an exaggeration of his actual credentials that appears to be based on a mistranslation of his service record.
He was advanced travel funds and left Europe from Marseilles on Friday, September 26, 1777, on board the frigate Flamand. The Baron, his Italian Greyhound Azor, his young aide-de-camp Louis de Pontière, his military secretary, Peter Stephen Du Ponceau, two other companions, reached Portsmouth, New Hampshire, on December 1, 1777, where they were arrested for being British because Steuben had mistakenly outfitted them in red uniforms, they were extravagantly entertained in Boston. On February 5, 1778, Steuben and his party arrived in York, where the Continental Congress had relocated after being ousted from Philadelphia by the British advance. Arrangements were made for Steuben to be paid following the successful completion of the war according to his contributions, he arrived at Valley Forge on February 23, 1778, reported for duty as a volunteer. One soldier's first impression of the Baron was "of the ancient fabled God of War... he seemed to me a perfect personification of Mars. The t
Newark Bay is a tidal bay at the confluence of the Passaic and Hackensack Rivers in northeastern New Jersey. It is home to the Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal, the largest container shipping facility in Port of New York and New Jersey, the third largest and one of the busiest in the United States. An estuary, it is periodically dredged to accommodate ocean-going ships. Newark Bay is rectangular 5.5 miles long, varying in width from 0.6 to 1.2 miles. It is enclosed on the west by the cities of Newark and Elizabeth, on the east by Jersey City and Bayonne. At the south is Staten Island, New York and at the north Kearny Point and Droyer's Point mark the mouth of the Hackensack. Shooters Island is a bird sanctuary where the borders of Staten Island and Elizabeth meet at one point; the southern tip of Bergen Neck, known as Bergen Point, juts into the bay and lent its name to the former Bergen Point Lighthouse. Built offshore in 1849 it was replaced with a skeletal tower in the mid 20th century.
The Atlantic Ocean at Sandy Hook and Rockaway Point is 11 miles away and reached by tidal straits dredged to maintain shipping lanes. Newark Bay is connected to Upper New York Bay by the Kill Van Kull and to Raritan Bay by the Arthur Kill; the names of the channels reflect the period of Dutch colonialization. The area around the bay was called Achter Kol, which translates as behind or beyond the ridge and refers to Bergen Hill; the emergence of the Hudson Palisades begins on Bergen Neck, the peninsula between the bay and the Hudson River. Kill in Dutch means stream or channel. During the British colonial era the bay was known as Cull bay. Kill van Kull translates as channel from the ridge. Arthur Kill is an anglicization of achter kill meaning back channel, which would speak to its location behind Staten Island. Many of the maritime and distribution facilities along the bay are part of Foreign Trade Zone 49 The bay is spanned by the Vincent R. Casciano Memorial Bridge which carries the Newark Bay Extension of the New Jersey Turnpike.
The Upper Bay Bridge is a vertical lift bridge north of the Casciano, now used by CSX Transportation for freight shipment, including the notable Juice Train. Central Railroad of New Jersey's Newark Bay Bridge crossed the bay from 1864 to connect its Communipaw Terminal. Last used in 1978, it was determined to be a hazard to maritime navigation and demolished in the 1980s. Elizabeth is the site of the first English speaking European settlement in New Jersey, its port at the southern end of the bay a major maritime hub during the colonial era. Jersey Gardens, an outlet mall, has been located north of Elizabethport since 1999. There are plans to construct a mixed used community adjacent to it along the bay; the western edge of Newark Bay was shallow tidal wetlands covering 12 square miles. In 1910s the City of Newark began excavating an angled shipping channel in the northeastern quadrant of the wetland which formed the basis of Port Newark. Work on the channel and terminal facilities on its north side accelerated during World War I, when the federal government took control of Port Newark.
During the war there were close to 25,000 troops stationed at the Newark Bay Shipyard. The City decided to expand the port at the end of the war; the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was formed in 1921 and the Newark Bay Channels were authorized by the Rivers and Harbors Acts in 1922. Shipping operations languished after the war, in 1927, the City of Newark started construction of Newark Liberty International Airport on the northwest quadrant of the wetlands which lay between Port Newark and the edge of the developed city. Port Authority took over the operations of Port Newark and the Newark Airport in 1948 and began modernizing and expanding both facilities southward. In 1958, the Port Authority dredged another shipping channel which straightened the course of Bound Brook, the tidal inlet forming the boundary between Newark and Elizabeth. Dredged materials was used to create new upland south of the new Elizabeth Channel, where the Port Authority constructed the Elizabeth Marine Terminal.
The first shipping facility to open upon the Elizabeth Channel was the new 90-acre Sea-Land Container Terminal, the prototype for every other container terminal constructed thereafter. The Ironbound is an industrial area along the bay which becomes residential farther inland near Downtown Newark; the Central Railroad of New Jersey first built the Newark and New York Railroad across the rivers and tip of New Barbadoes Neck in 1869. One bridge was taken out of service in 1946 after a ship collided into it. Passenger service on the other, the PD Draw, was discontinued in 1967; the Kearny Point peninsula is site of a massive distribution facility. It comprises the former Western Electric Kearny Works and Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, the shipyards of which operated from 1917 to 1949 and played a prominent role in both World War I and World War II. While there was some maritime development on the eastern banks of the bay closer Bergen Point most of the eastern shore abuts residential and recreational areas.
The Hackensack RiverWalk is a completed linear park greenway intended to link the string of parks along its banks and that of the Hackensack River from the Bayonne Bridge to the Hackensack Meadowlands in Secaucus and North Bergen. In Bayonne much of the bay has not seen bulkhead development, hence has a natural shore line; the city's largest parks are its shores. At Droyer's Point recreational and residential development have included a promenade; the Howland Hook Marine Terminal is a container port facility located at the northwestern corner of Staten Island at the en
Fort Washington (Manhattan)
Fort Washington was a fortified position near the north end of Manhattan Island, at the island's highest point, within the modern-day neighborhood of Washington Heights, New York City. The Fort Washington Site is listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places. During George Washington's defense of New York during the American Revolution, Fort Washington were both created to prevent the British from going up river and to provide a secure escape route. General Washington realized he would have to defend New York but did not think he could hold it against the British. Fort Washington was held by American forces under the command of Colonel Robert Magaw, who refused to surrender the fort to the British, he informed the British. In the Battle of Fort Washington, British General William Howe ordered the Hessian soldiers under Lieutenant General Wilhelm von Knyphausen, other British soldiers, totaling around 8,000 men, to capture the fort from the Patriots, they did so on November 1776, taking 2,818 prisoners and a large store of supplies.
The British renamed it Fort Knyphausen. The English had been materially assisted by one of Magaw's officers, William Demont, who on November 2 had deserted and furnished Howe with detailed plans of the American works; the American losses were 53 killed and 96 wounded in addition to the rest of the garrison taken prisoner. The British and Hessian troops suffered 132 374 wounded. 2838 American troops were taken prisoner and marched through the streets of New York to the jeering and mockery of the pro-British populace. Most of the prisoners were interned in British ships in New York harbor, where they were deliberately starved, or died of disease and cold in the bitter winter. At the exchange a year only 800 had survived. At this battle was Margaret Corbin of Virginia, recognized as the first female soldier to fight in the American Army. Married to John Corbin of the First Company of the Pennsylvania Artillery, Margaret cleaned and fired her husband's cannon when he was killed during the assault on Fort Washington.
Although injured, Margaret survived the battle but never recovered from her wounds, leaving her unable to use her left arm. She is at least one of the candidates as the woman, or women, who inspired the legend of Molly Pitcher; the site of Fort Washington is now Bennett Park on Fort Washington Avenue between West 183rd and 185th Streets in Washington Heights, New York City. The locations of the fort's walls are marked in the park by stones, along with an inscription. Nearby is a tablet indicating that the schist outcropping is the highest natural point on Manhattan Island, one of the reasons for the fort's location. Bennett Park is located a few blocks north of the George Washington Bridge, between West 179th and 180th Streets. Along the banks of the Hudson River, below the Henry Hudson Parkway, is Fort Washington Park and the small point of land alternately called "Jeffrey's Hook" or "Fort Washington Point", the site of the Little Red Lighthouse. New York and New Jersey campaign Battle of Fort Washington Battle of Fort Lee Fort Tryon Park Hudson River Chain Notes Further reading De Lancey, The Capture of Fort Washington, the Result of Treason, Battles of the United States, Battles of the American Revolution, David Hackett.
Washington's Crossing. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-518121-2. McCullough, 1776, Stephen. "The Greatest Street in the World: The Story of Broadway and New, from the Bowling Green to Albany," p 326. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1911; the Battle of Fort Washington / Manhattan Fort Washington 1898 account
A gristmill grinds cereal grain into flour and middlings. The term can refer to the building that holds it; the Greek geographer Strabo reports in his Geography a water-powered grain-mill to have existed near the palace of king Mithradates VI Eupator at Cabira, Asia Minor, before 71 BC. The early mills had horizontal paddle wheels, an arrangement which became known as the "Norse wheel", as many were found in Scandinavia; the paddle wheel was attached to a shaft which was, in turn, attached to the centre of the millstone called the "runner stone". The turning force produced by the water on the paddles was transferred directly to the runner stone, causing it to grind against a stationary "bed", a stone of a similar size and shape; this simple arrangement required no gears, but had the disadvantage that the speed of rotation of the stone was dependent on the volume and flow of water available and was, only suitable for use in mountainous regions with fast-flowing streams. This dependence on the volume and speed of flow of the water meant that the speed of rotation of the stone was variable and the optimum grinding speed could not always be maintained.
Vertical wheels were in use in the Roman Empire by the end of the first century BC, these were described by Vitruvius. The peak of Roman technology is the Barbegal aqueduct and mill where water with a 19-metre fall drove sixteen water wheels, giving a grinding capacity estimated at 2.4 to 3.2 tonnes per hour. Water mills seem to have remained in use during the post-Roman period, by 1000 AD, mills in Europe were more than a few miles apart. In England, the Domesday survey of 1086 gives a precise count of England's water-powered flour mills: there were 5,624, or about one for every 300 inhabitants, this was typical throughout western and southern Europe. From this time onward, water wheels began to be used for purposes other than grist milling. In England, the number of mills in operation followed population growth, peaked at around 17,000 by 1300. Limited extant examples of gristmills can be found in Europe from the High Middle Ages. An extant well-preserved waterwheel and gristmill on the Ebro River in Spain is associated with the Real Monasterio de Nuestra Senora de Rueda, built by the Cistercian monks in 1202.
The Cistercians were known for their use of this technology in Western Europe in the period 1100 to 1350. Geared gristmills were built in the medieval Near East and North Africa, which were used for grinding grain and other seeds to produce meals. Gristmills in the Islamic world were powered by both wind; the first wind-powered gristmills were built in the 9th and 10th centuries in what are now Afghanistan and Iran. Although the terms "gristmill" or "corn mill" can refer to any mill that grinds grain, the terms were used for a local mill where farmers brought their own grain and received back ground meal or flour, minus a percentage called the "miller's toll." Early mills were always built and supported by farming communities and the miller received the "miller's toll" in lieu of wages. Most towns and villages had their own mill so that local farmers could transport their grain there to be milled; these communities were dependent on their local mill. Classical mill designs are water-powered, though some are powered by the wind or by livestock.
In a watermill a sluice gate is opened to allow water to flow onto, or under, a water wheel to make it turn. In most watermills the water wheel was mounted vertically, i.e. edge-on, in the water, but in some cases horizontally. Designs incorporated horizontal steel or cast iron turbines and these were sometimes refitted into the old wheel mills. In most wheel-driven mills, a large gear-wheel called the pit wheel is mounted on the same axle as the water wheel and this drives a smaller gear-wheel, the wallower, on a main driveshaft running vertically from the bottom to the top of the building; this system of gearing ensures that the main shaft turns faster than the water wheel, which rotates at around 10 rpm. The millstones themselves turn at around 120 rpm, they are laid one on top of the other. The bottom stone, called the bed, is fixed to the floor, while the top stone, the runner, is mounted on a separate spindle, driven by the main shaft. A wheel called the stone nut connects the runner's spindle to the main shaft, this can be moved out of the way to disconnect the stone and stop it turning, leaving the main shaft turning to drive other machinery.
This might include driving a mechanical sieve to refine the flour, or turning a wooden drum to wind up a chain used to hoist sacks of grain to the top of the mill house. The distance between the stones can be varied to produce the grade of flour required; the grain is lifted in sacks onto the sack floor at the top of the mill on the hoist. The sacks are emptied into bins, where the grain falls down through a hopper to the millstones on the stone floor below; the flow of grain is regulated by shaking it in a sloping trough from which it falls into a hole in the center of the runner stone. The milled grain is collected as it emerges through the grooves in the runner stone from the outer rim of the stones and is fed down a chute to be collected in sacks on the ground or meal floor. A similar process is used for grains such as wheat to make flour, for maize to make corn meal. In order to prevent the vibrations of the mill machinery from shaking the building apart, a gristmill will have at least two separate foundations.
Colonial history of New Jersey
European colonization of New Jersey started soon after the 1609 exploration of its coast and bays by Sir Henry Hudson. Part of the state was settled by Swedish as New Netherland and New Sweden. In 1664, the entire area was surrendered to the English, given its name. With of the Treaty of Westminster in 1674, they formally gained control of the region until the American Revolution. A wave of migrants entered the region from the west sometime after 13,000 years ago, left behind advanced hunting implements such as bows and arrows and evidence of an agricultural society; the region has been continually inhabited from that time. At the time of the European colonialization, the area of Lenape settlement, which they called Scheyichbi, encompassed the valleys of the lower Hudson River and the Delaware River, the area in between, what is now known as the U. S. state of New Jersey. Dutch settlement in the seventeenth century concentrated along the banks of the North River and the Upper New York Bay, though they maintained factorijs along the Delaware River as well.
Although the Lenape did not recognize the European principle of land ownership, Dutch policy required formal purchase of all land settled. The settlement grew impeded by Willem Kieft's mismanagement. In 1658, the last Director-General of New Netherland, Peter Stuyvesant, "re-purchased" the entire peninsula known as Bergen Neck, in 1661 granted a charter to the village at Bergen, establishing the oldest municipality in the state. New Sweden, founded in 1638, rose to its height under governor Johan Björnsson Printz. Led by Printz, the settlement extended as far north as Fort Christina, he helped to improve the military and commercial status of the colony by constructing Fort Nya Elfsborg, now near Salem, on the east side of the Delaware River. Swedesboro and Bridgeport were founded as part of the colony. In 1655, the Dutch asserted control over the territory. Italian navigator John Cabot left England in 1496 to explore North America; the English claimed. Insisting that John Cabot had been the first to discover North America, the English granted the land that now encompasses New Jersey, who ordered Colonel Richard Nicolls to take over the area.
In September 1664, an English fleet under the command of Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and under threat of attack, forced the provisional surrender of the colony by the Dutch. The English received little resistance due to West India Company's decision not to garrison the colony. Nicolls took the position of deputy-governor of New Amsterdam and the rest of New Netherland, guaranteeing colonists' property rights, laws of inheritance, the enjoyment of religious freedom. Within six years, the nations were again at war, in August 1673 the Dutch recaptured New Netherland with a fleet of 21 ships. In November 1674, the Dutch Treaty of Westminster concluded the war and ceded New Netherland to the English. Charles II gave the region between New England and Maryland to his brother, the Duke of York, renamed New York. Soon thereafter James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends, loyal to him through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
That part of New Netherland was named New Jersey after the English Channel Island of Jersey. The two proprietors of New Jersey attempted to entice more settlers to move to New Jersey by granting sections of lands to settlers and by passing Concession and Agreement, a document granting religious freedom to all inhabitants of New Jersey. In return for land, settlers paid annual fees known as quitrents. Land grants made in connection to the importation of slaves were another enticement for settlers. Philip Carteret was appointed by the two proprietors as the first governor of New Jersey. Philip Carteret designated Bergen as the first capital of the colony. However, it became difficult for the two proprietors to collect the quitrents; as a result, on March 18, 1673 Berkeley sold his share of New Jersey to the Quakers. With this sale, New Jersey was divided into East Jersey and West Jersey, two distinct provinces of the proprietary colony; the political division existed for the 26 years between 1674 and 1702.
Determination of an exact location for a border between West Jersey and East Jersey was a matter of dispute, as was the border with New York. The border between the two sides reached the Atlantic Ocean to the north of Atlantic City; the border line was created by George Keith, can still be seen in the county boundaries between Monmouth and Burlington/Mercer Counties. The border was disputed, so with the 1676 Quintipartite Deed more accurate surveys and maps were made to resolve property disputes; this resulted in the Thornton line, drawn around 1696, the Lawrence line, drawn around 1743, adopted as the final line for legal purposes. After the final transfer of power to the English, New Netherlanders and their descendents spread across East Jersey and established many of the towns and cities which exist today; the Dutch Reformed Church played an important role this expansion Fol
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War pitted the colonies of British America against those of New France, each side supported by military units from the parent country and by American Indian allies. At the start of the war, the French colonies had a population of 60,000 settlers, compared with 2 million in the British colonies; the outnumbered French depended on the Indians. The European nations declared a wider war upon one another overseas in 1756, two years into the French and Indian war, some view the French and Indian War as being the American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63; the name French and Indian War is used in the United States, referring to the two enemies of the British colonists, while European historians use the term Seven Years' War, as do English-speaking Canadians. French Canadians call it the Fourth Intercolonial War; the British colonists were supported at various times by the Iroquois and Cherokee tribes, the French colonists were supported by Wabanaki Confederacy member tribes Abenaki and Mi'kmaq, the Algonquin, Ojibwa, Ottawa and Wyandot tribes.
Fighting took place along the frontiers between New France and the British colonies, from the Province of Virginia in the south to Newfoundland in the north. It began with a dispute over control of the confluence of the Allegheny River and Monongahela River called the Forks of the Ohio, the site of the French Fort Duquesne in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the dispute erupted into violence in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in May 1754, during which Virginia militiamen under the command of 22-year-old George Washington ambushed a French patrol. In 1755, six colonial governors met with General Edward Braddock, the newly arrived British Army commander, planned a four-way attack on the French. None succeeded, the main effort by Braddock proved a disaster. British operations failed in the frontier areas of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Province of New York during 1755–57 due to a combination of poor management, internal divisions, effective Canadian scouts, French regular forces, Indian warrior allies.
In 1755, the British captured Fort Beauséjour on the border separating Nova Scotia from Acadia, they ordered the expulsion of the Acadians soon afterwards. Orders for the deportation were given by Commander-in-Chief William Shirley without direction from Great Britain; the Acadians were expelled, both those captured in arms and those who had sworn the loyalty oath to the King. Indians were driven off the land to make way for settlers from New England; the British colonial government fell in the region of Nova Scotia after several disastrous campaigns in 1757, including a failed expedition against Louisbourg and the Siege of Fort William Henry. William Pitt came to power and increased British military resources in the colonies at a time when France was unwilling to risk large convoys to aid the limited forces that they had in New France, preferring to concentrate their forces against Prussia and its allies who were now engaged in the Seven Years' War in Europe. Between 1758 and 1760, the British military launched a campaign to capture French Canada.
They succeeded in capturing territory in surrounding colonies and the city of Quebec. The British lost the Battle of Sainte-Foy west of Quebec, but the French ceded Canada in accordance with the Treaty of Paris. France ceded its territory east of the Mississippi to Great Britain, as well as French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to its ally Spain in compensation for Spain's loss to Britain of Spanish Florida. France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, confirming Great Britain's position as the dominant colonial power in America. In British America, wars were named after the sitting British monarch, such as King William's War or Queen Anne's War. There had been a King George's War in the 1740s during the reign of King George II, so British colonists named this conflict after their opponents, it became known as the French and Indian War; this continues as the standard name for the war in the United States, although Indians fought on both sides of the conflict.
It led into the Seven Years' War overseas, a much larger conflict between France and Great Britain that did not involve the American colonies. Less used names for the war include the Fourth Intercolonial War and the Great War for the Empire. In Europe, the French and Indian War is conflated into the Seven Years' War and not given a separate name. "Seven Years" refers to events in Europe, from the official declaration of war in 1756—two years after the French and Indian War had started—to the signing of the peace treaty in 1763. The French and Indian War in America, by contrast, was concluded in six years from the Battle of Jumonville Glen in 1754 to the capture of Montreal in 1760. Canadians conflate both the American conflicts into the Seven Years' War. French Canadi