Interstate 40 in North Carolina
Interstate 40 is a part of the Interstate Highway System that runs from Barstow, California to Wilmington, North Carolina. In North Carolina, I-40 enters the state along the Pigeon River Gorge, from Tennessee. Crossing the entire state, it connects the cities of Asheville, Winston-Salem, Greensboro and Raleigh before ending along U. S. Highway 117/North Carolina Highway 132 in Wilmington; the landscapes traversed by I-40 include the Blue Ridge Mountains, foothills of western North Carolina, suburban communities, the urban core of several Piedmont cities, along with eastern North Carolina farmland. At a total of 423.55 miles, it is the longest interstate highway in North Carolina. There are five auxiliary Interstates in the state related to I-40, as well as one business loop which runs through Winston-Salem; the route is labeled east-west for the entire route, however the eastern portion follows a much more north-south alignment. The freeway bears several names in addition to the I-40 designation.
Throughout the state the freeway is known as the Blue Star Memorial Highway a name shared with multiple interstates across the state. From the Guilford-Alamance county line to one mile east of NC 54, in Graham, I-40/I-85 is known as the Sam Hunt Freeway. From Orange County to Raleigh I-40 is known as the Harriet Morehead Berry Freeway, the John Motley Morehead, III Freeway, the Tom Bradshaw Freeway. I-40 is the James Harrington Freeway from US 70 to I-95. In Duplin County a section of I-40 is known as the Henry L. Stevens, Jr. Highway. From the Pender County-New Hanover County line to the eastern terminus of I-40, the freeway is known as the Michael Jordan Highway. Interstate 40 was an original Interstate Highway planned in the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956. In North Carolina the original highway was to run from the Tennessee state line to Greensboro where the freeway would end at Interstate 85. In 1958, the first section of completed interstate highway in the state was I-40 along the East–West Expressway in Winston-Salem.
I-40 received two extension approvals. After 34 years since it first opened, the last section completed was the Winston-Salem Bypass in 1992; the highest point is at 2,786 feet, located at Swannanoa Gap, the lowest point is at 15 feet, located at the Pender–New Hanover county line. I-40 travels through several diverse regions in North Carolina, including the Great Smoky and Black mountains of Western North Carolina, the rural Foothills, the urban Piedmont, the farmlands of Eastern North Carolina. All of I-40 is listed in the National Highway System, a network of roads important to the country's economy and mobility. I-40 is designated as a Blue Star Memorial Highway throughout the state. I-40 enters North Carolina along the north banks of the Pigeon River, at the foot of Snowbird Mountain. Winding in parallel with the river, I-40 goes through twin tunnels; when the tunnels opened in 1968 they were the first Interstate tunnels east of Mississippi River. I-40 proceeds through the Pigeon River Gorge for the next 16 miles.
Just south of exit 7, I-40 uses another tunnel, for eastbound traffic only, through Hurricane Mountain. The westbound lanes use a rock cut through Hurricane Mountain. A short distance after the tunnel is the North Carolina Welcome Center. Afterwards is Waterville Lake, where there are a few at-grade intersections in this location, used as service access for Walters Dam and the Harmon Den Wildlife Management Area. I-40 continues toward Asheville. Interstate 40 merges with US 74. I-40 and US 74 encounter the Interstate 26, Interstate 240 interchange, sometimes called Malfunction Junction, in the southwestern part of the city; the interchange is the current western terminus of Interstate 240 and the historic terminus of Interstate 26. Interstate 40 goes along the south side of Asheville, north of the Biltmore Estate towards Hickory. I-240 and I-40 have another interchange. Shortly after it leaves the Asheville area, I-40 encounters a steep grade, Old Fort Mountain, with winding roads that poses a hazard to truck traffic.
There are several runaway truck ramps on this part of the highway. This stretch is about six miles long. Interstate 40 goes south of Black Mountain and Marion, north of Conover; when I-40 enters Hickory it has a clover interchange with US 321. Interstate 40 heads south of Hickory and crosses Catawba River. I-40 enters Statesville north of the city, it has major interchanges with US 64 and US 21 before utilizing a clover interchange with Interstate 77. I-40 heads northeast towards Winston-Salem passing Clemmons; when Interstate 40 enters Winston-Salem it has another major interchange this time with US 421 and Interstate 40 Business. I-40 Business/US 421 head north to go through downtown Winston-Salem while I-40 goes just south of the city. Interstate 40 has another clover interchange with I-285/US 52/NC 8. Interstate 74 exit off to the south while I-40 heads back northeast to meet up with US 421 and Interstate 40 Business. US 421 runs a concurrency with I-40 into Greensboro. Interstate 40 enters the Greensboro area at the I-73/US 421/I-840 interchange.
This interchange is the east end of the US 421 concurrency with I-40 and is the planned western terminus of Interstate 840. From there Interstate 40 heads through southwestern Greensboro. Interstate 40 passes Wendover Place and Four Seasons Town Centre before having another large interchange with US 220. 1 mile after the interchange with US 220 US 29/US 70 all merge in
Figure Eight Island
Figure Eight Island is a North Carolina barrier island just north of Wrightsville Beach known as an affluent summer colony and vacation destination. The island is part of the Wilmington Metropolitan Area, lies between the Intracoastal Waterway and the Atlantic Ocean; as a private island, Figure Eight can only be reached by boat or via a guarded causeway swing bridge—the only private bridge over the Intracoastal Waterway in the Southeast. The island has been a destination for celebrities and politicians—including former Vice President Al Gore and Senator John Edwards—and a summer residence for noted businessmen, including former CEO of Morgan Stanley, John J. Mack and textile executive William Johnston Armfield. Figure Eight Island was first recorded as part of the Province of North Carolina in 1762, during the reign of King George III, as a tract in a royal land grant to James Moore, the brother of Roger Moore of Orton Plantation and son of James Moore, Royal Governor of the Province of Carolina.
Moore was the grandson of Sir Rory O'Moore. In 1775, the island passed from James Moore to American revolutionary Cornelius Harnett and became known as The Banks. In 1795, Harnett's property was purchased at an auction by James Foy and the island became part of Poplar Grove Plantation and was renamed Foy Island and popularly called Woods Beach. Foy Island remained a part of the Plantation for the next 160 years. During Prohibition in the 1930s, an illegal whiskey still was operated by Rod Rogers, a local fisherman, on the north end of the island; the remains of another still were found nearby. During World War II, the United States Coast Guard maintained a structure and small watertower on the island, which itself was patrolled via horseback. Coast Guard Auxiliary craft monitored the surrounding inlets. Republic P-47 Thunderbolt and Bell P-39 Airacobra aircraft based at Bluenthenthal Field used the island for strafing practice. In 1954 Hurricane Hazel hit the East Coast and destroyed much of the development from Myrtle Beach up to Topsail Beach, with more than 15,000 homes and structures destroyed and another 39,000 homes damaged.
Beach properties were no longer in as high demand, many landowners wanted to sell their properties. During this time the Mayor of Wilmington, Dan Cameron, his brother Bruce Cameron began the process of acquiring the island from George Hutaff and the Foy family; the Camerons paid the Foys $50,000 for their portion of the land, purchased two areas of adjoining marshland for $25,000 apiece in 1955. For the next 10 years the property lay dormant; the Cameron brothers joined their cousin, Raeford Trask, investor Richard Wetherill, forming the Island Development Company, to develop the real estate on the island. They named the island Figure Eight to indicate Rich's Inlet Creek's crooked paths in the marsh. At this time, the only way to access the island was by boat, so the Island Development Company approached Champion Davis, owner of the marshland off Porters Neck, on acquiring more land to build a bridge to the island from the mainland. Davis turned down an offer to partner with the company; the Island Development Company purchased two small tracts and a small parcel of land from the members of Edgewater Club to build a roadway bridge that now leads to Figure Eight Island's bridge.
The first bridge was built on top of a government surplus landing ship tank. The Camerons hired Richard Bell Associates to design Figure Eight's development concept. John Oxenfeld and Haywood Newkirk, Sr. were brought on to design the early houses. The first lots sold for as little as $5,000, the first house was constructed in 1966. On March 30, 1971 the Camerons sold Figure Eight Island to Young M. Smith, Jr. an attorney and developer from Hickory, North Carolina, for $4 million. Smith's company, The Litchfield Company, was in the process of building a luxury condominium complex near Pawleys Island, South Carolina; when the change of ownership over Figure Eight took place, thirty houses and one hundred and twelve lots were sold. Smith brought architects Ligon Flynn and Henry Johnston in on the development project as well as landscape architect Dick Bell. Smith's wife was the grand niece of the late Julian Price, a wealthy insurance executive of Jefferson Standard Life Insurance Company in Greensboro.
Price's son, Ralph Clay Price, who inherited the business, left his niece and her brothers as heirs to the Price estate. Much of their fortune was invested in the development of Figure Eight Island; the local marina club opened on August 11, 1973. While Figure Eight enjoyed early success in home and lot sales in the early 1970s, the recession hit The Litchfield Company hard and its subsidiary, Figure Eight Development Company, went into bankruptcy in 1974; the marina club closed down. After two open auctions were held at the New Hanover County Courthouse in 1975, Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust Company emerged as the island's new mortgage holder; the marina club reopened in 1976, adopted the title of Figure Eight Yacht Club in the spring of 1977. In 1980 a modern bridge from Port Royal, Virginia was bought to replace the old bridge connecting the island to the mainland for $1.5 million. The Figure Eight Homeowners Association now owns the island; the first full-time administrator of the Association was hired in 1982, after several short-term managers, Arthur Poineau served as administrator for 20 years.
David Kellam, the son of earlier residents on the island, has held the position since 2001. There are 475 homes developed on Figure Eight. Figure Eight's boathouse was one of the first structures constructed on the island in the 1960s. In August 1974 a federal grand jury indicted fifteen people in connection to smuggling 14,000 pounds of marijuana from Colombia at Figure Eight; the smuggling r
1790 United States Census
The United States Census of 1790 was the first census of the whole United States. It recorded the population of the United States as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws. In the first census, the population of the United States was enumerated to be 3,929,214. Congress assigned responsibility for the 1790 census to the marshals of United States judicial districts under an act which, with minor modifications and extensions, governed census taking until the 1840 census. "The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president." Both Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and President George Washington expressed skepticism over the results, believing that the true population had been undercounted.
If there was indeed an undercount, possible explanations for it include dispersed population, poor transportation links, limitations of contemporary technology, individual refusal to participate. Although the Census was proved statistically factual, based on data collected, the records for several states were lost sometime between 1790 and 1830. One third of the original census data have been lost or destroyed since their original documentation; these include some 1790 data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont. No microdata from the 1790 population census are available, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves.
Under the direction of the current Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, marshals collected data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory. The census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. At 17.8 percent, the 1790 Census's proportion of slaves to the free population was the highest recorded by any census. Media related to 1790 United States Census at Wikimedia Commons Historic US Census data 1790 Census of Population and Housing official reports Population of 24 Urban Places: 1790
Cape Fear (region)
Cape Fear is a coastal plain and Tidewater region of North Carolina centered about the city of Wilmington. The region takes its name from the adjacent Cape Fear headland, as does the Cape Fear River which flows through the region and empties into the Atlantic Ocean near the cape. Much of the region's populated areas are found along the Atlantic beaches and the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, while the rural areas are dominated by farms and swampland like that of the Green Swamp; the general area can be identified by the titles "Lower Cape Fear", "Wilmington Metropolitan Area", "Southeastern North Carolina", "Azalea Coast". The latter name is derived from the North Carolina Azalea Festival held annually in Wilmington. Municipalities in the area belong to the Cape Fear Council of Governments; the region is home to the Port of Wilmington, the busiest port in North Carolina, operated by the North Carolina State Ports Authority. It is the location of Military Ocean Terminal Sunny Point, the largest ammunition port in the nation, the U.
S. Army's primary East Coast deep-water port. Plans are underway for the construction of the North Carolina International Port in the region on the west bank of the Cape Fear River as an expansion of the Port of Wilmington; the Cape Fear region is situated on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. A large portion of the region is low-lying wetlands, most notably the Green Swamp, one of the rare habitats of the Venus flytrap; the Cape Fear River and the Northeast Cape Fear River are the deeper prominent rivers that flow through the region, with minor rivers like the Lockwood Folly River, Brunswick River, Shallotte River providing access for small watercraft of small communities. Three counties form the core of the Cape Fear region: Brunswick County, New Hanover County, Pender County; as of the 2000 census, the three counties had a combined population of 274,532, at which time all were part of the Wilmington metropolitan area. In 2010 the population of the three counties was 362,315; the coastal communities boast a large, seasonal tourism industry leading to much higher populations in the summer months and lower populations in the winter months.
Two additional counties and Columbus, are included as part of the Cape Fear region, as are Duplin and Sampson counties, but to a lesser extent. These are communities found in the metropolitan statistical area. Boiling Spring Lakes Northwest Southport Wilmington Brunswick Town Long Beach Yaupon Beach Bald Head Island As of the census of 2000, there were 274,532 people, 114,675 households, 75,347 families residing within the metropolitan statistical area; the racial makeup of the MSA was 79.47% White, 17.27% African American, 0.48% Native American, 0.58% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.12% from other races, 1.02% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.45% of the population. The median income for a household in the MSA was $37,321, the median income for a family was $44,844. Males had a median income of $32,454 versus $22,998 for females; the per capita income for the MSA was $20,287. North Carolina statistical areas Orton Plantation St. Philip's Church, Brunswick Town Cape Fear Museum Wilmington Urban Area Metropolitan Planning Organization Cape Fear Council of Governments InsiderInfo Guide to Wilmington InsiderInfo Guide to Southport InsiderInfo Guide to Topsail
North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th-most extensive and the 9th-most populous of the U. S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties; the capital is Raleigh, which along with Durham and Chapel Hill is home to the largest research park in the United States. The most populous municipality is Charlotte, the second-largest banking center in the United States after New York City; the state has a wide range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet at Mount Mitchell, the highest point in North America east of the Mississippi River. The climate of the coastal plains is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the state falls in the humid subtropical climate zone. More than 300 miles from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a subtropical highland climate. Woodland-culture Native Americans were in the area around 1000 BCE.
During this time, important buildings were constructed as flat-topped buildings. By 1550, many groups of American Indians lived in present-day North Carolina, including Chowanoke, Pamlico, Coree, Cape Fear Indians, Waxhaw and Catawba. Juan Pardo explored the area in 1566–1567, establishing Fort San Juan in 1567 at the site of the Native American community of Joara, a Mississippian culture regional chiefdom in the western interior, near the present-day city of Morganton; the fort lasted only 18 months. A expedition by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe followed in 1584, at the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh. In June 1718, the pirate Blackbeard ran his flagship, the Queen Anne's Revenge, aground at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina, in present-day Carteret County. After the grounding her crew and supplies were transferred to smaller ships. In November, after appealing to the governor of North Carolina, who promised safe-haven and a pardon, Blackbeard was killed in an ambush by troops from Virginia.
In 1996 Intersal, Inc. a private firm, discovered the remains of a vessel to be the Queen Anne's Revenge, added to the US National Register of Historic Places. North Carolina became one of the English Thirteen Colonies and with the territory of South Carolina was known as the Province of North-Carolina; the northern and southern parts of the original province separated in 1729. Settled by small farmers, sometimes having a few slaves, who were oriented toward subsistence agriculture, the colony lacked cities or towns. Pirates menaced the coastal settlements. Growth was strong in the middle of the 18th century, as the economy attracted Scots-Irish, Quaker and German immigrants. A majority of the colonists supported the American Revolution, a smaller number of Loyalists than in some other colonies such as Georgia, South Carolina, New York. During colonial times, Edenton served as the state capital beginning in 1722, New Bern was selected as the capital in 1766. Construction of Tryon Palace, which served as the residence and offices of the provincial governor William Tryon, began in 1767 and was completed in 1771.
In 1788 Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital, as its central location protected it from coastal attacks. Established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital, the city was named after Sir Walter Raleigh, sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island; the population of the colony more than quadrupled from 52,000 in 1740 to 270,000 in 1780 from high immigration from Virginia and Pennsylvania plus immigrants from abroad. North Carolina made the smallest per-capita contribution to the war of any state, as only 7,800 men joined the Continental Army under General George Washington. There was some military action in 1780–81. Many Carolinian frontiersmen had moved west over the mountains, into the Washington District, but in 1789, following the Revolution, the state was persuaded to relinquish its claim to the western lands, it ceded them to the national government so that the Northwest Territory could be organized and managed nationally. After 1800, cotton and tobacco became important export crops.
The eastern half of the state the Tidewater region, developed a slave society based on a plantation system and slave labor. Many free people of color migrated to the frontier along with their European-American neighbors, where the social system was looser. By 1810, nearly 3 percent of the free population consisted of free people of color, who numbered more than 10,000; the western areas were dominated by white families Scots-Irish, who operated small subsistence farms. In the early national period, the state became a center of Jeffersonian and Jacksonian democracy, with a strong Whig presence in the West. After Nat Turner's slave uprising in 1831, North Carolina and other southern states reduced the rights of free blacks. In 1835 the legislature withdrew their right to vote. On May 20, 1861, North Carolina was the last of the Confederate states to declare secession from the Union, 13 days after the Tennessee legislature voted for secession; some 125,000 North Carolinians served in the military.
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Wilmington insurrection of 1898
The Wilmington insurrection of 1898 known as the Wilmington massacre of 1898 or the Wilmington race riot of 1898, occurred in Wilmington, North Carolina on November 10, 1898. It is considered a turning point in post-Reconstruction North Carolina politics; the event initiated an era of more severe racial segregation and effective disenfranchisement of African Americans throughout the South, a shift underway since passage by Mississippi of a new constitution in 1890, raising barriers to voter registration. Laura Edwards wrote in Democracy Betrayed: "What happened in Wilmington became an affirmation of white supremacy not just in that one city, but in the South and in the nation as a whole", as it affirmed that invoking "whiteness" eclipsed the legal citizenship, individual rights, equal protection under the law of blacks, it was described by white Americans as a race riot caused by blacks. However, over time, with more facts publicized, the event has come to be seen as a coup d'état, the violent overthrow of a duly elected government.
Multiple causes — social and economic — brought it about. It is the only such incident in American history; the coup occurred after the state's white Democratic Party conspired and led a mob of 2,000 white men to overthrow the legitimately-elected local Fusionist government. They expelled opposition black and white political leaders from the city, destroyed the property and businesses of black citizens built up since the Civil War, including the only black newspaper in the city, killed an estimated 60 to more than 300 people. In 1860, before the Civil War, Wilmington was majority black and the largest city in the state, with nearly 10,000 people. Numerous slaves and free people of color worked at the port, in households as domestic servants, in a variety of jobs as artisans and skilled workers. With the end of the war, freedmen in many states left plantation and rural areas for towns and cities, not only to seek work but to gain safety by creating black communities without white supervision.
Tensions grew in other areas because of a shortage of supplies. In 1868, North Carolina ratified the 14th Amendment, resulting in the recognition of Reconstruction, in the state legislature and governorship falling under Republican rule. Democrats resented this "radical" change, which they deemed as being brought about by blacks, Unionist carpetbaggers, race traitors. Freedmen were eager to vote, tending to support the Republican Party that had emancipated them and given them citizenship and suffrage. For a temporary period Confederate veterans were barred from voting. Many white Democrats had been embittered since the Confederacy's defeat. Insurgent veterans joined the Ku Klux Klan, which generated considerable violence at elections to suppress the black vote. Democrats regained control of the state legislature in 1870. After the KKK was suppressed by the federal government through the Force Act of 1870, new paramilitary groups arose in the South. By 1874, chapters of Red Shirts, a paramilitary arm of the Democratic Party, had formed in North Carolina.
Democrats developed a plan to reverse "home rule," meaning local officials would no longer be elected, but appointed by the state. They began circumventing legislation by taking over the state's judiciary, adopted 30 amendments to the state constitution including lowering the number of judges on the state supreme court, putting the lower courts and local governments under the control of the state legislature, rescinding the votes of certain types of criminals, mandating segregated public schools, outlawing interracial relationships and granting the General Assembly the power to modify or nullify any local government. By adopting these things, the Democrats became celebrated as bastions for white Americans. However, their control was limited to the western part of the state, within counties where there were few blacks; as the Democrats chipped away at Republican rule, things came to a head with the 1876 gubernatorial campaign of Zebulon B. Vance, a former Confederate soldier and governor. Vance called the Republican party "begotten by a scalawag out of a mulatto and born in an outhouse."
Through Vance, the Democrats saw their biggest opening to begin implementing their agenda in the eastern part of the state. However, in that region, poor white cotton farmers, fed up with the capitalism of big banks and railroad companies – high freight rates and laissez-faire economics – aligned themselves with the labor movement, they had turned on the Democratic Party. In 1892, as the US plunged into an economic depression, the Populists banded with black Republicans who shared their hardships, forming an interracial coalition with a platform of self-governance, free public education and equal voting rights for black men, called the Fusion Coalition. In the years that followed, Wilmington the largest city in the state, had a majority-black population, with black people accounting for about 55 percent of its 25,000 people. Included were numerous black professionals and businessmen, a rising middle class; the Republican Party was biracial in membership. Unlike in many other jurisdictions, black people in Wilmington were elected to local office, gained prominent positions in the community.
For example, three of the city's aldermen were black. Of the five members on the constituent board of audit and finance, one was black. Black people were in positions of justice of the peace, deputy clerk of court, street superintendent, policemen, mail clerks and mail carriers. Blacks held significant economic power in the city. Many former