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New Castle, Delaware

New Castle is a city in New Castle County, United States, six miles south of Wilmington, situated on the Delaware River. According to the 2010 Census, the population of the city is 5,285. New Castle was settled by the Dutch West India Company in 1651, under the leadership of Peter Stuyvesant, on the site of a former aboriginal village, "Tomakonck", to assert their claim to the area based on a prior agreement with the aboriginal inhabitants of the area; the Dutch named the settlement Fort Casimir, but this was changed to Fort Trinity following its seizure by the colony of New Sweden on Trinity Sunday, 1654. The Dutch conquered the entire colony of New Sweden the following year and rechristened the fort Nieuw-Amstel; this marked the end of the Swedish colony in Delaware as an official entity, but it remained a semi-autonomous unit within the New Netherland colony and the cultural and religious influence of the Swedish settlers remained strong. As the settlement grew, Dutch authorities laid out a grid of streets and established the town common, which continue to this day.

In 1664, the English seized the entire New Netherland colony in the Second Anglo-Dutch War. They made it the capital of their Delaware Colony; the Dutch regained the town in 1673 during the Third Anglo-Dutch War but it was returned to Great Britain the next year under the Treaty of Westminster. In 1680, New Castle was conveyed to William Penn by the Duke of York by livery of seisin and was Penn's landing place when he first set foot on American soil on October 27, 1682; this transfer to Penn was contested by Lord Baltimore and the boundary dispute was not resolved until the survey conducted by Mason and Dixon, now famed in history as the Mason–Dixon line. The spire on top of the Court House, Delaware's colonial capitol and first state house, was used as the center of the Twelve-Mile Circle forming the northern boundary of Delaware; the Delaware River within this radius to the low water mark on the opposite shore is part of Delaware. Thus the Delaware Memorial Bridge was built as an intrastate span by Delaware, without financial participation by neighboring New Jersey.

Prior to the establishment of Penn's Philadelphia, New Castle was a center of government. After being transferred to Penn, Delaware's Swedish and English residents used to the relaxed culture of the Restoration monarchy grew uncomfortable with the more conservative Quaker influence, so Delaware petitioned for a separate legislature, granted in 1702. Delaware formally broke from Pennsylvania in 1704. New Castle again became the seat of the colonial government, thriving with the various judges and lawyers that fueled the economy. Many smaller houses were replaced in this era. In February 1777, John McKinly was elected the first President of Delaware. During the Revolution, when New Castle was besieged by William Howe, the government elected to move its functions south to Dover in May 1777. McKinley was captured by the held prisoner for several months. New Castle remained the county seat until after the Civil War, when that status was transferred to Wilmington. Three signers of the Declaration of Independence were from New Castle—Thomas McKean, George Read, George Ross.

The 16-mile portage between the Delaware River and Chesapeake Bay saved a 400-mile trip around the Delmarva Peninsula, so this brought passengers and business to New Castle's port. In the years following the Revolution, a turnpike was built to facilitate travel between the two major waterways. New Castle became the eastern terminus of the New Castle and Frenchtown Railroad, the second-oldest rail line in the country, launched in 1828 with horse-drawn rail cars converting to steam power when an engine was purchased from Great Britain in 1832; the line traversed the Delmarva Peninsula, running to the Elk River, from where passengers changed to packet boats for further travel to Baltimore and points south. This helped the New Castle economy to further boom; the decline in New Castle's economy had the long-range fortunate effect of preventing most residents from making any significant structural changes to their homes. So, the many buildings of historic New Castle look much as they did in the colonial and Federal periods.

New Castle has a tradition, dating back to 1927, of tours of historical homes and gardens. These tours, called "A Day in Olde New Castle", are held on the third Saturday of May. Householders dress in colonial costumes and an admittance fee is collected, used toward the maintenance of the town's many historic buildings. In June the town holds its annual Separation Day celebration. On April 28, 1961, an F3 tornado hit the north side. Although no fatalities or injuries occurred, it was the only tornado of this magnitude recorded in Delaware. In the City of New Castle, many small and historical neighborhoods are within the city limits. However, many larger neighborhoods are surrounding the city limits and are labeled as New Castle within the general consensus; the New Castle area ranges from the southern city limits of Wilmington to the north, the Delaware River to the East, Wrangle Hill Road to the South, Bear and Christiana to the West. City of New Castle Shawtown Dobbinsville Washington Park Battery Park 6th & DelawareOutside neighborhoods Chelsea Estates Penn Acres Collins Park Minquadale Wilmington Manor Commons Boulevard Midvale Jeffe

Walter Reed Army Medical Center

The Walter Reed Army Medical Center —known as Walter Reed General Hospital until 1951—was the U. S. Army's flagship medical center from 1909 to 2011. Located on 113 acres in the District of Columbia, it served more than 150,000 active and retired personnel from all branches of the military; the center was named after Major Walter Reed, an Army physician who led the team that confirmed that yellow fever is transmitted by mosquitoes rather than direct contact. Since its origins, the WRAMC medical care facility grew from a bed capacity of 80 patients to 5,500 rooms covering more than 28 acres of floor space. WRAMC combined with the National Naval Medical Center at Bethesda, Maryland in 2011 to form the tri-service Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. Fort Lesley J. McNair, located in the southwest of the District of Columbia on land set aside by George Washington as a military reservation, is the third oldest U. S. Army installation in continuous use in the United States after Carlisle Barracks.

Its position at the confluence of the Anacostia River and the Potomac River made it an excellent site for the defense of the nation's capital. Dating back to 1791, the post served as an arsenal, played an important role in the nation's defense, housed the first U. S. Federal Penitentiary from 1839 to 1862. Today, Fort McNair enjoys a strong tradition as the intellectual headquarters for defense. Furthermore, with unparalleled vistas of the picturesque waterfront and the opposing Virginia shoreline, the historic health clinic at Fort McNair, the precursor of today's Walter Reed Army Medical Center, overlooks the residences of top officials who choose the famed facility for the delivery of their health care needs. "Walter Reed's Clinic," the location of the present day health clinic at Washington, D. C. occupies what was from 1898 until 1909 the General Hospital at what was Washington Barracks, long before the post was renamed in honor of Lt. Gen. McNair, killed in 1944; the hospital served as the forerunner of Walter Reed General Hospital.

It is reported that Walter Reed lived and worked in the facility when he was assigned as Camp Surgeon from 1881 to 1882. After having served on other assignments, he returned as Professor of Medicine and Curator of the Army Medical Museum; some of his epidemiological work included studies at Washington Barracks, he is best known for discovering the transmission of yellow fever. In 1902, Major Reed underwent emergency surgery here for appendicitis and died of complications in this U. S. Army Medical Treatment Facility, within the walls of what became his final military duty assignment. Regarding the structure itself, since the 1890s the health clinic was used as an Army General Hospital where physicians and nurses were trained in military health care. In 1899, the morgue was constructed which now houses the Dental Clinic, in 1901 the hospital became an separate command; this new organizational command relocated eight years with the aide of horse-drawn wagons and an experimental steam driven ambulance in 1909.

Departing from the 50-bed hospital, as documented in The Army Nursing Newsletter, Volume 99, Issue 2, February 2000, they set out due north transporting with them 11 patients to the new 65-bed facility in the northern aspect of the capital. Having departed Ft. McNair, the organization has since developed into the Walter Reed Army Medical Center that we know today; as for the facility they left behind at Fort McNair, it functioned in a smaller role as a post hospital until 1911 when the west wing was converted into a clinic. Congressional legislation appropriated $192,000 for the construction of Walter Reed General Hospital, the first ten patients were admitted on May 1, 1909. Lieutenant Colonel William Cline Borden was the initiator and effective mover for the creation and first Congressional support of the Medical Center. Due to his efforts, the facility was nicknamed "Borden's Dream."In 1923, General John J. Pershing signed the War Department order creating the "Army Medical Center" within the same campus as the WRGH.

Pershing lived at Walter Reed from 1944 until his death there July 15, 1948. In September 1951, "General Order Number 8" combined the WRGH with the AMC, the entire complex of 100 rose-brick Georgian Revival style buildings was at that time renamed the "Walter Reed Army Medical Center". In June 1955, the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology occupied the new Building 54 and, in November, what had been MDPSS was renamed the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. 1964 saw the birth of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Nursing. Former President Dwight D. Eisenhower died at WRAMC on March 28, 1969. Starting in 1972, a huge new WRAMC building was constructed and made ready for occupation by 1977. WRAIR moved from Building 40 to a large new facility on the WRAMC Forest Glen Annex in Maryland in 1999. Subsequently, Building 40 was slated for renovation under an enhanced use lease by a private developer. In 2007, the University of Pennsylvania and WRAMC established a partnership whereby proton therapy technology would be available to treat United States military personnel and veterans in the Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine's new Roberts Proton Therapy Center.

In February 2007, The Washington Post published a series of investigative articles outlining

Nicolas Dalayrac

Nicolas-Marie d'Alayrac, nicknamed the Musician poet, more Nicolas Dalayrac, was a French composer of the Classical period. Intended for a military career, he frequents many musicians in the Parisian salons, which has decided his vocation. Among his most popular works, Nina, or The Woman Crazed with Love, which tackles the theme of madness and arouses real enthusiasm during its creation, premiered on 23 November at the Stroganov Palace; the Two Little Savoyards, which deals with the rapprochement of social classes, a theme bearing the ideals of the French Revolution, Camille ou le Souterrain, judged as his best production or Léon ou le Château de Monténéro who by his leitmotifs announces a new genre. If he forges an international reputation, he remains less known in the lyrical field than André Grétry, his first compositions were string trios and quartets. He published them under a pseudonym with Italian consonance; the quartets were successful, the true identity of their author was discovered.

According to René-Charles Guilbert de Pixérécourt, initiated in Freemasonry he was a member of the Masonic lodge of «The Nine Sisters» and composed in 1778 the music for the reception of Voltaire and of the party in honor of Benjamin Franklin at the home of Anne-Catherine de Ligniville Helvétius. Dalayrac participated in the development of copyright. Nicolas-Marie d'Alayrac was born in Muret, Haute-Garonne, on 8 April 1753, into a noble family of Sir Jean d'Alayrac, adviser to the king in the election of Comminges and his wife Marie Cluzel. Baptized five days Nicolas Alayrac is the oldest of five children, he was the first of four children, including two sisters who died at a young age, he was sent to the bar, went to study in Toulouse. Although trained as a lawyer, he was encouraged by his father to abandon his career and follow his passion for music, he married the actress Gilberte Pétronille Sallarde. After the French Revolution he changed his name from the aristocratic d'Alayrac to Dalayrac.

In 1804, he received the Légion d'honneur. He died in Paris, aged 56. Le chevalier à la mode Le petit souper L'éclipse totale L'amant statue La dot Nina, ou La folle par amour Azémia Renaud d'Ast Sargines Fanchette Les deux petits Savoyards, libretto by Benoît-Joseph Marsollier des Vivetières, first performance by Les Comédiens ordinaires du Roi, 14 January 1789. Raoul, sire de Créqui La soirée orageuse Le chêne patriotique Vert-Vert Camille ou Le souterrain Agnès et Olivier Philippe et Georgette Tout pour l'amour Ambroise Asgill La prise de Toulon Le congrès des rois L'enfance de Jean-Jacques Rousseau Les détenus Adèle et Dorsan Marianne La maison isolée La leçon Gulnare Alexis Léon Primerose Adolphe et Clara, ou Les deux prisonniers Aire de Maison à vendre Léhéman L'antichambre La boucle de cheveux La jeune prude Une heure de mariage Le Pavillon du Calife, ou Almanzor et Zobéïde, opera in two acts and in free verse, in collaboration with Jean-Baptiste-Denis Despré and Étienne Morel de Chédeville Le pavillon des fleurs Gulistan ou Le hulla de Samarcande Deux mots Koulouf ou Les chinois Lina Élise-Hortense Les trois sultanes Le poète et le musicien Citations Les Neuf Sœurs List of Works Free scores by Nicolas Dalayrac at the International Music Score Library Project