Bywater, New Orleans
Bywater is a neighborhood of the city of New Orleans. Bywater is part of the Ninth Ward of New Orleans, but it is located along the levee of the Mississippi River. It includes part or all of Bywater Historic District, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. m. After Hurricane Katrina, many survivors flocked to the area as it was affected by the storm. Bywater is located at 29°57′46″N 90°02′24″W and has an elevation of 3 feet. According to the United States Census Bureau, the district has an area of 1.33 square miles,0.94 square miles of which is land and 0.39 square miles of which is water. Press Streets name came from a press which operated here during the 19th century. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,096 people,2,263 households, the population density was 5,421 /mi². As of the census of 2010, there were 3,337 people,1,763 households, the population density was 5,421 /mi². Many people from France and the French Caribbean settled here, during the century, it grew with both white Creoles of French and Spanish descent, as well as mixed-race Creoles of French, Spanish and Native American descent.
They were joined by immigrants from Germany, today, a historical marker stands at the intersection of Press Street and Royal Street to commemorate the event. There was little distinction between area and what became known as the Lower 9th Ward until the Industrial Canal was dredged in the early 20th century. A generation knew the area as the Upper 9th Ward, but as parts of the 9th Ward above the Canal farther from the River became developed. Inspired by the telephone exchange designation of Bywater, which fit the neighborhoods proximity to the River and the Canal. Real estate development and speculation surrounding the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition prompted many long-term French Quarter residents to move down river and neighboring Faubourg Marigny are two of the most colorful neighborhoods in the city. The architectural styles borrow heavily from the colonial French and Spanish and have elements of the Caribbean and this blending over the last three centuries has resulted in an architectural style unique to the city of New Orleans
Lower Garden District, New Orleans
Lower Garden District is a neighborhood of the city of New Orleans. A subdistrict of the Central City/Garden District Area, its boundaries as defined by the City Planning Commission are, St. Thomas Street to the south, Lower Garden District is located at 29°56′02″N 90°04′12″W and has an elevation of 6 feet. According to the United States Census Bureau, the district has an area of 1.16 square miles,0.95 square miles of which is land and 0.21 square miles of which is water. It includes the Papillon Apartments, an apartment complex operated by Tulane University for graduate students, as of the census of 2000, there were 6,116 people,3,332 households, and 998 families residing in the neighborhood. The population density was 6,438 /mi², as of the census of 2010, there were 6,363 people,3,843 households, and 994 families residing in the neighborhood. The Garden District is zoned to schools in the New Orleans Public Schools, ReNEW SciTech Academy, operated by ReNEW Schools, is within the former Laurel Elementary School within the Lower Garden District.
After Hurricane Katrina, Laurel was a school operated by the RSD. In 2010 Laurel had a score of 45, below the 65 score that was considered academically unacceptable. The Center for Education Reform in 2007 ranked the International School as one of the best charters in the United States, mike Williams, singer for Eyehategod, used to live in the Lower Garden District until his house was burned down. Neighborhoods in New Orleans Lower Garden Historic District, City of New Orleans Historic Landmarks Commission
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureaus primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, in addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, and the Current Population Survey, furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government typically contain data produced by the Census Bureau. The Bureaus various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and help states, local communities, the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States. The Census Bureau now conducts a population count every 10 years in years ending with a 0. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population estimates and projections, the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations, the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, and economy.
The Census Bureaus legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code, the Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, and housing. Within the bureau, these are known as surveys and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts. The Census Bureau conducts surveys of manufacturing, service. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts, the Census Act of 1840 established a central office which became known as the Census Office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses, typically at the 10-year intervals, in 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, and in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor. The department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their role in the department.
An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every 2 years, in 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code, by law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year, the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are widely used. for data collection, the Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information, all Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment. The Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government, only after 72 years does the information collected become available to other agencies or the general public
S. H. Kress & Co.
S. H. Kress & Co. was the trading name of a chain of five and dime retail department stores in the United States, established by Samuel Henry Kress, which operated from 1896 to 1981. In the first half of the 20th century, there were Kress stores with ornamented architecture on Main Street in hundreds of cities, Kress opened his first stationery and notions store in Nanticoke, Pennsylvania in 1887. The chain of S. H. Kress & Co, 5-10-25 Cent Stores was established in 1896. In the 1920s and 1930s, Kress sold a house label of phonograph records under the Romeo trademark, in Nashville, Kress repeatedly refused to serve the protesters but eventually agreed to integrate the downtown store in exchange for ending a consumer boycott. The Greensboro, North Carolina Kress was included in the first civil rights demonstrations in the South, in Adickes v. S. H. Kress Co. the U. S. Supreme Court threw out trespass convictions resulting from a sit-in at a Kress lunch counter in Mississippi. The Kress store in Baton Rouge was the site of that citys first civil rights sit-in and that event helped save it from demolition 45 years later.
In 1964 Genesco, Inc. acquired Kress, the company abandoned its center-city stores and moved to shopping malls. Genesco began liquidating Kress and closing down the Kress stores in 1980, the remaining Kress stores were sold to McCrory Stores on January 1,1981. Most continued to operate under the Kress name until McCrory Stores went out of business in 2001, tiendas Kress, the subsidiary chain in Puerto Rico, survived the parent company and is still in business there. The Kress Foundation, an organization promoting art, was established by Kress in 1929. The Kress chain was known for the architecture of its buildings, envisioned his stores as works of public art that would contribute to the cityscape. Sibberts buildings streamlined the Kress image with a sleek buff modernity, the use of terracotta ornament. Curved glass display windows led the shopper through heavy bronze doors into an interior of rich marbles, fine woods, well-positioned hanging lamps created a bright atmosphere for an endless array of inexpensive items.
Everything – from the constantly restocked merchandise to the gracious retiring rooms, like the great movie houses of the day, the dime store – and ‘Kress’s’ in particular – was a popular destination during hard economic times. Sibberts Mayan Revival Kress store on Fifth Avenue in New York City was built in 1935, awarded a gold medal for architectural quality, the store represented the zenith of the Kress empire in luxury and retailing capacity. The National Building Museum in Washington, D. C. Kress buildings around the country have been adapted for reuse, Baton Rouge, LA, The Kress building was scheduled to be demolished but was spared in 2005, and has been renovated for residential use. Biloxi, MS, The downtown Kress store was converted in 2014 into a music venue. Meridian, MS, The downtown Kress building is undergoing renovation and is slated to open in early 2016 as the new home of the Mississippi State University Meridian campus Kinesiology program
The French Quarter, known as the Vieux Carré, is the oldest neighborhood in the city of New Orleans. After New Orleans was founded in 1718 by Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, the city developed around the Vieux Carré, the district is more commonly called the French Quarter today, or simply The Quarter, related to changes in the city with American immigration after the Louisiana Purchase. The district as a whole has been designated as a National Historic Landmark and it is a prime tourist destination in the city, as well as attracting local residents. The French Quarter is located at 29°57′31″N 90°03′54″W and has an elevation of 1 foot, according to the United States Census Bureau, the district has a total area of 0.66 square miles. 0.49 square miles of which is land and 0.17 square miles of which is water, the most common definition of the French Quarter includes all the land stretching along the Mississippi River from Canal Street to Esplanade Avenue and inland to North Rampart Street.
It equals an area of 78 square blocks, louis Street and North Rampart Street to the west. The National Historic Landmark district is stated to be 85 square blocks, the Quarter is subdistrict of the French Quarter/CBD Area. Faubourg Marigny Mississippi River Central Business District Iberville Tremé As of the census of 2000, there were 4,176 people,2,908 households, the population density was 8,523 /mi². As of the census of 2010, there were 3,813 people,2,635 households, most of the French Quarters architecture was built during the late 18th century and the period of Spanish rule over the city, which is reflected in the architecture of the neighborhood. Their strict new fire codes mandated that all structures be physically adjacent, the old French peaked roofs were replaced with flat tiled ones, and wooden siding was banned in favor of fire-resistant stucco, painted in the pastel hues fashionable at the time. As a result, colorful walls and roofs and elaborately decorated ironwork balconies and galleries, from the late 18th, when Anglophone Americans began to move in after the Louisiana Purchase, they mostly built on available land upriver, across modern-day Canal Street.
This thoroughfare became the place of two cultures, one Francophone Creole and the other Anglophone American. The median of the boulevard became a place where the two contentious cultures could meet and do business in both French and English. As such, it known as the neutral ground. Even before the Civil War, French Creoles had become a minority in the French Quarter, in the late 19th century the Quarter became a less fashionable part of town, and many immigrants from southern Italy and Ireland settled there. In 1905, the Italian consul estimated that one-third to one-half of the Quarter’s population were Italian-born or second generation Italian-Americans, Irish immigrants settled heavily in the Esplanade area, which was called the Irish Channel. In 1917, the closure of Storyville sent much of the vice formerly concentrated therein back into the French Quarter, was the last straw, and they began to move uptown. This, combined with the loss of the French Opera House two years later, provided a bookend to the era of French Creole culture in the Quarter, many of the remaining French Creoles moved to the University area
Canal Street, New Orleans
Canal Street is a major thoroughfare in the city of New Orleans. Up until the early 1800s, it was the Creoles who lived in the Vieux Carré, after the Louisiana Purchase, a large influx of other cultures began to find their way into the city via the Mississippi River. A number of Americans from Kentucky and other Midwestern states moved into the city, along the division between these two cultures, a canal was planned. The canal was never built but the street took its place received the name. Furthermore, the median of the street known as the neutral ground. To this day, all medians of New Orleans streets are called neutral grounds, one end of Canal Street terminates at the Mississippi River. Canal Streets other terminus is in Mid-City at a collection of cemeteries, slightly offset from the Mid-City end is the beginning of Canal Boulevard, which extends to the shore of Lake Pontchartrain via the Lakeview neighborhood. Throughout its length, which runs east and west, serves as a line for cross streets running north and south.
The street has three lanes of traffic in both directions, with a pair of tracks in the center. Canal Streets downtown segment serves as the hub of the public transit system or RTA, with numerous streetcar. Canal Street is often said to be the widest roadway in America to have called a street. For more than a century, Canal Street was the shopping district of Greater New Orleans. Local department stores Maison Blanche, D. H, the department stores began as sellers of fabric and accessories, with extensive floor space and glass windows. As elevators and escalators allowed for multi-floor department stores, the stores were enlarged, cities — and it received a boost in 1983 with the completion of Canal Places retail component. However, national trends disfavoring downtown retail finally caught up with Canal Street — with a key assist from the economic depression of the mid-80s. One Canal Place has three levels which are occupied by The Shops at Canal Place. In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, a fire inflicted heavy damage to the Saks Fifth Avenue store, the mall reopened in February 2006, and a completely-remodeled Saks reopened in November.
One Canal Place Office Tower is a Class A commercial office building managed by Corporate Realty and it is adjacent to the Westin New Orleans Hotel
Saenger Theatre (New Orleans)
Saenger Theatre is an atmospheric theatre in New Orleans, that is on the National Register of Historic Places. Once the flagship of Julian and Abe Saengers theatre empire, today it is one of only a handful of Saenger movie palaces that remain, the Saenger Theatre opened on February 4,1927. The 4, 000-seat theatre took three years to build and cost $2.5 million and its opening prompted thousands to parade along Canal Street. The top ticket price was 65 cents, and the bill for each included a silent movie and stage play. Architect Emile Weil designed the interior of a theatre to recall an Italian Baroque courtyard. Weil installed 150 lights in the ceiling of the theatre, arranged in the shape of constellations of the night sky, the theatre employed special effects machines to project images of moving clouds and sunsets across the theatres interior. In 1929, Julian Saenger sold the theatre for $10 million to Paramount Publix, in 1933 Paramount Publix converted the theatre to talking pictures only.
In 1964, ABC Interstate Theatres turned the Saenger into a piggyback theatre, the upstairs theatre was known as the Saenger Orleans. On September 29,1977 the theatre was designated a landmark by the New Orleans Landmark Commission. That December it was added to the National Register of Historic Places, in 1978, it was sold for slightly more than $1 million to E. B. Breazeale, who spent an additional $3 million renovating it into a performing arts center. Pace Management invested in the renovation and was hired to run the theatre, the Saenger Theatre reopened in 1980 with a reduced seating capacity of 2,736. Johnny Carson made a performance at the theatres grand reopening. In April 1983, Styx recorded and filmed their performances on their Kilroy Was Here tour for their live album. Then, in 1985, the management team of the formed the Saenger Theatre Partnership, Ltd. a joint venture with 50 partners. In the summer of 2002, the Saenger Theatre continued its cinematic roots, the Summer Classic Movie Series became an annual event for the next 3 years.
When Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans in 2005, the Saenger Theatre suffered significant water damage, the water line was approximately a foot above stage level, filling the basement and orchestra seating area. Fortunately it was in the middle of a renovation, so all carpeting and seating had been removed in anticipation of being replaced
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population, the term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses, other common censuses include agriculture and traffic censuses. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions, the word is of Latin origin, during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the level of detail but raise concerns about privacy. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population, typically main population estimates are updated by such intercensal estimates. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, and planning. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling, stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations.
In some countries, the census provides the official used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions. In many cases, a carefully chosen random sample can provide accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is often construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a frame to count the population. This is the way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known, the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is already known. However, a census is used to collect data on the individuals in the nation. This process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, which was a house to house process or the product of a decree. The sampling frame used by census is almost always an address register, thus it is not known if there is anyone resident or how many people there are in each household.
Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, a particular problem is what are termed communal establishments which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc
New Orleans metropolitan area
As of the April 1,2012, the metropolitan statistical area had a population of 1,227,096. The New Orleans-Metairie-Hammond Combined Statistical Area, an area, had a population of 1,452,502. The metropolitan area was hit by Hurricane Katrina – once a Category 5 hurricane, within the city of New Orleans proper, multiple breaches and structural failures occurred in the system of levees and flood walls designed under Federal government auspices. The resulting decline in the population negatively impacted population numbers for the entire metro area. The New Orleans–Metairie–Bogalusa Combined Statistical Area is made up of nine parishes, the CSA includes two metropolitan area and one micropolitan areas. The Census Bureaus CSA adds Washington and Tangipahoa Parishes, to make nine parishes, the New Orleans regions chamber of commerce, GNO, Inc. includes the nine parishes of the Census Bureaus CSA plus St. James Parish. This wider 10-parish region had a population of 1.32 million as of July 1,2008, the Louisiana state legislature created a commission, the Regional Planning Commission, to be responsible for the planning and development of the New Orleans metropolitan area.
The five parishes covered by the commission are, Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, additionally, St. Charles and St. John the Baptist are associate members of the Regional Planning Commission. The New Orleans metropolitan area was first defined in 1950, known as the New Orleans Standard Metropolitan Area, it consisted of three parishes – Orleans, and St. Bernard – and had a population of 685,405. Following a term change by the Bureau of the Budget, the New Orleans SMA was called the New Orleans Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area, by the census of 1960, the population had grown to 868,480, a 27% increase over the previous census. St. Tammany Parish was added the New Orleans SMSA in 1963, the four-parish area had a combined population of 899,123 in 1960 and 1,045,809 in 1970. By the 1980 census, the population had increased by 14% to 1,187,073, in 1983, the official name was shortened to the New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area. Two more parishes, St. Charles and St. John the Baptist, were added to the MSA the same year, making a six-parish MSA.
The newly defined area had a total of 1,256,256 residents in 1980, the New Orleans MSA expanded to eight parishes in 1993 with the inclusion of Plaquemines and St. James. The eight-parish area had a population of 1,285,270 at the 1990 census and 1,337,726 in 2000. The MSA was renamed the New Orleans–Metairie–Kenner Metropolitan Statistical Area in 2003, St. James Parish was removed from the defined metropolitan area. A total of 1,316,510 people lived in the seven parishes of Greater New Orleans in 2000, the City of Kenner is the largest incorporated city located in Jefferson Parish, just west of the City of New Orleans. In the New Orleans metropolitan area, the following terms are used, Westbank, Northshore
F. W. Woolworth Company
The F. W. Woolworth Company was a retail company and one of the original pioneers of the five-and-dime store. It was arguably the most successful American and international business, setting trends. The first Woolworth store was opened by Frank Winfield Woolworth on February 22,1878, as Woolworths Great Five Cent Store in Utica, though it initially appeared to be successful, the store soon failed. When Woolworth searched for a new location, a friend suggested Lancaster, using the sign from the Utica store, Woolworth opened his first successful Woolworths Great Five Cent Store on July 18,1879, in Lancaster. He brought his brother, Charles Sumner Woolworth, into the business, the two Woolworth brothers pioneered and developed merchandising, direct purchasing and customer service practices commonly used today. The chain went out of business in July 1997, when the decided to focus primarily on sporting goods. By 2001, the company focused exclusively on the goods market, changing its name to the present Foot Locker.
Retail chains using the Woolworth name survive in Austria, Mexico and, until the start of 2009, Woolworths Limited did take their name from the original company, as it had not been registered or trademarked in Australia at the time. Similarly, in South Africa, Woolworths Holdings Limited operates a Marks & Spencer-like store and uses the Woolworth name, the property development company Woolworth Group in Cyprus began life as an offshoot of the British Woolworths company, originally operating Woolworths department stores in Cyprus. In 2003, these stores were rebranded Debenhams, but the property arm of the business retained the Woolworths name. The F. W. Woolworth Co. had the first five-and-dime stores, Woolworth, as the stores popularly became known, was one of the first American retailers to put merchandise out for the shopping public to handle and select without the assistance of a sales clerk. Earlier retailers had kept all merchandise behind a counter and customers presented the clerk with a list of items they wished to buy, the store failed and closed in May 1878, after Frank earned enough money to pay back William Moore.
Frank soon made an attempt, and opened his Woolworths Great Five Cent Store, using the same sign, on June 21,1879, in Lancaster. Lancaster proved a success, and Frank never forgot the city for the rest of his life, Frank wanted to open a second store in Harrisburg, and so he asked his brother Charles Sumner Sum Woolworth to join him by managing it. The Harrisburg store opened as, 5¢ Woolworth Bros Store on July 19,1879, after a falling-out with the landlord, that store moved to York, opening in March 1880. That store did not last long either, closing three months later, Frank searched for a larger, low-rent building. He found a location in Scranton, Pennsylvania, at 125 Penn Avenue. The Scranton store is where Sum fully developed the brothers 5¢ & 10¢ merchandising model, Sum spent a lot of time working the sales floor, talking with customers and employees
Founded in New Orleans in 1898, Adlers is housed at 722-724 Canal Street in the citys historic shopping district. Adler’s began as Coleman Adler Jewelry in 1898 in a shop on Royal Street in the French Quarter. In its early years, Adler’s designed call-out favors and other jewelry for Mardi Gras krewes, in 1902, the store moved to 810 Canal Street. In 1904, Adler’s was chosen to create the Times-Picayune Loving Cup awarded to educator Sophie B. Wright, Adler’s designed and crafted the silver service the State of Louisiana presented to the navy’s U. S. S. Louisiana upon its first arrival at the port of New Orleans in December,1906, the firm moved to its current location at 722-724 Canal Street in 1909. In 1912, the State of Louisiana chose Adlers to design, the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art houses one of Adlers Centennial Coins in their permanent collection. Adler’s designed the silver football trophy awarded to the winner of the annual Thanksgiving Day football game played between Tulane University and Centenary College during the 1920s.
The second generation of Adler’s Jewelry began in 1932 when Coleman’s sons Milton and Walter Adler joined the company as vice-president, the firm officially changed its name to Coleman E. Adler and Sons. A number of items from Adler’s Jewelry have enjoyed local favor over the years, including Vacheron-Constantin pocket watches, since the 1930s, the store’s gift gallery has hosted numerous art and cultural events. The 1937 “Exhibit of Old Masters” featured works by Van Dyck, Goya, Adler’s hosted the New Orleans Garden League’s annual flower show for many years, and as well as a Steuben glass exhibit in cooperation with the Institute of International Education 1961. The gallery has showcased famous gems from around the world, including the Maximillian diamond, in 1953, Tiffany and Co. of New York chose Adler’s as its sole local representative. That same year, Adler’s designed the official 14-carat gold plaque commemorating the 150th anniversary of the Louisiana Purchase presented to President Eisenhower, window displays have long been a big part of Adler’s connection to the New Orleans community.
Adler’s regularly coordinated their displays with events in civic life. The store created a display for the local Association of Commerce’s “Made in New Orleans Week. ”In 1953. Adlers Jewelry is now owned and run by third- and fourth-generation members of the Adler family, Coleman E. Adler II, the founder’s grandson, is the current president of the firm. His children Tiffany, Coleman III, and Mildred Ann Adler are on the executive team, the company still creates signature designs for Mardi Gras krewes each year, and Adler’s is the only local dealer for Patek Philippe watches, Gien tableware, and Royal Copenhagen china. In 2012, Adler’s minted the Louisiana Bicentennial coin using its press from the 1912 Centennial coin