Panama, officially called the Republic of Panama, is a country usually considered to be entirely in North America or Central America. It is bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, the capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metropolitan area is home to nearly half of the countrys 4.1 million people. Panama was inhabited by indigenous tribes prior to settlement by the Spanish in the 16th century. Panama broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined a union of Nueva Granada, when Gran Colombia dissolved in 1831, Panama and Nueva Granada remained joined, eventually becoming the Republic of Colombia. With the backing of the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, in 1977 an agreement was signed for the total transfer of the Canal from the United States to Panama by the end of the 20th century, which culminated on 31 December 1999. Revenue from canal tolls continues to represent a significant portion of Panamas GDP, although commerce, banking, in 2015 Panama ranked 60th in the world in terms of the Human Development Index.
Since 2010, Panama remains the second most competitive economy in Latin America, covering around 40 percent of its land area, Panamas jungles are home to an abundance of tropical plants and animals – some of them to be found nowhere else on the planet. There are several theories about the origin of the name Panama, some believe that the country was named after a commonly found species of tree. Others believe that the first settlers arrived in Panama in August, when butterflies abound, the best-known version is that a fishing village and its nearby beach bore the name Panamá, which meant an abundance of fish. Captain Antonio Tello de Guzmán, while exploring the Pacific side in 1515, in 1517 Don Gaspar De Espinosa, a Spanish lieutenant, decided to settle a post there. In 1519 Pedrarias Dávila decided to establish the Empires Pacific city in this site, the new settlement replaced Santa María La Antigua del Darién, which had lost its function within the Crowns global plan after the beginning of the Spanish exploitation of the riches in the Pacific.
Blending all of the above together, Panamanians believe in general that the word Panama means abundance of fish and this is the official definition given in social studies textbooks approved by the Ministry of Education in Panama. However, others believe the word Panama comes from the Kuna word bannaba which means distant or far away, at the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the known inhabitants of Panama included the Cuevas and the Coclé tribes. These people have disappeared, as they had no immunity from European infectious diseases. The earliest discovered artifacts of indigenous peoples in Panama include Paleo-Indian projectile points, central Panama was home to some of the first pottery-making in the Americas, for example the cultures at Monagrillo, which date back to 2500–1700 BC. These evolved into significant populations best known through their spectacular burials at the Monagrillo archaeological site, the monumental monolithic sculptures at the Barriles site are important traces of these ancient isthmian cultures.
Before Europeans arrived Panama was widely settled by Chibchan, the largest group were the Cueva. The size of the population of the isthmus at the time of European colonization is uncertain
Santa Marta, officially Distrito Turístico, Cultural e Histórico de Santa Marta, is a city in Colombia. It is the capital of the department of Magdalena and fourth largest urban city of the Caribbean Region of Colombia, after Barranquilla and this city is situated on a bay of the same name and as such, is a prime tourist destination. Before the arrival of Europeans, the South American continent was inhabited by a number of indigenous groups, the Tairona formed mid- to large-size population centers, consisting of stone pathways, protected waterways, and spaces dedicated to agricultural produce. Their economy was agricultural, cultivating corn, yucca. The Tayrona are considered advanced for their time period. Surviving archaeological sites consisted of formed terraces and small scale underground stone channels and they were known to actively collect and process salt, which was a significant trading commodity. We know that they traded with indigenous groups along the coast. Archaeological excavations have recovered significant works in pottery and gold, Santa Marta’s flag consists of two colours and blue.
White symbolises peace, in all are united without restriction. Blue symbolises the sky, the sea, the found in the horizon. Santa Marta is located on Santa Marta Bay of the Caribbean Sea in the province of Magdalena and it is 992 km from Bogotá and 93 km from Barranquilla. It is bordered to the north and west by the Caribbean and to the south by the municipalities of Aracataca, Santa Martas economy is based on tourism, port activities and agriculture, in that order. The main agricultural products are, coffee, Santa Marta is a major port. Simon Bolivar International Airport is 16 km from the city centre and it should be noted that historic figure Simon Bolivar died here, a significant event for South America as a whole. His villa known as La Quinta de San Pedro Alejandrino is located just outside the city centre, as the main city centre is located close to the coast, the city itself has had difficulty controlling expansion. Although, technically a separate locality, Rodadero is often considered part of Santa Marta itself, Santa Marta has one sister city, Miami Beach, Florida.
Barranquilla Cartagena de Indias Taganga Santa Marta at analitica
Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a federal republic located on the northern coast of South America. It is bordered by Colombia on the west, Brazil on the south, Guyana on the east, Venezuela covers 916,445 km2 and has an estimated population of 31775371. The territory now known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples and it gained full independence as a separate country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. This new constitution changed the name of the country to República Bolivariana de Venezuela. Venezuela is a presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District. Venezuela claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, oil was discovered in the early 20th century, and Venezuela has the worlds largest known oil reserves and has been one of the worlds leading exporters of oil. Previously an underdeveloped exporter of commodities such as coffee and cocoa, oil quickly came to dominate exports.
The recovery of oil prices in the early 2000s gave Venezuela oil funds not seen since the 1980s, the Venezuelan government established populist policies that initially boosted the Venezuelan economy and increased social spending, significantly reducing economic inequality and poverty. However, such policies became controversial since they destabilized the economy, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic depression. According to the most popular and accepted version, in 1499, the stilt houses in the area of Lake Maracaibo reminded the navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, of the city of Venice, so he named the region Veneziola Piccola Venezia. The name acquired its current spelling as a result of Spanish influence, where the suffix -uela is used as a term, thus. The German language 16th century-term for the area, Klein-Venedig, means little Venice, Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of the Vespucci and Ojeda crew, gave a different account. In his work Summa de geografía, he states that they found people who called themselves the Veneciuela.
Thus, the name Venezuela may have evolved from the native word and it is not known how many people lived in Venezuela before the Spanish conquest, it has been estimated at around one million. In addition to indigenous peoples known today, the population included historic groups such as the Kalina, Auaké, Mariche, the Timoto-Cuica culture was the most complex society in Pre-Columbian Venezuela, with pre-planned permanent villages, surrounded by irrigated, terraced fields. They stored water in tanks and their houses were made primarily of stone and wood with thatched roofs. They were peaceful, for the most part, and depended on growing crops, regional crops included potatoes and ullucos
The Confederation Granadine was a short-lived federal republic established during 1858 as a result of a constitutional change replacing the Republic of New Granada. It comprised the nations of Colombia and Panama and parts of northwestern Brazil. It was replaced by the United States of Colombia after another constitutional change during 1863, the short but complicated life of the Granadine Confederation was marked by rivalry between the Conservative Party and the Liberal Party, which ended in a Civil War. It was a period of hostility against the Roman Catholic Church, the Constitution of 1853 permitted this so that on February 27,1855, the State of Panamá could be created within the Republic of New Granada. Federal State of Santander, which included the provinces of Socorro, the Law of June 15,1857 created the other states that would form parts of the Confederation Granadine, Federal State of Bolívar, which included Cartagena Province. Federal State of Boyacá, which included the provinces of Tunja, Casanare, Federal State of Cauca, which included the provinces of Buenaventura, Chocó, Pasto and Popayán and the region of Caquetá.
Federal State of Cundinamarca, which included the province of Mariquita, Bogotá, Federal State of Magdalena, which included the provinces of El Banco, Santa Marta and Valledupar. The nation was formed by the union of these Sovereign States which were confederated in perpetuity to form a Sovereign Nation and independent with the name “Confederation Granadine. During 1858 the new constituency, with its majority of conservatives and signed the Constitution for the Confederation Granadine of 1858, by the conservative mandate of Mariano Ospina Rodríguez, Congress passed and approved a new Constitution for the country on May 22,1858. By this constitution, the country was named officially as the Confederation Granadine, more power and representation was given to the provinces, as each state could have its own legislature and elect its own president. The vice presidency was abolished and replaced with a dignitary named by the Congress, the president and senators could be elected to serve a period of four years and the Representatives of the House for two.
The Constitution listed the powers and obligations of the states and of the central government and it included the basic freedoms, and rights of the people. The constitution was important as it signaled the beginning of the confederacy. Even though the Constitution of 1858 had legalized federalism, the politics of the president Mariano Ospina Rodríguez favored centralism and this conservativism clashed with the wishes of the states which wanted more power and autonomy. The political tension came to its pinnacle in 1859 when Congress passed two controversial laws, on April 8,1859, Congress passed a law giving the President the right to remove the duly appointed governors of the states and appoint one of his choosing. With this law, the president secured the power of the Conservative Party, on May 10,1859, another law was passed, this one giving the president the power to create administrative departments in states so to control their resources and how would they be used. These laws angered many liberal leaders, specially general Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera, an ex-president of New Granada, and a powerful and influential politician in the country.
By a decree of May 8,1860, Mosquera broke relations with the government, declared himself Supreme Director of War, and declared a separated state
Conquistadors /kɒŋˈkɪstəˌdɔːrz/ is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense. During the Age of Discovery, conquistadors sailed beyond Europe to the Americas, Oceania and Asia, conquering territory and they colonized much of the world for Spain and Portugal in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Portugal established a route to China in the early 16th century, sending ships via the southern coast of Africa, human infections gained worldwide transmission vectors for the first time, from Africa and Eurasia to the Americas and vice versa. The spread of diseases, including smallpox and typhus. In the 16th century perhaps 240,000 Europeans entered American ports, by the late 16th century silver imports from America provided one-fifth of Spains total budget. The conquistadors were professional warriors, using European tactics and their units would often specialize in forms of combat that required long periods of training that were too costly for informal groups.
Their armies were composed of Iberian and other European soldiers. Native allied troops were largely equipped with armament and armour that varied geographically. Some groups consisted of men without military experience, Catholic clergy which helped with administrative duties. These native forces often included African slaves and Native Americans and they not only fought in the battlefield but served as interpreters, servants, teachers and scribes. India Catalina and Malintzin were Native American women slaves who worked for the Spaniards, Castilian law prohibited foreigners and non-Catholics from settling in the New World. However, not all conquistadors were Castilian, many foreigners Hispanicised their names and/or converted to Catholicism to serve the Castilian Crown. For example, Ioánnis Fokás was a Castilian of Greek origin who discovered the strait that bears his name between Vancouver Island and Washington State in 1592, german-born Nikolaus Federmann, Hispanicised as Nicolás de Federmán, was a conquistador in Venezuela and Colombia.
The origin of people in mixed expeditions was not always distinguished. Castilian law banned Spanish women from travelling to America unless they were married and accompanied by a husband, women who travelled thus include María de Escobar, María Estrada, Marina Vélez de Ortega, Marina de la Caballería, Francisca de Valenzuela, Catalina de Salazar. Some conquistadors married Native American women or had illegitimate children, European young men enlisted in the army because it was one way out of poverty. Catholic priests instructed the soldiers in mathematics, theology, Latin and history, Kings army officers taught military arts. An uneducated young recruit could become a leader, elected by their fellow professional soldiers
Indigenous peoples in Colombia
Indigenous peoples of Colombia, or Native Colombians, are the ethnic groups who have been in Colombia prior to the Europeans in the early 16th century. Known as pueblos indígenas in Spanish, they comprise 3. 4% of the countrys population, approximately 80% of the indigenous peoples of Colombia live in the La Guajira and Nariño Departments. While the Amazonian region of Colombia is sparsely populated, it is home to over 70 different indigenous ethnic groups. Some theories claim the earliest human habitation of South America to be as early as 43,000 BC, anthropologist Tom Dillehay dates the earliest hunter-gatherer cultures on the continent at almost 10,000 BC, during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene periods. According to his evidence based on rock shelters, Colombias first human inhabitants were concentrated along the Caribbean coast. By that time, these regions were forested and had a climate resembling todays. Dillehay has noted that Tibitó, located just north of Bogotá, is one of the oldest known and most widely accepted sites of human occupation in Colombia.
Colombias indigenous culture evolved from three main groups—the Quimbaya, who inhabited the western slopes of the Cordillera Central, the Chibchas, and the Kalina. The two most advanced cultures of Amerindian peoples at the time were the Muisca and Taironas, who belonged to the Chibcha group and were skilled in farming and metalcraft. D. The Taironas, who were divided into two subgroups, lived in the Caribbean lowlands and the highlands of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. The Muisca civilization was organized into distinct provinces governed by communal land laws and powerful caciques. At the end of the period, the native population still constituted about half of the total population. In the agricultural chiefdoms of the highlands, the Spaniards successfully imposed institutions designed to ensure their control of the Amerindians, the colonists had organized political and religious administration by the end of the sixteenth century, and they had begun attempts to religiously convert the Amerindians.
The most important institution that regulated the lives and welfare of the highland Amerindians was the resguardo, under this system, Amerindians were allowed to use the land but could not sell it. As land pressures increased, encroachment of white or mestizo settlers onto resguardo lands accelerated, the government generally had not attempted to legislate in the past in matters affecting the forest Amerindians. During the colonial period, Roman Catholic missions were granted jurisdiction over the lowland tribes, division of the resguardos stopped in 1958, and a new program of community development began to try to bring the Amerindians more fully into the national society. New resguardos have been created, and others have been reconstituted, the 1991 constitution opened special political and social arenas for indigenous and other minority groups. For example, it allowed for creation of a commission to design a law recognizing the black communities occupying unsettled lands in the riverine areas of the Pacific Coast
Cross of Burgundy
The Duchy of Burgundy was inherited by the House of Habsburg on the extinction of the Valois ducal line. The Spanish monarchs continued to use it in their own arms even after they lost their Burgundian lands. From 1506 to 1701 it was used by Spain as an ensign, and up to 1843 as the land battle flag. The emblem continues to be used in a variety of contexts in a number of European countries and in the Americas, reflecting both the extent of Valois Burgundy and the former Habsburg territories. The banner strictly speaking dates back to the early 15th century and it represents the cross on which Andrew the Apostle was crucified. The design is a red saltire resembling two crossed, roughly-pruned branches, on a white field, in heraldic language, it may be blazoned argent, a saltire ragulée gules. Pedro de Ayala, writing in the 1490s, claims it was first adopted by a previous Duke of Burgundy to honour his Scottish soldiers. This must be a reference to the Scottish soldiers recruited by John the Fearless in the first years of the century, led by the Earl of Mar.
Andrew was the saint of the dukes of Burgundy The year 1506 should be considered its theoretical earliest use in Spain. Philip, after his marriage to Joanna of Castile, became the first Habsburg King of Spain and used the Cross of Burgundy as an emblem as it was the symbol of the house of his mother, Mary of Burgundy. From the time of Philip and Joannas son, Emperor Charles V, the official field was still white. The Spanish monarchs – the Habsburgs and their successors the House of Bourbon – continued to use the Cross of Burgundy in various forms and it remained in use in Spains overseas empire. In the First Carlist War the Burgundian banner, was a banner of the Regent Queens standing Army rather than Carlist. After 1843 the red Burgundian saltire kept on appearing on the new brand red-yellow army flag under a four-quartered Castilian, under the leadership of Manuel Fal Condé, the Cross of Burgundy became the Carlist badge in 1934. Users mostly have some direct or indirect relation to the historical Burgundy, though such connection can be very vague, the flying of this flag reminds people today of the impact Spain and its military had on world history for over 400 years.
It was used by Spanish military forces, in present-day Bolivia the Cross of Burgundy is the official flag of the department of Chuquisaca. The Flag of Alabama uses a modified representation of the Spanish Cross of Burgundy, an unmodified version of the cross was used in most of Alabama until the 19th century. The colors of the Flag of New Mexico are those of the yellow, Burgundy Flag of New Mexico Saint Patricks Flag Vexillology Flags of the World GeorgiaInfo
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Honduras, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, the territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the Muisca, the Quimbaya and the Tairona. The Spanish arrived in 1499 and initiated a period of conquest and colonization ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 the Gran Colombia Federation was dissolved. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada, the new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, and the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886.
Since the 1960s the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict, Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, and thereby possesses a rich cultural heritage. Cultural diversity has influenced by Colombias varied geography. The urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains. Colombian territory encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines, ecologically, it is one of the worlds 17 megadiverse countries, and the most densely biodiverse of these per square kilometer. Colombia is a power and a regional actor with the fourth-largest economy in Latin America, is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and is an accessing member to the OECD. Colombia has an economy with macroeconomic stability and favorable growth prospects in the long run. The name Colombia is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus and it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those portions under Spanish and Portuguese rule.
The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819. When Venezuela and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, New Granada officially changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was changed, this time to United States of Colombia. To refer to country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia. Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica, the oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 km southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period, at Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found