New Croton Dam
The New Croton Dam is a dam forming the New Croton Reservoir, both parts of the New York City water supply system. It stretches across the Croton River near Croton-on-Hudson, New York, about 22 miles north of New York City. Construction began in 1892 and was completed in 1906. Designed by Alphonse Fteley, the masonry dam is 266 feet broad at its base and 297 feet high from base to crest. At the time of its completion, it was the tallest dam in the world, it impounds up to 19 billion US gallons of water, a small fraction of the New York City water system's total storage capacity of 580 billion US gallons. The original Croton Dam was built between 1842 to improve New York City's water supply. By 1881, after extensive repairs to the dam, 50 feet high, Old Croton Reservoir was able to supply about 90 million US gallons a day to the city via the Old Croton Aqueduct. To meet escalating water needs, the Aqueduct Commission of the City of New York ordered construction of a new Croton system in 1885. Hydro engineer James B. Francis was brought in as a consultant for the construction.
The proposed dam and reservoir were to cover 20 square miles of land occupied by public and private buildings, six cemeteries, more than 400 farms. Condemnation disputes led to "protests and confusion" before payment of claims and the awarding of construction contracts; the work force on the new dam included laborers who had worked on the original dam. John B. Goldsborough, superintendent of excavations and hiring for the project recruited stonemasons from southern Italy, who re-located to New York. Construction began in 1892 and was completed in 1906. Building the dam meant diverting the river from its normal path and pumping the riverbed dry. To accomplish this, workers dug a crescent-shaped canal 1,000 feet long and 200 feet wide in the hill on the north side of the river, secured the canal with a masonry retaining wall, built temporary dams to control the water flow; the initial construction lasted eight years, extensive modifications and repairs went on for another six. Working conditions were difficult.
A silent film, The Croton Dam Strike, released in 1900, depicted labor–management problems related to the dam's construction. Designed by Alphonse Fteley, the masonry dam is 266 feet broad at its base and 297 feet high from base to crest. At the time of its completion, it was the tallest dam in the world, its foundation extends 130 feet below the bed of the river, the dam contains 850,000 cubic yards of masonry. The engineers' tablet mounted on the headhouse nearest the spillway lists the spillway length as 1,000 feet and the total length of the dam and spillway combined as 2,188 feet. New Croton Dam impounds up to 19 billion US gallons of water, a small fraction of the New York City water system's total storage capacity of 580 billion US gallons.. New York City Department of Environmental Protection. Retrieved on July 10, 2007.</ref> Work began in 1892 at a site on the property of A. B. Cornell 4 miles downstream of the original dam, submerged by the new reservoir. New Croton Reservoir was able to supply 200 to 300 million US gallons a day via a new aqueduct that carried water to Jerome Park Reservoir in the north Bronx, New York City.
The bridge over the spillway was replaced in 1975 and again in 2005. In that same year, because of the September 11 attacks on New York City, the New York City Department of Environmental Protection proposed permanent closure of the road across the top of the dam. Pedestrians and emergency vehicles were allowed to use New Croton Dam Road, but all other traffic was re-routed; the department made plans to replace temporary vehicle barriers with permanent barriers after completion of a New Croton Dam Rehabilitation Project in 2011. Croton Gorge Park offers views of the dam from directly downstream; the Old Croton Trail, a popular hiking and biking path that follows the route of the Old Croton Aqueduct, has an endpoint near the base of the dam. Teatown Lake Reservation, a nature preserve, lies nearby as does Croton Point Park in Croton-on-Hudson. Historic American Engineering Record No. NY-132, "New Croton Dam & Reservoir, Croton River, Croton-on-Hudson vicinity, Westchester County, NY"
A reservoir is, most an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a watercourse that drains an existing body of water, interrupting a watercourse to form an embayment within it, through excavation, or building any number of retaining walls or levees. Defined as a storage space for fluids, reservoirs may hold gasses, including hydrocarbons. Tank reservoirs elevated, or buried tanks. Tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Most underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, below ground. Reservoir is most an enlarged natural or artificial lake. A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin; the valley sides act as natural walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest cost of construction.
In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel, the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto. Construction of a reservoir in a valley will need the river to be diverted during part of the build through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel. In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir. Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river. As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area. Many coastal reservoirs were constructed in Europe. Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore and Plover Cove in China, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs. Where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or size, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water; such reservoirs are formed by excavation and by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: these were made of puddled clay, but this has been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay; the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may reduce many contaminants and eliminate any turbidity.
The use of bank-side reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee. Service reservoirs store treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is flat. Other service reservoirs can be entirely underground in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909; when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe. This reservoir now forms part of the southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
The top of the reservoir is now used by the Aquarius Golf Club. Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can be managed to reduce the cost of pumping, by refilling the reservoir at times of day when energy costs are low. Circa 3 000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water. Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of stepwells and water resource management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece; the artificial Bhojsagar lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square kilometres. In Sri Lanka large reservoirs were created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation.
The famous Sri Lankan king Pa
New Croton Aqueduct
The New Croton Aqueduct is an aqueduct in the New York City water supply system in Westchester County, New York carrying the water of the Croton Watershed. Built parallel to the Old Croton Aqueduct it augmented, it opened in 1910; the old aqueduct remained in service until 1955, when supply from the Delaware and Catskill Aqueducts was sufficient to take it off line. Waters of the New Croton Aqueduct flow to the Jerome Park Reservoir in the Bronx for distribution within the city; the Croton Watershed is one of three systems that provide water to New York City, joined by the waters of the Delaware and Catskill Aqueducts. The New Croton Aqueduct opened on July 1890, replacing the Old Croton Aqueduct, it runs from the New Croton reservoir in Westchester County to the Jerome Park Reservoir in the Bronx, from which it distributes water to certain areas of the Bronx and Manhattan before emptying into Tunnel 1 of the Catskill/Delaware System. In the late 1990s, New York City stopped using water from the Croton due to numerous water quality issues.
In 2004, a project was started to rehabilitate the New Croton Aqueduct and build a filtration plant which came on-line in May, 2015. The Croton Water Filtration Plant was built in Van Cortlandt Park to improve water quality; because of these quality problems, the Croton system is bypassed or mixed with water from the Catskill Aqueduct and/or Delaware Aqueduct during times of drought. The project is behind schedule. New York City water supply system Water supply network NYC GOV Water System History NYC GOV New York City's Water Story
Middle Branch Reservoir
Middle Branch Reservoir is a reservoir in the New York City water supply system located in the Town of Southeast in Putnam County, 35 miles north of the city. Created in 1878 by damming the Middle Branch of the Croton River, it is one of twelve in the Croton Watershed. Middle Branch covers 400 acres, with an average depth of 31 feet, although some areas in the reservoir's southern extent reach 50 feet, it drains an area of 21 square miles reaching into Dutchess County. At full capacity, it holds 4.1 billion gallons. List of reservoirs and dams in New York U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Middle Branch Reservoir
Staten Island is one of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U. S. state of New York. Located in the southwest portion of the city, the borough is separated from New Jersey by the Arthur Kill and the Kill Van Kull and from the rest of New York by New York Bay. With an estimated population of 479,458 in 2017, Staten Island is the least populated of the boroughs but is the third-largest in land area at 58.5 sq mi. The borough contains the southern-most point in the state, South Point; the borough is coextensive with Richmond County and until 1975 was referred to as the Borough of Richmond. Staten Island has sometimes been called "the forgotten borough" by inhabitants who feel neglected by the city government; the North Shore—especially the neighborhoods of St. George, Tompkinsville and Stapleton—is the most urban part of the island; the East Shore is home to the 2.5-mile F. D. R. Boardwalk, the fourth-longest boardwalk in the world; the South Shore, site of the 17th-century Dutch and French Huguenot settlement, developed beginning in the 1960s and 1970s and is now suburban in character.
The West Shore is the most industrial part of the island. Motor traffic can reach the borough from Brooklyn via the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge and from New Jersey via the Outerbridge Crossing, Goethals Bridge and Bayonne Bridge. Staten Island has Metropolitan Transportation Authority bus lines and an MTA rapid transit line, the Staten Island Railway, which runs from the ferry terminal at St. George to Tottenville. Staten Island is the only borough, not connected to the New York City Subway system; the free Staten Island Ferry connects the borough across New York Harbor to Manhattan and is a popular tourist attraction, providing views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island and Lower Manhattan. Staten Island had the Fresh Kills Landfill, the world's largest landfill before closing in 2001, although it was temporarily reopened that year to receive debris from the September 11 attacks; the landfill is being redeveloped as an area devoted to restoring habitat. As in much of North America, human habitation appeared in the island rapidly after the Wisconsin glaciation.
Archaeologists have recovered tool evidence of Clovis culture activity dating from about 14,000 years ago. This evidence was first discovered in 1917 in the Charleston section of the island. Various Clovis artifacts have been discovered since on property owned by Mobil Oil; the island was abandoned possibly because of the extirpation of large mammals on the island. Evidence of the first permanent Native American settlements and agriculture are thought to date from about 5,000 years ago, although early archaic habitation evidence has been found in multiple locations on the island. Rossville points are distinct arrowheads that define a Native American cultural period that runs from the Archaic period to the Early Woodland period, dating from about 1500 to 100 BC, they are named for the Rossville section of Staten Island, where they were first found near the old Rossville Post Office building. At the time of European contact, the island was inhabited by the Raritan band of the Unami division of the Lenape.
In Lenape, one of the Algonquian languages, Staten Island was called Aquehonga Manacknong, meaning "as far as the place of the bad woods", or Eghquhous, meaning "the bad woods". The area was part of the Lenape homeland known as Lenapehoking; the Lenape were called the "Delaware" by the English colonists because they inhabited both shores of what the English named the Delaware River. The island was laced with Native American foot trails, one of which followed the south side of the ridge near the course of present-day Richmond Road and Amboy Road; the Lenape moved seasonally, using slash and burn agriculture. Shellfish was a staple of their diet, including the Eastern oyster abundant in the waterways throughout the present-day New York City region. Evidence of their habitation can still be seen in shell middens along the shore in the Tottenville section, where oyster shells larger than 12 inches are sometimes found. Burial Ridge, a Lenape burial ground on a bluff overlooking Raritan Bay in Tottenville, is the largest pre-European burial ground in New York City.
Bodies have been reported unearthed at Burial Ridge from 1858 onward. After conducting independent research, which included unearthing bodies interred at the site and archaeologist George H. Pepper was contracted in 1895 to conduct paid archaeological research at Burial Ridge by the American Museum of Natural History; the burial ground today lies within Conference House Park. The first recorded European contact on the island was in 1520 by Italian explorer Giovanni de Verrazzano who sailed through The Narrows on the ship La Dauphine and anchored for one night. In 1609, English explorer Henry Hudson sailed into Upper New York Bay on his ship the Half Moon; the Dutch named the island Staaten Eylandt in honor of the Dutch parliament, still known as the Staten-Generaal. The first permanent Dutch settlement of the New Netherland colony was made on Governor's Island in 1624, which they had used as a trading camp for more than a decade before. In 1626, the colony transferred to the island of Manhattan, designated as the capital of New Netherland.
The Dutch did not establish a permanent settlement on Staaten Eylandt for many decades. From 1639 to 1655, Cornelis Melyn
The Schoharie Reservoir is a reservoir in the Catskill Mountains of New York State, created to be one of 19 reservoirs that supplies New York City with water. It was created by impounding Schoharie Creek. Portions of it lie in the towns of Conesville and Gilboa in Schoharie County, Roxbury in Delaware County, Prattsville in Greene County. After the Ashokan Reservoir was created as New York City's thirteenth reservoir and the Kensico Reservoir was completed soon after to store its water, the water supply was still insufficient for the city's high population. A search for a new location led to the village of Gilboa, New York, purchased and its residents evacuated through condemnation. Site preparation destroyed most of the area's buildings up to the water line; the dam was built during the early 1920s out of stone bricks. Flooding was completed in 1924 and the reservoir put into service; the village of Gilboa was relocated to the west. The resulting reservoir, the northernmost of the New York City system, is located 36 miles southwest of Albany and 110 miles northwest of New York City.
It lies at the southern end of Schoharie County, the northeastern end of Delaware County, at the northwestern end of Greene County. It neighbors such towns as Gilboa and Conesville, it is an impounded portion of the Schoharie Creek, a tributary of the Mohawk River, itself a tributary of the Hudson River. The resulting reservoir consists of a single 6-mile basin, holds 17.6 billion US gallons of water at full capacity, making it one of the smaller New York City reservoirs. Put into service in 1926, the Schoharie Reservoir provides nine million people with 15-16 percent of their annual water supply needs, it is the smaller of the two reservoirs which, along with the Ashokan Reservoir, in Olive, New York, make up the New York City Catskill Water System. Overflow from the Schoharie Reservoir tops the Gilboa Dam and runs back into Schoharie Creek flowing into the Hudson River. Water from the Schoharie Reservoir flows to New York City through the 16-mile -long Shandaken Tunnel, empties into the Esopus Creek at Shandaken.
Another 11 miles down the Esopus it empties into the Ashokan Reservoir. From there water enters the 92-mile Catskill Aqueduct to the Kensico Reservoir, thence to New York City; the 120-foot high concrete and stone brick Gilboa Dam 42°23′30″N 74°26′59″W in Schoharie County was completed in 1926. Over time the dam eroded to. In December 2005, the New York City Department of Environmental Protection began a $24 million project to bring the dam up to New York State safety standards. Beginning in December 2006 eighty post-tensioned anchoring cables were installed through holes drilled in the dam into bedrock below, bringing it up to New York State safety standards. During this overhaul, residents nearby complained that their tap water had turned a brownish color due to the intense drilling into the earth to anchor the dam. Schoharie County planned and authorized the Gilboa Dam Failure Outdoor Warning System, installed by Mid-State Communications. New York City paid for the system consisting of twenty sirens stretching from the Town of Gilboa to the Town of Esperance, ending at the Montgomery County line.
A larger, full-scale overhaul of the Gilboa Dam began in the summer of 2011 after five years of planning. Estimated to cost $350 million, the project will add significant mass to the dam, install floodgates, include a large tunnel bypass allowing water to be released safely from the reservoir into Schoharie Creek. A citizens advocacy group, called Dam Concerned Citizens, Inc. was formed to monitor structural vulnerabilities in order to ensure the safety of those living downstream. On August 28, 2011, after receiving as much as 12 inches of rainfall from Hurricane Irene, the Gilboa Dam was placed in a level B situation. Though the dam was intact, the heavy upstream rainfall from the hurricane prompted officials to issue an evacuation order for downstream residents, including a mandatory evacuation of the towns of Middleburgh and Schoharie; the evacuation order was due to the heavy rainfall and not due to a dam failure. After a minor earthquake on August 27, 2011 was recorded in the region and in response to the 2011 Virginia earthquake which occurred on August 23, 2011 and was felt as far north as Canada, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo ordered an infrastructure inspection which included the Gilboa Dam.
Governor Cuomo visited the dam on the morning of August 28, 2011 to report that officials had discovered no impacts to the dam from recent seismic activity. List of reservoirs and dams in New York
The Croton Aqueduct or Old Croton Aqueduct was a large and complex water distribution system constructed for New York City between 1837 and 1842. The great aqueducts, which were among the first in the United States, carried water by gravity 41 miles from the Croton River in Westchester County to reservoirs in Manhattan, it was built because local water resources had become polluted and inadequate for the growing population of the city. Although the aqueduct was superseded by the New Croton Aqueduct, built in 1890, the Old Croton Aqueduct remained in service until 1955; the island of Manhattan, surrounded by brackish rivers, had a limited supply of fresh water available, which dwindled as the city grew after the American Revolutionary War, fresh water sources became polluted by effluent. Before the aqueduct was constructed, residents of New York obtained water from cisterns, natural springs, other bodies of water, but rapid population growth in the 19th century, encroachment on these areas as Manhattan moved further north of Wall Street, led to the pollution of many local fresh water sources.
Below Grand Street, a small number of well-off customers of the Manhattan Company had fresh water delivered to them, but that company was more focused on banking — it became Chase Manhattan — and only paid as much attention to its water activities as it needed to avoid losing the state charter that allowed it to bank. The poor and the rest of the city were forced to rely on well water made palatable by adding alcoholic spirits, prompting temperance campaigners to call for the municipal provision of water; the unsanitary conditions caused an increase in disease. Epidemics of yellow fever ravaged the city. A polluted aquifer, overcrowded housing, the lack of sewers, public ignorance of basic sanitary conditions, the existence of polluting industries near wells and residential areas contributed to an unprecedented mortality rate of 2.6% in 1830. In 1832 cholera first reached New York in the deadliest epidemic to that date; the need for a new supply of fresh water was crucial. In March 1833, Major David Bates Douglass, engineering professor at West Point Military Academy, was appointed to survey and estimate the proposed route.
In 1837, construction began on a massive engineering project, to divert water from sources upstate, following a route surveyed by Douglass and supervised by Douglass' successor, Chief Engineer John B. Jervis; the Croton River was dammed, aqueducts were built, tunnels dug, piping laid, reservoirs created. The gravity-fed aqueduct dropped 13 inches per mile, 1/4" per 100'. An elliptical tube, 8.5 feet high by 7.5 feet wide, of iron piping encased in brick masonry was laid, sometimes in cuts, with conical ventilating towers every mile or so, to relieve pressure and keep the water fresh. Hydraulic cement was added, it extended from the Old Croton Dam in northern Westchester County to the Harlem River, where it continued over the High Bridge at 173rd Street and down the West Side of Manhattan and into a Receiving Reservoir located between 79th and 86th streets and Sixth and Seventh Avenues. The Receiving Reservoir was a rectangular tank within fortress-like rusticated retaining walls, 1,826 feet long and 836 feet wide.
35,000,000 US gallons flowed into it daily from northern Westchester. The Full Flow, Design capacity, of the elliptical tube: 8201 CFM, or 88 MGD. From the Receiving Reservoir, water flowed down to the Croton Distributing Reservoir, better known as the Croton Reservoir, a similar fortified tank located on Fifth Avenue between 40th Street and 42nd Street, where the main branch of the New York Public Library and Bryant Park are located today; this reservoir was built to resemble ancient Egyptian architecture. New Yorkers came uptown for the fine view of the city obtained from atop its walls; the aqueduct opened to public use with great fanfare on October 14, 1842. The day-long celebration culminated in a fountain of water that spouted to a height of 50 feet from the beautifully decorated cast iron Croton Fountain in City Hall Park. Among those present was James Renwick, Jr. who went on to design Grace Church, New York, the Smithsonian Institution Building in Washington, D. C. and St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York, was involved in the architectural and engineering work on the aqueduct as an up-and-coming 18-year-old.
Water started flowing through the aqueduct on June 22, 1842, taking 22 hours for gravity to take the water the 41 miles to reach Manhattan. Though only 6,175 houses had been connected to the system by 1844, the Croton water had dramatically improved both domestic hygiene and interior design. Baths and running water were being built in the private homes of wealthy New Yorkers, public bathing facilities were constructed for the masses; the water system had another inadvertent consequence. The decline in the number of residents drawing water from the city's wells resulted in a rise in the water table, which flooded many cellars. To address this problem, the city built sewers in many residential streets. By 1852, 148 miles of sewers had been constructed. About this time the German cockroach attracted attention and was called the "Croton bug" on the mistaken belief that the aqueduct brought the insects into the homes being connected to the new water supply system. Despite its size, the capacity of the Old Croton Aqueduct could not keep up with the growth of New York City, construction on a New Croton Aqued