New Imperialism

In historical contexts, New Imperialism characterizes a period of colonial expansion by European powers, the United States, Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The period featured an unprecedented pursuit of overseas territorial acquisitions. At the time, states focused on building their empires with new technological advances and developments, expanding their territory through conquest, exploiting the resources of the subjugated countries. During the era of New Imperialism, the Western powers individually conquered all of Africa and parts of Asia; the new wave of imperialism reflected ongoing rivalries among the great powers, the economic desire for new resources and markets, a "civilizing mission" ethos. Many of the colonies established during this era gained independence during the era of decolonization that followed World War II; the qualifier "new" is used to differentiate modern imperialism from earlier imperial activity, such as the so-called first wave of European colonization between 1402 and 1815.

In the First wave of colonization, European powers colonized the Americas and Siberia. The American Revolution and the collapse of the Spanish Empire in Latin America around 1820 ended the first era of European imperialism. In Great Britain these revolutions helped show the deficiencies of mercantilism, the doctrine of economic competition for finite wealth which had supported earlier imperial expansion. In 1846, the Corn Laws were repealed and manufacturers gained, as the regulations enforced by the Corn Laws had slowed their businesses. With the repeal in place, the manufacturers were able to trade more freely. Thus, Britain began to adopt the concept of free trade. During this period, between the 1815 Congress of Vienna after the defeat of Napoleonic France and the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, Britain reaped the benefits of being the world's sole modern, industrial power; as the "workshop of the world", Britain could produce finished goods so efficiently that they could undersell comparable, locally manufactured goods in foreign markets supplying a large share of the manufactured goods consumed by such nations as the German states, France and the United States.

The erosion of British hegemony after the Franco-Prussian War, in which a coalition of German states led by Prussia defeated France, was occasioned by changes in the European and world economies and in the continental balance of power following the breakdown of the Concert of Europe, established by the Congress of Vienna. The establishment of nation-states in Germany and Italy resolved territorial issues that had kept potential rivals embroiled in internal affairs at the heart of Europe, to Britain's advantage; the years from 1871 to 1914 would be marked by an unstable peace. France’s determination to recover Alsace-Lorraine, annexed by Germany as a result of the Franco-Prussian War, Germany’s mounting imperialist ambitions would keep the two nations poised for conflict; this competition was sharpened by the Long Depression of 1873–1896, a prolonged period of price deflation punctuated by severe business downturns, which put pressure on governments to promote home industry, leading to the widespread abandonment of free trade among Europe's powers.

The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885 sought to destroy the competition between the powers by defining "effective occupation" as the criterion for international recognition of a territory claim in Africa. The imposition of direct rule in terms of "effective occupation" necessitated routine recourse to armed force against indigenous states and peoples. Uprisings against imperial rule were put down ruthlessly, most spectacularly in the Herero Wars in German South-West Africa from 1904 to 1907 and the Maji Maji Rebellion in German East Africa from 1905 to 1907. One of the goals of the conference was to reach agreements over trade and boundaries of Central Africa. However, of all of the 15 nations in attendance of the Berlin Conference, none of the countries represented were African; the main dominating powers of the conference were France, Great Britain and Portugal. They remapped Africa without considering the cultural and linguistic borders that were established. At the end of the conference, Africa was divided into 50 different colonies.

The attendants established, in control of each of these newly divided colonies. They planned, noncommittally, to end the slave trade in Africa. In Britain, the age of new imperialism marked a time for significant economic changes; because the country was the first to industrialize, Britain was technologically ahead of many other countries throughout the majority of the nineteenth century. By the end of the nineteenth century, other countries, chiefly Germany and the United States, began to challenge Britain's technological and economic power. After several decades of monopoly, the country was battling to maintain a dominant economic position while other powers became more involved in international markets. In 1870, Britain contained 31.8% of the world's manufacturing capacity while the United States contained 23.3% and Germany contained 13.2%. By 1910, Britain's manufacturing capacity had dropped to 14.7%, while that of the United States had risen to 35.3% and that of Germany to 15.9%. As countries like Germany and America became more economically successful, they began to become more involved with imperialism, resulting in the British struggling to maintain the volume of British trade and investment overseas.

Britain further faced strained international relations with three expansionist powers during the early

Alaska Route 1

Alaska Route 1 is a state highway in the southern part of the U. S. state of Alaska. It runs from Homer east to Tok by way of Anchorage, it is the only route in Alaska to contain significant portions of freeway: the Seward Highway in south Anchorage and the Glenn Highway between Anchorage and Palmer. AK-1 is known by the named highways it traverses: Sterling Highway from Homer to Term Lake Junction Seward Highway from Term Lake Junction to Anchorage Glenn Highway from Anchorage to Glennallen Richardson Highway from Glennallen and Gakona Junction Tok Cut-Off from Gakona Junction to Tok AK-1 begins at the Alaska Marine Highway's Homer Ferry Terminal at the tip of Homer Spit just south of the end of the Sterling Highway in Homer, it follows the entire Sterling Highway through Soldotna to the junction with the Seward Highway north of Seward, where it meets the north end of AK-9. There it turns north and follows the Seward Highway to its end in Anchorage, follows the one-way pairs of Ingra and Gambell Streets and 6th and 5th Avenues, continuing east on 5th Avenue to the beginning of the Glenn Highway.

AK-1 follows the entire length of the Glenn Highway, passing the south end of the George Parks Highway near Wasilla and meeting the Richardson Highway near Glennallen. A short concurrency north along AK-4 takes AK-1 to the Tok Cut-Off, which it follows northeast to its end at the Alaska Highway at Tok; the majority of AK-1 is part of the Interstate Highway System. The entire length of A-3 follows AK-1 from the Kenai Spur Highway in Soldotna to the turn in downtown Anchorage. Only a short portion of the Seward Highway south of downtown Anchorage and a longer portion of the Glenn Highway northeast to AK-3 are built to freeway standards. All exits are unnumbered; the Tok Cut-Off is a highway in the U. S. state of Alaska, running 125 miles from Gakona. The road was built in the 1950s to connect Tok more directly with the Richardson Highway, it was called a "cut-off" because it allowed motor travelers coming north on the Alaska Highway to travel to Valdez and Anchorage without going to Delta Junction and traveling south on the Richardson Highway, taking 120 miles off the trip.

The 2002 Denali earthquake caused significant damage to the Cut-Off between mileposts 75 and 83 where major cracks and embankment slumping left the roadway fundamentally destroyed. Alaska portal U. S. Roads portal Media related to State highways in Alaska at Wikimedia Commons

Arms (album)

Arms is the seventh studio album by Irish band Bell X1, released worldwide on 14 October 2016. Recorded in Dublin and Donegal, Arms is the follow up to 2013's much acclaimed Chop Chop, their third number-one album in Ireland and fourth consecutive album to be nominated for a Choice Music Prize. Arms is a nine-song collection produced by the band, recorded by Tommy McLoughlin and Glenn Keating, mixed by Peter Katis with Ross Dowling mixing the track "Out of Love"; the band spent the summer of 2016 touring Ireland with headline shows at the Iveagh Gardens, Galway Arts Festival and Indiependence in Cork. The band completed an Irish acoustic tour in autumn 2015; the artwork for the album was produced by Mirjam Dijkema. The first single from the album is "The Upswing" released in June on their bandcamp page and made available on iTunes; the song was made available as an instant download for those who pre-ordered the album iTunes. "Out of Love" was revealed as the follow-up single in July 2016. The band have played a number of live shows in Ireland during summer 2016.

The band will play a number of live shows across the Republic of Ireland, the UK and Australia this autumn/winter. The album will be made available on vinyl and download. Fail Again, Fail Better Bring Me A Fire King The Upswing I Go Where You Go Take Your Sweet Time Sons & Daughters Out of Love Fake Memory The Coalface