A dual carriageway or divided highway is a class of highway with carriageways for traffic travelling in opposite directions separated by a central reservation. Roads with two or more carriageways which are designed to higher standards with controlled access are classed as motorways, etc. rather than dual carriageways. A road without a central reservation is a single carriageway regardless of the number of lanes. Dual carriageways have improved road traffic safety over single carriageways and have higher speed limits as a result. In some places, express lanes and local/collector lanes are used within a local-express-lane system to provide more capacity and to smooth traffic flows for longer-distance travel. A early example of a dual carriageway was the Via Portuensis, built in the first century by the Roman emperor Claudius between Rome and its port Ostia at the mouth of the Tiber. One claim for the first divided highway in the United States was Savery Avenue in Carver, first built in 1860, where the two roadways were separated by a narrow strip of trees down the middle.
In 1907 the Long Island Motor Parkway opened, 20% of it featured a semi-dual-carriageway design. The New York City Belt Parkway system, built between 1907 and 1934 pioneered the same design; however the majority of it featured concrete or brick railings as lane dividers instead of grass medians. In 1924 the first Italian autostrada was opened running 55 km from Milan to Varese, it featured a broad road bed and did not feature lane dividers except near cities and through the mountains. The London end of the Great West Road became Britain's first dual carriageway when it was opened in 1925 by King George V. In 1927 the Rome bypass was opened, it ran 92 km bypassing Rome to the east. The entire length featured a dual-carriageway design. In the early 1930s it was extended northward to Florence. Most of the original routing was destroyed by the Allies in World War II. By 1930 several US and European cities had built dual-carriageway highways to control traffic jams and/or to provide bypass routes for traffic.
In 1932 the first German autobahn opened between Bonn. It became a precedent for future highways. Although it, like the first autostrada, did not feature a dual-carriageway design, it inspired the mass construction of future high-speed roadways. During the 1930s, Germany and the Soviet Union began construction of a network of dual carriageway expressways. By 1942, Germany had over 3,200 km of dual carriageway roads, Italy had nearly 1,300 km, the Soviet Union had 400 km. What may be the world's first long-distance intercity dual carriageway/freeway is the Queen Elizabeth Way in Southern Ontario in Canada linking the large cities of Toronto and Hamilton together by 1939, with construction on this stretch of the present-day Queen Elizabeth Way beginning in 1936 as "Middle Road". Opened to traffic in 1940, the 160-mile-long Pennsylvania Turnpike was the first rural dual carriageway built in the United States. By 1955 several states had built dual carriageway freeways and turnpikes and in 1957 the Interstate Highway System began.
Completed in 1994, the major highway system links all the major cities of the United States. In the UK, although the term "dual carriageway" applies to any road with physically separated lanes, it is used as a descriptive term for major routes built in this style; such major dual carriageways have two lanes of traffic in each direction, with the lane nearest the centre being reserved for overtaking. Dual carriageways have only one lane in each direction, or more than two lanes each way. Different speed limits apply on dual carriageway sections from those that apply on single carriageway sections of the same class of road, except in cities and built-up areas where the dual carriageway is more of a safety measure; when first constructed, many dual carriageways—including the first motorways—had no crash- or other barriers in the central reservation. In the event of congestion, or if a driver missed their exit, some drivers made U-turns onto the opposite carriageway; the majority of dual carriageway roads now have barriers.
Some are heavy concrete obstructions. On urban dual carriageways where the road has been converted from a four-lane single carriageway the central reservation will not be substantial: just a small steel divider to save space. Turning right is permitted only at specific locations; the driver will be required to turn left in order to loop around to an access road that permits crossing the major road. Roundabouts on dual carriageways are common in cities or where the cost of a grade-separated junction would be prohibitive. Where space is more limited, intersections may be controlled by traffic lights. Smaller residential roads adjoining urban dual carriageways may be blocked off at one end to limit the number of junctions on the dual carriageway. A dual carriageway with grade-separa
Fort Lee, New Jersey
Fort Lee is a borough at the eastern border of Bergen County, New Jersey, United States, in the New York City Metropolitan Area, situated atop the Hudson Palisades. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 35,345, reflecting a decline of 116 from the 35,461 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 3,464 from the 31,997 counted in the 1990 Census; the borough is the western terminus of the George Washington Bridge and is located across the Hudson River from the Manhattan borough of New York City. Named for the site of an early American Revolutionary War military encampment, it became the birthplace of the American film industry. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 2.888 square miles, including 2.541 square miles of land and 0.347 square miles of water. The borough is situated atop the escarpment of the Hudson Palisades on the peninsula between the Hackensack and Hudson rivers; the borough is bisected by the confluence of roads at GWB Plaza leading to the George Washington Bridge.
Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the borough include Coytesville and Taylorville. The borough borders Cliffside Park, Englewood, Englewood Cliffs, Palisades Park, Ridgefield. and the Washington Heights neighborhood of Upper Manhattan. Given its evolving cosmopolitan ambiance and adjacent proximity to Manhattan, Fort Lee is one of Northern New Jersey's Hudson Waterfront communities, called New York City's Sixth Borough, Fort Lee is named for General Charles Lee after George Washington and his troops had camped at Mount Constitution overlooking Burdett's Landing, in defense of New York City, it was during Washington's retreat in November 1776 that Thomas Paine composed his pamphlet, The American Crisis, which began with the recognized phrase, "These are the times that try men's souls." These events are recalled at Fort Lee Historic Park. Fort Lee was formed by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 29, 1904, from the remaining portions of Ridgefield Township.
With the creation of Fort Lee, Ridgefield Township became defunct and was dissolved as of March 29, 1904. The Fort Lee Police Department was formed under borough ordinance on August 9, 1904, consisted of six marshals; the history of cinema in the United States can trace its roots to the East Coast where, at one time, Fort Lee was the motion picture capital of America. The industry got its start at the end of the 19th century with the construction of Thomas Edison's "Black Maria", the first motion picture studio in West Orange, New Jersey. New Jersey offered land at costs less than New York City, the cities and towns on the North River and Hudson Palisades benefited as a result of the phenomenal growth of the film industry at the turn of the 20th century. Film-making began attracting both capital and an innovative workforce, when the Kalem Company began using Fort Lee in 1907 as a location for filming in the area, other filmmakers followed. In 1909, a forerunner of Universal Studios, the Champion Film Company, built the first studio.
They were followed by others who either built new studios or who leased facilities in Fort Lee. In the 1910s and 1920s, film companies such as the Independent Moving Pictures Company, Peerless Studios, The Solax Company, Éclair Studios, Goldwyn Picture Corporation, American Méliès, World Film Company, Biograph Studios, Fox Film Corporation, Pathé Frères, Metro Pictures Corporation, Victor Film Company, Selznick Pictures Corporation were all making pictures in Fort Lee; such notables as Mary Pickford got their start at Biograph Studios. With the offshoot businesses that sprang up to service the film studios, for nearly two decades Fort Lee experienced unrivaled prosperity. However, just as the development of Fort Lee production facilities were gaining strength, Nestor Studios of Bayonne, New Jersey, built the first studio in Hollywood in 1911. Nestor Studios, owned by David and William Horsley merged with Universal Studios. California's more hospitable and cost-effective climate led to the eventual shift of all filmmaking to the West Coast by the 1930s.
At the time, Thomas Edison owned all the patents relevant to motion picture production. Movie producers on the East Coast acting independently of Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company were sued or enjoined by Edison and his agents, while movie makers working on the West Coast could work independently of Edison's control, in part due to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals–which was headquartered in San Francisco and covered most of Southern California–being well known not to enforce patents claims. Television and film in New Jersey remains an important industry. Since 2000, the Fort Lee Film Commission has been charged with celebrating the history of film in Fort Lee, as well as attracting film and television production companies to the borough, they will be opening the Barrymore Film Center to promote film making and its history. In 1957, market researcher James Vicary claimed that flashing messages on a movie screen, in Fort Lee, had influenced people to purchase more food and drinks. Vicary coined the term subliminal advertising and formed the Subliminal Projection Company based on a six-week test.
Vicary claimed that during the presentation of the movie Picnic he used a tachistoscope to project the words "Drink Coca-Cola" and "Hungry? Eat popcorn" for 1/3000 of a second a
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor 0.35 miles from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean. The island comprises four counties in the U. S. state of New York. Kings and Queens Counties and Nassau County share the western third of the island, while Suffolk County occupies the eastern two-thirds. More than half of New York City's residents now live in Brooklyn and Queens. However, many people in the New York metropolitan area colloquially use the term Long Island to refer to Nassau and Suffolk Counties, which are suburban in character, conversely employing the term the City to mean Manhattan alone. Broadly speaking, "Long Island" may refer both to the main island and the surrounding outer barrier islands. North of the island is Long Island Sound, across which lie Westchester County, New York, the state of Connecticut. Across the Block Island Sound to the northeast is the state of Rhode Island. To the west, Long Island is separated from the island of Manhattan by the East River.
To the extreme southwest, it is separated from Staten Island and the state of New Jersey by Upper New York Bay, the Narrows, Lower New York Bay. To the east lie Block Island—which belongs to the State of Rhode Island—and numerous smaller islands. Both the longest and the largest island in the contiguous United States, Long Island extends 118 miles eastward from New York Harbor to Montauk Point, with a maximum north-to-south distance of 23 miles between Long Island Sound and the Atlantic coast. With a land area of 1,401 square miles, Long Island is the 11th-largest island in the United States and the 149th-largest island in the world—larger than the 1,214 square miles of the smallest U. S. state, Rhode Island. With a Census-estimated population of 7,869,820 in 2017, constituting nearly 40% of New York State's population, Long Island is the most populated island in any U. S. state or territory, the 18th-most populous island in the world. Its population density is 5,595.1 inhabitants per square mile.
If Long Island geographically constituted an independent metropolitan statistical area, it would rank fourth most populous in the United States. S. state, Long Island would rank 13th in population and first in population density. Long Island is culturally and ethnically diverse, featuring some of the wealthiest and most expensive neighborhoods in the Western Hemisphere near the shorelines as well as working-class areas in all four counties; as a hub of commercial aviation, Long Island contains two of the New York City metropolitan area's three busiest airports, JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, in addition to Islip MacArthur Airport. Nine bridges and 13 tunnels connect Brooklyn and Queens to the three other boroughs of New York City. Ferries connect Suffolk County northward across Long Island Sound to the state of Connecticut; the Long Island Rail Road is the busiest commuter railroad in North America and operates 24/7. Nassau County high school students feature prominently as winners of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair and similar STEM-based academic awards.
Biotechnology companies and scientific research play a significant role in Long Island's economy, including research facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, the New York University Tandon School of Engineering, the City University of New York, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine. Prior to European contact, the Lenape people inhabited the western end of Long Island, spoke the Munsee dialect of Lenape, one of the Algonquian language family. Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to record an encounter with the Lenapes, after entering what is now New York Bay in 1524; the eastern portion of the island was inhabited by speakers of the Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett language group of Algonquian languages. In 1609, the English navigator Henry Hudson explored the harbor and purportedly landed at Coney Island. Adriaen Block followed in 1615, is credited as the first European to determine that both Manhattan and Long Island are islands.
Native American land deeds recorded by the Dutch from 1636 state that the Indians referred to Long Island as Sewanhaka. Sewan was one of the terms for wampum, is translated as "loose" or "scattered", which may refer either to the wampum or to Long Island; the name "'t Lange Eylandt alias Matouwacs" appears in Dutch maps from the 1650s. The English referred to the land as "Nassau Island", after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, Prince of Orange, it is unclear. Another indigenous name from colonial time, comes from the Native American name for Long Island and means "the island that pays tribute." The first settlements on Long Island were by settlers from England and its colonies in present-day New England. Lion Gardiner settled nearby Gardiners Island. T
Westfield Garden State Plaza
Westfield Garden State Plaza is a two-story shopping mall located in Paramus, New Jersey and managed by Unibail-Rodamco-Westfield, located at the intersection of Route 4 and Route 17 near the Garden State Parkway, about 15 miles west of Manhattan. With 2,118,718 sq ft of leasable space, housing over 300 stores, it is the largest mall in New Jersey, the third-largest mall in the New York metropolitan area, one of the highest-revenue producing malls in the United States, its department store anchors are Lord & Taylor, Macy's, Neiman Marcus, Nordstrom. It was the first large scale shopping mall in New Jersey; the mall had sales of $500 per square foot in about $320 above the national average. In a study of malls in the United States performed on behalf of CNBC, Westfield Garden State Plaza ranked ninth in the nation, based on sales of $950 per square foot. Garden State Plaza was built in 1957 by the Muscarelle Construction Company for owner/developer R. H. Macy & Co. as an open-air shopping "plaza".
The original anchor was Bamberger's. Gimbels and J. C. Penney were added in 1958. Total construction costs were $26 million in its original group of 90 stores. Garden State Plaza drew much business from nearby New York towns and cities, whose shoppers wandered across state lines to take advantage of New Jersey's lower sales taxes and its policy that exempted clothing purchases from sales tax. By 1961, it was the world's largest mall; the mall was enclosed between 1981 and 1984 in response to competitive pressure from newer enclosed malls such as the Willowbrook Mall in nearby Wayne. In the 1980s, a lower level was added by converting a former basement truck tunnel into retail space; the existing J. C. Penney basement was given a new entrance on the lower level, but since the floors were at different elevations, that entrance features the shortest escalator in North America, at a height of six steps. In 1987, Gimbel's parent company, BATUS, selling off its Gimbel's stores, sold its Garden State Plaza location to Associated Dry Goods.
Associated reopened the store as the new headquarters for its Hahne's department stores. Hahne's had been headquartered at its flagship store in downtown Newark, which the company wanted to close. In the mid-1990's, a Nobody Beats; the site was occupied by a toy store called Toy City, owned by Party City. On September 7, 1990, Nordstrom opened its first New Jersey location, building a $37 million, 272,000 sq ft. three-level store on the former Hahne's site. In 1996, Lord & Taylor opened a store in the mall. In 1996, Garden State Plaza marked the completion of a $200 million expansion and major remodeling project that added over 700,000 sq ft of retail space and two four level parking structures, Parking Garage A, Parking Garage B; the downstairs food court was connected to the lower level from the previous expansion. J. C. Penney grew by 62,000 to 150,000 sq ft, two new anchors were added, a 150,000 sq ft Neiman Marcus on three levels and a 135,000 sq ft Lord & Taylor on two levels, both targeted at the upscale fashion-conscious shopper.
A Venetian Carousel was added at that time of the expansion and remodeling and was located in front of Macy's. The carousel closed in 2016 and was removed so that the mall could use that space for The Bergen Performing Arts Center to give performances and shows. There was a Bergen PAC ticket center located nearby as well; the performance area was short lived and was replaced by a video game theater before converting into a lounge area in 2017. By 2018, the Macy's area of the mall was labeled as "The Restaurant District" because three new restaurants moved in with Ruby Tuesday and Shake Shack; these three restaurants are Bar Louie, Mighty Quinn's BBQ, Tomato & Company Pizza. Westfield acquired the mall in 1986 from Macy's in a deal that included New Jersey's Brunswick Square Mall and Quaker Bridge Mall; the Borough of Paramus petitioned the New Jersey Supreme Court to review a decision by borough's Planning Board, asking it to review the plans to construct a 163,000-square-foot "entertainment lifestyle precinct" at the mall that included a 16-screen AMC movie theater and 10 specialty retail stores, along with a 158,000-square-foot parking lot below the new wing, known as "Parking Garage C".
The petition was turned down, the mall celebrated its 50th Anniversary with the new expansion and stores opened on May 25, 2007. Other than the AMC, some of the stores and restaurants that are in the expanded wing are Grand Lux Cafe, Jamba Juice, a Sprint store, Vans. In 2013, the mall rebuilt Parking Garage B, expanding it to 1,800 parking spaces. Adjacent were built a valet lounge. A year the mall added a 55,000 square foot wing at a cost of $160 million known as the "Fashion District" that has 22 stores and restaurants. Tenants in the Fashion District include Microsoft Store, Michael Kors, LUSH, Armani Exchange, Au Bon Pain, Urban Outfitters. In January 2018, Best Buy announced that they would be closing their two-level store at Garden State Plaza and would be relocating to a single-floor building to be constructed at The Outlets at Bergen Town Center nearby; the store moved on April 14, 2018. J. C. Penney closed on March 10, 2018. Both stores are expected to be redeveloped by Westfield in the future, though as of October 2018, no such development has been announced.
In July 2018 North Jerse
Bergen County, New Jersey
Bergen County is the most populous county in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 948,406, an increase of 4.8% from the 2010 United States Census, which in turn represented an increase of 20,998 from the 884,118 counted in the 2000 Census. Located in the northeastern corner of New Jersey and its Gateway Region, Bergen County is part of the New York City Metropolitan Area and is directly across the Hudson River from Manhattan, to which it is connected by the George Washington Bridge. Bergen County has no large cities, its most populous place, with 43,010 residents at the time of the 2010 census, is Hackensack, its county seat. Mahwah covered the largest area of any municipality, at 26.19 square miles. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $75,849, the fourth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 45th of 3,113 counties in the United States. Bergen County is one of the wealthiest counties in the United States, with a median household income of $81,708 per the 2010 Census, increasing to an estimated $84,677 in 2014, 18% higher than the $71,919 median statewide.
The county hosts an extensive park system totaling nearly 9,000 acres. The origin of the name of Bergen County is a matter of debate, it is believed that the county is named for one of the earliest settlements, Bergen, in modern-day Hudson County. However, the origin of the township's name is debated. Several sources attribute the name to Bergen, while others attribute it to Bergen, North Holland in the Netherlands; some sources say that the name is derived from one of the earliest settlers of New Amsterdam, Hans Hansen Bergen, a native of Norway, who arrived in New Netherland in 1633. At the time of first European contact, Bergen County was inhabited by Native American people the Lenape Nation, whose sub-groups included the Tappan and Rumachenanck, as named by the Dutch colonists; some of their descendants are included among the Ramapough Mountain Indians, recognized as a tribe by the state in 1980. Their ancestors had moved into the mountains to escape encroachment by English colonists, their descendants reside in the northwest of the county, in nearby Passaic County and in Rockland County, New York, tracing their Lenape ancestry to speakers of the Munsee language, one of three major dialects of their language.
Over the years, they absorbed other ethnicities by intermarriage. In the 17th century, the Dutch considered the area comprising today's Bergen and Hudson counties as part of New Netherland, their colonial province of the Dutch Republic; the Dutch claimed it after Henry Hudson explored Newark Bay and anchored his ship at Weehawken Cove in 1609. From an early date, the Dutch began to import African slaves to fill their labor needs. Bergen County was the largest slaveholding county in the state; the African slaves were used for labor at the ports to support shipping, as well as for domestic servants and farm labor. Early settlement attempts by the Dutch included Pavonia and Achter Col, but the Native Americans repelled these settlements in Kieft's War and the Peach Tree War. European settlers returned to the western shores of the Hudson River in the 1660 formation of Bergen Township, which would become the first permanent European settlement in the territory of present-day New Jersey. During the Second Anglo-Dutch War, on August 27, 1664, New Amsterdam's governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered to the English Navy.
The English organized the Province of New Jersey in 1665 splitting the territory into East Jersey and West Jersey in 1674. On November 30, 1675, the settlement Bergen and surrounding plantations and settlements were called Bergen County in an act passed by the province's General Assembly. In 1683, Bergen was recognized as an independent county by the Provincial Assembly. Bergen County consisted of only the land between the Hudson River and the Hackensack River, extending north to the border between East Jersey and New York. In January 1709, the boundaries were extended to include all of the current territory of Hudson County and portions of the current territory of Passaic County; the 1709 borders were described as follows: "Beginning at Constable's Hook, so along the bay and Hudson's River to the partition point between New Jersey and the province of New York. † The line between East and West Jersey here referred to is not the line adopted and known as the Lawrence line, run by John Lawrence in September and October 1743.
It was the compromise line agreed upon between Governors Daniel Coxe and Robert Barclay in 1682, which ran a little north of Morristown to the Passaic River. This line being afterward objected to by the East Jersey proprietors, the latter procured the running of the Lawrence line. Bergen was the location of several battles and troop movements during the American Revolutionary War. Fort Lee's location on the bluffs of the New Jersey Palisades, opposite Fort Washington in Manhattan, made it a strategic position during the war. In November 1776, the Battle of Fort Lee took place as part of a British plan to capture George Washington and to crush the Contin
Interstate 95 in New Jersey
Interstate 95 is a major Interstate Highway that traverses nearly the full extent of the East Coast of the United States, from Florida to Maine. In New Jersey, it runs along much of the mainline of the New Jersey Turnpike, as well as the Pearl Harbor Memorial Extension, the New Jersey Turnpike's I-95 Extension to the George Washington Bridge maintained by the New Jersey Turnpike Authority, for a total of 77.96 mi. Located in the northeastern part of the state near New York City, the 11.03-mile Western Spur of the New Jersey Turnpike, considered to be Route 95W by the New Jersey Department of Transportation, is part of I-95. I-95 enters the state from the Pennsylvania Turnpike on the Delaware River–Turnpike Toll Bridge, following the length of the Pearl Harbor Memorial Extension to exit 6 on the New Jersey Turnpike mainline, continuing north along the remainder of the latter road to US 46, where it continues as the turnpike's I-95 Extension to the George Washington Bridge, on which it enters New York.
Until 2018, I-95 had been discontinuous within New Jersey. From Pennsylvania, I-95 entered New Jersey on the Scudder Falls Bridge and ended at the US 1 interchange, where the freeway turned south as I-295. From New York, I-95 continued from the George Washington Bridge southward along the New Jersey Turnpike and west over the Pearl Harbor Memorial Extension to end at the Pennsylvania state line; this discontinuity was caused by the 1983 cancellation of the Somerset Freeway, which would have connected the former Trenton segment of I-95 in Hopewell Township northeast to I-287 in Piscataway Township. From here, I-95 would have followed present-day I-287 to New Jersey Turnpike interchange 10 in Edison. In order to fill the gap, the Pennsylvania Turnpike/Interstate 95 Interchange Project saw the construction of an interchange between the Pennsylvania Turnpike and I-95 in Bristol Township, with I-95 being rerouted to use the Pennsylvania Turnpike to the Delaware River–Turnpike Toll Bridge. By March 2018, the former I-95 around the north side of Trenton to just across the Scudder Falls Bridge in Pennsylvania became an extension of I-295, with I-295 extended to the interchange by July of the same year.
On September 22, 2018, the ramps connecting I-95 and the Pennsylvania Turnpike opened, allowing a direct freeway route from Philadelphia to New York City and completing I-95 as a whole. I-95 enters New Jersey at the Delaware River–Turnpike Toll Bridge over the Delaware River in Burlington Township, Burlington County, where the road continues west into Pennsylvania as the Pennsylvania Turnpike. From the river, I-95 follows the six-lane Pearl Harbor Memorial Extension of the New Jersey Turnpike east into New Jersey. Continuing east through rural areas into Florence Township, the highway has an interchange serving US 130; this interchange has a toll plaza on the ramp to southbound I-95. After this interchange, the road comes to a toll barrier that marks the beginning of the turnpike ticket system northbound and the end of the ticket system southbound; the Pearl Harbor Memorial Extension crosses into Mansfield Township and passes under I-295 before merging into the mainline of the New Jersey Turnpike at exit 6.
At this point, I-95 continues northeast on the mainline of the New Jersey Turnpike, with twelve lanes featuring six inner lanes for cars separated from six outer lanes for cars and buses. It soon reaches an exit for US 206 in Bordentown Township. Continuing north through rural areas, the road heads into Mercer County and comes to the I-195 interchange in Robbinsville Township. In East Windsor Township, I-95 comes to the exit for Route 133/Route 33, located to the east of Hightstown. Heading into Middlesex County, development near the highway increases. At this point, an interchange serves Route 32 in Monroe Township. Continuing north into more dense suburban development, I-95 intersects Route 18 in East Brunswick Township near the city of New Brunswick. After crossing the Raritan River, the New Jersey Turnpike heads northeast to the I-287/Route 440 junction in Edison. In Woodbridge Township, the highway comes to a large interchange accessing both the Garden State Parkway and US 9. From this point, the road comes to the CR 602 exit in Carteret.
In Union County, I-95 comes to the I-278 exit on the border of Linden and Elizabeth at the western approach to the Goethals Bridge. In the northern part of Elizabeth, the New Jersey Turnpike comes to Route 81 which provides access to the Newark Liberty International Airport before the road runs to the east of the airport. After the airport, I-95 intersects I-78 in Essex County. At US 1-9 Truck, the New Jersey Turnpike splits into two alignments and enters the New Jersey Meadowlands; the mainline of I-95 follows the Eastern Spur of the New Jersey Turnpike, which has exits to I-280 in Kearny, Hudson County and the Secaucus Junction train station and Route 3/Route 495 in Secaucus, where it reaches the end of the ticket system. The Western Spur of the New Jersey Turnpike is signed as I-95 but is known as Route 95W; this road has interchanges serving I-280 in Kearny and Route 3/Route 120 in East Rutherford, Bergen County, the latter serving the Meadowlands Sports Complex. The ticket system on the Western Spur ends at a barrier in Carlstadt.
In Ridgefield, the two segments of the New Jersey Turnpike merge again, with the road continuing north into Ridgefield Park. In Ridgefield Park, I-95 continues north as a toll-free highway co-signed with the New Jersey Turnpike and maintained by NJTA, it has a large intercha