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New Jersey Route 32

Route 32 is an arterial state highway in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States. The route is a 1.18-mile-long highway along Forsgate Drive that connects U. S. Route 130 in the New Jersey Turnpike at exit 8A in Monroe Township. Despite the short length, it is an important artery that connects not only traffic between the Turnpike and US 130, but traffic to County Route 535; the right-of-way on Forsgate continues eastward as Middlesex County Route 612. Route 32 was first designated in 1964 along Forsgate Drive and was proposed to become part of New Jersey Route 92 along its entire alignment. Route 32 begins at a partial interchange with U. S. Route 130 in South Brunswick Township; the route heads eastward, running along access ramps from Route 130 and the local park and ride serving Coach USA buses to New York City. Heading onto the mainline Route 32, the highway receives the moniker of Forsgate Drive. Intersecting with a U-turn ramp from the westbound lanes, the highway serves the area as a four-lane industrial arterial.

Route 32 heads further east, passing through local commercial headquarters. A short distance the highway intersects with Herrod Drive and Commerce Drive, both of which serve the local industry. Forsgate Drive continues eastward as the arterial, intersecting with County Route 535. From here, Route 32 enters Monroe Township and begins serving Interchange 8A on the New Jersey Turnpike. A partial trumpet interchange, Interchange 8A serves access to County Route 535 and Route 32 eastbound. After serving another local industry, Route 32 crosses over the four-sectioned mainline of the Turnpike, where the designation ends; the road continues east as CR 612. The alignment of Route 32 was first designated in 1964, when the state took over jurisdiction of a highway from US 130 in South Brunswick, eastward along Forsgate Drive to the intersection with County Route 522 and County Route 535 in Monroe Township. Exit 8A had an exit ramp from the tollgate to Route 32 west. However, this was changed due to heavy congestion at the ramp.

The turnpike ramp to Route 32 westbound was closed off but leaving most of the old pavement in place, creating a stub ramp. In its place, a new, two-lane ramp to County Route 535 was built. Motorists must now take CR 535 south to access Route 32 westbound. Route 32's alignment from US 130 to the Turnpike was designated to become an alignment of New Jersey Route 92, a tolled extension of the New Jersey Turnpike. Route 32 and nearby Friendship Road were to be supplanted by Route 92, using exit 8A on the turnpike for the eastern terminus. However, after years of struggle to get the toll route built, the New Jersey Turnpike Authority canceled the Route 92 project on December 1, 2006. Due to congestion from Interchange 8A of the turnpike, the Turnpike Authority is proposing a project to improve traffic congestion along Route 32 called the "Interchange 8A to Route 130 Connection." The project would end at Interchange 8A in Monroe. Plans and dates have yet to be determined; the entire route is in Middlesex County.

U. S. Roads portal New Jersey portal Media related to New Jersey Route 32 at Wikimedia Commons New Jersey Highway Ends – 32 Speed Limits for Route 32

Ernest Collinge

Ernest Collinge was an English footballer who played as a half-back for Port Vale in the 1920s. He was the elder brother of Tom Collinge. Collinge joined Port Vale in May 1921, made his debut in a Potteries derby match against Stoke in the North Staffordshire Infirmary Cup final on 9 May, which Vale lost 5–3, he scored five goals in 41 Second Division appearances in the 1921–22 season, featured again in the North Staffordshire Infirmary Cup. He was an ever-present for the 1922–23 campaign, claiming three league goals, including one in a 2–1 victory over Manchester United at Old Trafford, he played just 19 games in the 1923–24 season, as he fractured his left leg in January, though made a speedy recover and was back in action five months later. He played 32 league and cup games in the 1924–25 campaign and dislocated his right arm in February 1925, his career at The Old Recreation Ground was finished, he retired at the close of the 1925–26 campaign after playing just 14 games that season. Source: Port ValeNorth Staffordshire Infirmary Cup runner-up: 1921 North Staffordshire Infirmary Cup winner: 1922

List of Farm to Market Roads in Texas (3100–3199)

Farm to Market Roads in Texas are owned and maintained by the Texas Department of Transportation. Farm to Market Road 3100 or FM 3100 is a farm-to-market road in Texas; the road begins at FM 1467 northeast of Owens, continues south until meeting with US 377 in Early. FM 3100 was designated on June 2, 1967 from US 67 north 4.1 miles to a road intersection at Salt Creek Church. On August 29, 1989, FM 3100 was extended north 3 miles to a county road. On October 29, 1992, it was extended north to FM 1467. Junction listThe entire route is in Brown County; the original FM 3107 was designated on June 2, 1967 from US 77 at Bluff Dale south 4.8 miles to Richardson Creek. On September 5, 1973 the road was extended south 2.3 miles to FM 2157. By district request, FM 3106 was cancelled on December 20, 1984 and transferred to FM 2481; the original FM 3120 was designated on June 1, 1967 from FM 364, 0.8 miles south of SH 105, north and northwest 3.2 miles to Willis Lane and Tram Road. On October 15, 1976 a 0.5 mile section from SH 105 south was transferred to FM 364.

The remainder of FM 3120 was transferred to FM 364 on June 9, 1983. Farm to Market Road 3125 is located in Bailey County, it runs from the Texas/New Mexico state line to FM 1731. FM 3125 was designated on July 9, 1970 on the current route as a replacement of a section of FM 1760; the original FM 3125 was designated on August 31, 1967 from FM 692 west and southwest 4.6 miles to a proposed road intersection. On July 11, 1968 the road was extended southwest 6.7 miles to SH 87. FM 3125 was cancelled on February 17, 1969 and became a portion of FM 255. Farm to Market Road 3133 is located in Collin counties. FM 3133 begins at an intersection with SH 5 in Van Alstyne; the highway travels in an eastern and southward direction through rural farming areas, ending at an intersection with FM 2862 in Westminster. FM 3133 was designated on July 11, 1968, traveling from SH 5 southeastward to the Collin County line at a distance of 4.4 miles. The highway was extended, replacing all of FM 3093 to FM 2862 on May 7, 1974.

Junction list The original FM 3142 was designated on July 11, 1968 from US 83, 6 miles north of Menard, to a point 8 miles northwest. FM 3142 was cancelled on January 21, 1972 and became a portion of FM 1223, although the route remained signed as FM 3142 until construction was completed. FM 3146 is a designation applied to two different highways. No highway carries the FM 3146 designation. FM 3146 was first designated on July 11, 1968, from FM 221 at Shive southwest to a road intersection, replacing FM 221 Spur; this was cancelled by 1970, part became FM 221 Spur. FM 3146 was designated on May 7, 1970, from SH 36 southward and southward 4 miles. On November 3, 1972, FM 3146 extended south to FM 2287. FM 3146 was cancelled on March 15, 1990 and mileage was transferred to FM 2287. Farm to Market Road 3151 is located in southwestern Houston County. FM 3151 begins at FM 230 between Lovelady; the two-lane, 4.6-mile road travels northward before terminating in Pearson's Chapel at FM 1280 between Austonio and Lovelady.

The road has a 70 miles per hour speed limit, TxDOT measured an annual average daily traffic count of 680 in 2011 at a location just south of Pearson's Chapel. FM 3151 was designated along its current alignment on July 11, 1968. Major intersections The entire route is in Houston County. Farm to Market Road 3155 is a state highway in the U. S. state of Texas that remains within Fort Bend County. The highway begins at U. S. Route 90 Alternate in Richmond and follows streets north and northwest before ending at the Richmond State Supported Living Center. FM 3155 begins at Collins Road in Richmond; the Oak Bend Medical Center is on the south side of the intersection. FM 3155 heads northwest on Collins Road. At Preston Street, FM 3155 turns west for a few blocks curves to the northwest. At a distance of 1 mile from the starting point, state highway maintenance ends on the campus of the Richmond State Supported Living Center. FM 3155 was designated on July 1968, to start at US 90A and go northwest about 1 mile.

Major intersections The entire route is in Fort Bend County. FM 3156 was designated on July 11, 1968 to run from Texas State Highway 60, 2.2 miles north of Texas State Highway 35, northeastward about 5.2 miles to a road intersection. From that point it reaches FM 1728 at Ashwood. Major intersections The entire highway is in Matagorda County. Farm to Market Road 3159 is located in Comal County. FM 3159 begins at an intersection with SH 46/Smithson Valley Road east of Bulverde; the highway travels in a northeast direction, entering Canyon Lake at an intersection with FM 311. FM 3159 travels through more rural areas of the CDP, with the route becoming more suburban north of Cranes Mill Road; the highway continues to travel through more suburban and commercial areas, ending at an intersection with FM 2673 in the Startzville area of Canyon Lake. FM 3159 was designated on July 11, 1968, running from FM 2673 at Startzville, southwestward at a distance of 2.1 miles. The highway was extended 3.3 miles southwestward to FM 311 on November 26, 1969.

FM 3159 was extended 1.0 mile to SH 46 on May 7, 1970. Junction listThe entire route is in Comal County. Ranch to Market Road 3160 is a former highway, located in Kendall County. RM 3160 was designated on July 11, 1968, traveling from RM 473 at Kendalia southwestward at 6.7 miles. The highway was extended 3.0 miles southward on May 7, 1970. RM 3160 was extended 2.7 miles southward to RM 475 (now

2008 Fed Cup Europe/Africa Zone Group II – Play-offs

The Play-offs of the 2008 Fed Cup Europe/Africa Zone Group II were the final stages of the Group II Zonal Competition involving teams from Europe and Africa. Using the positions determined in their pools, the seven teams faced off to determine their placing in the 2008 Fed Cup Europe/Africa Zone Group II; the top two teams advanced to Group I, the bottom two teams were relegated down to the Group III for the next year. The top two teams of each pool were placed against each other in two head-to-head rounds; the winner of the rounds advanced to Group I for next year. Because there was one extra player in Pool B, the last-placed team of that pool was automatically relegated down to Group III; the third-placed teams of each pool were placed against each other in a tie, where the losing team would join the Irish in relegation. Bosnia and Herzegovina and Estonia advanced to the Europe/Africa Zone Group I for the next year; the Bosnians and Herzegovinians placed twelfth overall, while the Estonians placed first and thus advanced to the World Group II Play-offs.

Greece and Ireland were relegated down to Europe/Africa Zone Group III for the next year, where they placed first and third in the same pool of five. The Greeks thus advanced back to Group II for 2010. Fed Cup structure Fed Cup website

Lead chamber process

The lead chamber process was an industrial method used to produce sulfuric acid in large quantities. It has been supplanted by the contact process. In 1746 in Birmingham, John Roebuck began producing sulfuric acid in lead-lined chambers, which were stronger and less expensive, could be made much larger, than the glass containers, used previously; this allowed the effective industrialization of sulfuric acid production and, with several refinements, this process remained the standard method of production for two centuries. So robust was the process that as late as 1946, the chamber process still accounted for 25% of sulfuric acid manufactured. Sulfur dioxide is introduced with steam and nitrogen dioxide into large chambers lined with sheet lead where the gases are sprayed down with water and chamber acid; the sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide dissolve and over a period of 30 minutes the sulfur dioxide is oxidized to sulfuric acid. The presence of nitrogen dioxide is necessary for the reaction to proceed at a reasonable rate.

The process is exothermic, a major consideration of the design of the chambers was to provide a way to dissipate the heat formed in the reactions. Early plants used large lead-lined wooden rectangular chambers that were cooled by ambient air; the internal lead sheathing served to contain the corrosive sulfuric acid and to render the wooden chambers waterproof. Around the turn of the nineteenth century, such plants required about half a cubic meter of volume to process the sulfur dioxide equivalent of a kilogram of burned sulfur. In the mid-19th century, French chemist Gay-Lussac redesigned the chambers as stoneware packed masonry cylinders. In the 20th century, plants using Mills-Packard chambers supplanted the earlier designs; these chambers were tall tapered cylinders that were externally cooled by water flowing down the outside surface of the chamber. Sulfur dioxide for the process was provided by burning elemental sulfur or by the roasting of sulfur-containing metal ores in a stream of air in a furnace.

During the early period of manufacture, nitrogen oxides were produced by the decomposition of niter at high temperature in the presence of acid, but this process was supplanted by the air oxidation of ammonia to nitric oxide in the presence of a catalyst. The recovery and reuse of oxides of nitrogen was an important economic consideration in the operation of a chamber process plant. In the reaction chambers, nitric oxide reacts with oxygen to produce nitrogen dioxide. Liquid from the bottom of the chambers is diluted and pumped to the top of the chamber and sprayed downwards in a fine mist. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are absorbed in the liquid and react to form sulfuric acid and nitric oxide; the liberated nitric oxide is sparingly soluble in water and returns to the gas in the chamber where it reacts with oxygen in the air to reform nitrogen dioxide. Some percentage of the nitrogen oxides are sequestered in the reaction liquor as nitrosylsulfuric acid and as nitric acid, so fresh nitric oxide must be added as the process proceeds.

Versions of chamber plants included a high-temperature Glover tower to recover the nitrogen oxides from the chamber liquor, while concentrating the chamber acid to as much as 78% H2SO4. Exhaust gases from the chambers are scrubbed by passing into a tower through which some of the Glover acid flows over broken tile. Nitrogen oxides are absorbed to form nitrosylsulfuric acid, returned to the Glover tower to reclaim the oxides of nitrogen. Sulfuric acid produced in the reaction chambers is limited to about 35% concentration. At higher concentrations, nitrosylsulfuric acid precipitates on the lead walls as chamber crystals and is no longer able to catalyze the oxidation reactions. Sulfur dioxide is generated by burning elemental sulfur or by roasting pyritic ore in a current of air: S8 + 8 O2 → 8 SO2 4 FeS2 + 11 O2 → 2 Fe2O3 + 8 SO2Nitrogen oxides are produced by decomposition of niter in the presence of sulfuric acid or hydrolysis of nitrosylsulfuric acid: 2 NaNO3 + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + H2O + NO + NO2 + O2 2 NOHSO4 + H2O → 2 H2SO4 + NO + NO2In the reaction chambers, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide dissolve in the reaction liquor.

Nitrogen dioxide is hydrated to produce nitrous acid which oxidizes the sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid and nitric oxide. The reactions are not well characterized but it is known that nitrosylsulfuric acid is an intermediate in at least one pathway; the major overall reactions are: 2 NO2 + H2O → HNO2 + HNO3 SO2 + HNO3 → NOHSO4 NOHSO4 + HNO2 → H2SO4 + NO2 + NO SO2 + 2 HNO2 → H2SO4 + 2 NONitric oxide escapes from the reaction liquor and is subsequently reoxidized by molecular oxygen to nitrogen dioxide. This is the overall rate determining step in the process: 2 NO + O2 → 2 NO2Nitrogen oxides are absorbed and regenerated in the process, thus serve as a catalyst for the overall reaction: 2 SO2 + 2 H2O + O2 → 2 H2SO4 Derry, Thomas Kingston. A Short History of Technology: From the Earliest Times to A. D. 1900. New York: Dover. Kiefer, David M.. "Sulfuric Acid: Pumping Up the Volume". American Chemical Society. Retrieved 2008-04-21. Process flow sheet of sulphuric acid manufacturing by lead chamber process

Caffeinated alcoholic drink

A caffeinated alcoholic drink is a drink that contains both alcohol and caffeine. They include the ingredients of energy drinks as well. In 2010 and 2011, this type of drink faced criticism for posing health risks to their drinkers. In some places there is a ban on caffeinated alcoholic drinks. Energy drinks are drinks that contain high doses of caffeine and an assortment of ingredients, such as, Taurine- amino acids Guarana- compound of stimulants- plant-based Ginseng – herbs B vitamins In 2010, the FDA advised that caffeinated alcoholic beverages should not be consumed because of the counteracting effects of caffeine and alcohol; the FDA posited that caffeine causes consumers to drink more than they would because caffeine can mask some of the sensory cues individuals might rely on to determine their level of intoxication. This masking of intoxication leads individuals to engage in behaviours that they would otherwise avoid if they understood their true level of intoxication. However, research has not supported this tenet.

For example, one study found that Australian students thought they were more intoxicated when mixing caffeine with alcohol than when consuming alcohol on its own for every level of blood alcohol content. Consuming high levels of caffeine was associated with more alcohol-related consequences than when consuming alcohol on its own when consuming little alcohol, it may be that caffeine causes individuals to focus on the stimulant effects of the intoxication, which have been associated with greater perceived intoxication than the depressant effects of alcohol. Universities have conducted studies to compare the outcomes of the consumption of regular alcoholic drinks and of caffeinated alcoholic drinks; the University of Florida surveyed 802 college students who had mixed alcohol and caffeine, found they were three times more to leave a bar intoxicated and four times more to want to drink and drive than drinkers who did not consume alcoholic energy drinks. Another study surveyed 697 students from Wake Forest University and found that the students who had consumed caffeinated alcoholic drinks were more to drink and drive, take advantage of someone sexually, or end up needing medical treatment.

From this perspective, it is inferred that caffeinated alcoholic drinks cause one to act in ways that would be less if one were drinking non-caffeinated alcoholic drinks. The adverse effects of caffeinated alcoholic drinks have led to increased regulation. Under the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act, a substance intentionally added to food is deemed "unsafe" and is unlawful unless its particular use has been approved by FDA regulation; the substance is subject to a prior sanction. In order for a substance to be characterized as GRAS, there must be sufficient evidence to prove its safety; the FDA did not approve the use of caffeine in alcoholic drinks, thus the drinks cannot be marketed. As a result, the FDA sent letters to four manufacturers of caffeinated alcoholic drinks to alert them that the agency would be considering whether caffeine can lawfully be added to alcoholic drinks; these letters gave the manufacturers fifteen days to stop the addition of caffeine to the alcoholic drinks or to stop selling the drinks altogether.

The Federal Trade Commission took action against the four companies, warning that their marketing tactics might violate federal law and urging them to take swift and appropriate steps to protect consumers. The day before the FDA sent out the warning letters, Phusion Projects, a five-year-old Chicago company, said it would stop putting caffeine in the drinks and put a non-caffeinated version of the drink on the market in December 2010. In a statement, the company's founders said that they still believed it was safe to blend caffeine and alcohol but wanted to cooperate with regulators; the FDA continues work with Phusion Projects and other manufacturers to assure their products meet safety standards. In Canada, regulations restrict the manufacture and sale of caffeinated alcoholic drinks unless the caffeine comes from a natural ingredient such as guarana. In Mexico, caffeinated alcoholic drinks can not be sold in nightclubs. In Australia, the Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy is considering regulation to address the growing concerns over the drinks.

The government of New South Wales is looking to ban the sale of the drinks from bars. In Scotland, the Scottish Labour Party called for a ban on caffeinated drinks, such as the fortified wine Buckfast. Ban on caffeinated alcoholic drinks Alcoholic drink Caffeinated drink Four Loko Guarana Taurine Vodka Red Bull Leinwand, Donna. "Alcoholic Energy Drinks Targeted." USA Today 17 Nov. 2010, final ed.: A1. Johnson and Kevin Sieff. "Four Loko Ban Fuels Buying Binge." Washington Post 18 Nov. 2010, final ed. Phusion Projects' official website