National monument (United States)
In the United States, a national monument is a protected area, similar to a national park, but can be created from any land owned or controlled by the federal government by proclamation of the President of the United States. National monuments can be managed by one of several federal agencies: the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; some national monuments were managed by the War Department. National monuments can be so designated through the power of the Antiquities Act of 1906. President Theodore Roosevelt used the act to declare Devils Tower in Wyoming as the first U. S. national monument. The Antiquities Act of 1906 resulted from concerns about protecting prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts on federal lands in the American West; the Act authorized permits for legitimate archaeological investigations and penalties for taking or destroying antiquities without permission.
Additionally, it authorized the president to proclaim "historic landmarks and prehistoric structures, other objects of historic or scientific interest" on federal lands as national monuments, "the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected."The reference in the act to "objects of...scientific interest" enabled President Theodore Roosevelt to make a natural geological feature, Devils Tower in Wyoming, the first national monument three months later. Among the next three monuments he proclaimed in 1906 was Petrified Forest in Arizona, another natural feature. In 1908, Roosevelt used the act to proclaim more than 800,000 acres of the Grand Canyon as a national monument. In 1918, President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed Katmai National Monument in Alaska, comprising more than 1,000,000 acres. Katmai was enlarged to nearly 2,800,000 acres by subsequent Antiquities Act proclamations and for many years was the largest national park system unit.
Petrified Forest, Grand Canyon, Great Sand Dunes were originally proclaimed as national monuments and designated as national parks by Congress. In response to Roosevelt's declaration of the Grand Canyon monument, a putative mining claimant sued in federal court, claiming that Roosevelt had overstepped the Antiquities Act authority by protecting an entire canyon. In 1920, the United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the Grand Canyon was indeed "an object of historic or scientific interest" and could be protected by proclamation, setting a precedent for the use of the Antiquities Act to preserve large areas. Federal courts have since rejected every challenge to the president's use of Antiquities Act preservation authority, ruling that the law gives the president exclusive discretion over the determination of the size and nature of the objects protected. Substantial opposition did not materialize until 1943, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed Jackson Hole National Monument in Wyoming.
He did this to accept a donation of lands acquired by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. for addition to Grand Teton National Park after Congress had declined to authorize this park expansion. Roosevelt's proclamation unleashed a storm of criticism about use of the Antiquities Act to circumvent Congress. A bill abolishing Jackson Hole National Monument passed Congress but was vetoed by Roosevelt, Congressional and court challenges to the proclamation authority were mounted. In 1950, Congress incorporated most of the monument into Grand Teton National Park, but the act doing so barred further use of the proclamation authority in Wyoming except for areas of 5,000 acres or less; the most substantial use of the proclamation authority came in 1978, when President Jimmy Carter proclaimed 15 new national monuments in Alaska after Congress had adjourned without passing a major Alaska lands bill opposed in that state. Congress passed a revised version of the bill in 1980 incorporating most of these national monuments into national parks and preserves, but the act curtailed further use of the proclamation authority in Alaska.
The proclamation authority was not used again anywhere until 1996, when President Bill Clinton proclaimed the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Utah. This action was unpopular in Utah, bills were introduced to further restrict the president's authority. None of which have been enacted. Most of the 16 national monuments created by President Clinton are managed not by the National Park Service, but by the Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. Presidents have used the Antiquities Act's proclamation authority not only to create new national monuments but to enlarge existing ones. For example, Franklin D. Roosevelt enlarged Dinosaur National Monument in 1938. Lyndon B. Johnson added Ellis Island to Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965, Jimmy Carter made major additions to Glacier Bay and Katmai National Monuments in 1978. On June 24, 2016, President Barack Obama designated the Stonewall Inn and surrounding areas in Greenwich Village, New York as the Stonewall National Monument, the first national monument commemorating the struggle for LGBT rights in the United States.
List of U. S. National Forests List of areas in the United States National Park System List of U. S. wilderness areas Protected areas of the United States List of proposed national monuments of the United States National monument proclamations under the Antiquities Act Congressional Research Service reports regar
Perseverance Hall No. 4 is a historic building within the New Orleans Jazz National Historical Park in New Orleans, United States. A Masonic lodge, it was built between 1819 and 1820, making it the oldest Masonic temple in Louisiana, its historic significance is based on its use for dances, where black jazz performers and bands played for black or white audiences. Various organizations, both black and white, rented Perseverance Hall for dances, Monday night banquets, recitals; the building was used by multiple masonic lodges Persévérance no. 4, but l'Etoile Polaire no. 1, Germania Lodge no. 46, Amor Fraternal no. 4, Trinosophes no. 1, Perfect Union no. 1. During the early 20th century, some bands, such as the Golden Rule Band, were barred from appearing at Perseverance Hall because management considered them too undignified for the place; the building served as a terminal point for Labor Day parades involving white and black bands. During the 1920s and 1930s, well past the formative years of jazz, various jazz bands played there.
Perseverance Hall was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 2, 1973
Poverty Point State Historic Site is a prehistoric earthwork constructed by the Poverty Point culture. The Poverty Point site is located in present-day northeastern Louisiana though evidence of the Poverty Point culture extends throughout much of the Southeastern United States; the culture extended 100 miles across south to the Gulf Coast. The Poverty Point site has been designated as a U. S. National Monument, a U. S. National Historic Landmark, UNESCO World Heritage Site. Located in the Southern United States, the site is 15.5 miles from the current flow of the Mississippi River, is situated on the edge of Macon Ridge, near the village of Epps in West Carroll Parish, Louisiana. The Poverty Point site contains earthen ridges and mounds, built by American Indians between 1700 and 1100 BC during the Late Archaic period in North America. Archaeologists have proposed a variety of possible functions for the site including as a settlement, a trading center, and/or a ceremonial religious complex. Other writers have proposed pseudo-archaeological and New Age associations.
The 402-acre property now operated as the Poverty Point State Historic Site contains "the largest and most complex Late Archaic earthwork occupation and ceremonial site yet found in North America". Euroamericans described the site in the 19th century. Poverty Point has been the focus of professional archaeological excavations since the 1950s; the earthworks are named after a 19th century plantation on the property. The Monumental Earthworks of Poverty Point consist of a series of earthen ridges, earthen mounds, a central plaza; the earthworks core of the site measures about 345 acres, although archaeological investigations have shown that the total occupation area extended for more than three miles along the Bayou Macon. The earthworks include six concentric, C-shaped ridges that extend to the edge of the Macon Ridge and several mounds outside and inside of the earthen ridges; the main part of the monument is the six concentric C-shaped ridges. Each ridge is separated from the next by a gulley.
The ridges are divided by four aisles forming earthwork sectors. Three additional linear ridges or causeways connect earthen features in the southern half of the ridges. Today the ridges vary from 0.3 to 6 ft in height relative to the adjacent swales. Archaeologists believe they were once higher in places, but have been worn down through 150 years of agricultural plowing; the rounded crest of each ridge varies from 50 - 80 ft in width. The width of the intervening swales is 65 - 100 ft; the approximate diameter of the outside ridge is three-quarters of a mile, while the innermost ridge's diameter is about three-eighths of a mile. The scale of the ridges is so massive that it wasn't until researchers examined aerial photographs that they were able to recognize the geometric design. Radiocarbon dates suggest that most of the ridges were constructed between 1600 and 1300 BC. Enclosed by the innermost concentric ridge and the eastern edge of Macon Ridge is a large, 37.5-acre, plaza. Although the plaza appears to be a flat area, it has been modified extensively.
In addition to filled gullies, archaeologists found that soil was added to raise the level of the ground surface in some areas by as much as 3.3 ft. In the 1970s, excavations revealed evidence of huge wooden posts in the western plaza. Geophysical survey identified several complex circular magnetic features, ranging from about 82 ft to 206 ft in diameter, in the southern half of the plaza. Based on the geophysical data, archaeologists with the University of Louisiana at Monroe and Mississippi State University undertook targeted excavations of some of the circular magnetic features. Radiocarbon dates from the post pit fill and from overlying features indicate the post circles were part of the landscape built by Native Americans as the earthworks were under construction; the earthen mounds are the most visible earthworks at the site. The largest of these, Mound A, is 72 ft tall at its highest point and about 705 x 660 ft at its base. Mound A is located to the west of the ridges, is T-shaped when viewed from above.
Some have interpreted Mound A as being in the shape of a bird or as an "Earth island" representing the cosmological center of the site. Researchers have learned that Mound A was constructed probably over a period of less than three months. Prior to construction, the vegetation covering the area of Mound A was burned. According to radiocarbon analysis, this burning occurred between 1450 and 1250 BC; the prehistoric builders covered the burnt area with a layer of silt, followed by the main construction effort. There are no signs of construction phases or weathering of the mound fill at microscopic levels, indicating that construction proceeded in a single massive effort over a short period. In total volume, Mound A is made up of 8,400,000 cubic feet of fill, making it the second-largest earthen mound in eastern North America, it is second in overall size to the Mississippian-culture Monks Mound at Cahokia, built beginning about 950-1000 AD in present-day Illinois near the Mississippi River. Shallow borrow pits are located near Mound A.
The Poverty Point people carried dirt from those borrow pits and from elsewhere on the site to build the mound. Mound B is located north and west of the six concentric ridges and 2050 ft north of Mound A; the mound is conical in form and is ap
A visitor center or centre, visitor information center, tourist information center, is a physical location that provides tourist information to visitors. A visitor center may be: A visitor center at a specific attraction or place of interest, such as a landmark, national park, national forest, or state park, providing information and in-depth educational exhibits and artifact displays. A film or other media display is used. If the site has permit requirements or guided tours, the visitor center is the place where these are coordinated. A tourist information center, providing visitors to a location with information on the area's attractions, lodgings and other items relevant to tourism; these centers are operated at the airport or other port of entry, by the local government or chamber of commerce. A visitor center is called an information center. A corporate visitor center, provides visitors with an accessible window into the corporation. Visitor centers used to provide basic information about the place, corporation or event they are celebrating, acting more as the entry way to a place.
The role of the visitor center has been evolving over the past 10 years to become more of an experience and to tell the story of the place or brand it represents. Many have become experiences in their own right. In the United Kingdom, there is a nationwide network of Tourist Information Centres run by the British Tourist Authority, represented online by the VisitBritain website and public relations organisation. Other TICs are run by local authorities or through private organisations such as local shops in association with BTA. In England, VisitEngland promotes domestic tourism. In Wales, the Welsh Government supports TICs through Visit Wales. In Scotland, the Scottish Government supports VisitScotland, the official tourist organisation of Scotland, which operates Tourist Information Centres across Scotland. In Poland there are special tables giving free information about tourist attractions. Offices are situated in interesting places in popular tourists' destinations and tables stay near monuments and important culture In North America, a welcome center is a rest area with a visitor center, located after the entrance from one state or province to another state or province or in some cases another country along an Interstate Highway or other freeway.
These information centers are operated by the state. The first example opened on 4 May 1935, next to US 12 in New Buffalo, near the Indiana state line. Many United States cities, such as Houston and Boca Raton, Florida, as well as counties and other areas smaller than states operate welcome centers, though with less facilities than state centers have. In Ontario, there are 11 Ontario Travel Information Centres located along 400-series highways. Peru features Iperú, Tourist Information and Assistance, a free service that provides tourist information for domestic and foreign travelers, the information covers destinations, recommended routes and licensed tourism companies in Peru, it provides assistance on various procedures or where tourists have problems of various kinds. Iperú receives suggestions for destinations and tourism companies operating in Peru. Iperú, Tourist Information and Assistance has a nationwide network represented online by the Peru.travel website, the 24/7 line 5748000, 31 local offices in 13 regions in all over Peru: Lima-Callao, Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Arequipa, Puno, Cusco and Iquitos.
The official tourist organization or national tourist board of Peru is PromPerú, a national organization that promotes both tourism and international commerce of this country worldwide. In Australia, most visitor centres are local or state government-run, or in some cases as an association of tourism operators on behalf of the government managed by a board or executive; those that comply with a national accreditation programme use the italic "i" as pictured above. These visitor information centres provide information on the local area, perform services such as accommodation and tour bookings, flight/bus/train/hire car options, act as the first point of contact a visitor has with the town or region. Heritage center Heritage interpretation Interpretation center Nature center United States Capitol Visitor Center Communicating with visitors – 16 tips for visitor centers
New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
Bayou Segnette State Park
Bayou Segnette State Park is located in Westwego, Jefferson Parish, southwest of New Orleans, Louisiana, on the west bank of the Mississippi River. Bayou Segnette is not far from the urban center of New Orleans, yet it features access to two types of wetlands and marsh. Saltwater intrusion coming into the canals from the Gulf of Mexico created the marsh; this is a remarkable habitat for wildlife. This habitat is home to American alligators, nine-banded armadillos, Virginia opossum, American mink, red-tailed hawks, red-winged blackbirds, bald eagles, northern cardinals. Alario Center Bayou Segnette Field Boat launch with access to the marshlands and waterways of the Bayou 16 vacation cabins with air conditioning and fishing piers Camping for RVs and tents – There are 98 sites with water and electricity. Comfort stations with showers and laundry RV dump station Group camp with kitchen and dormitories for up to 120 people Meeting room which accommodates 60 to 100 people Wave pool in the day use area and swimming pool in the campground area 1 mile nature trail Grand Isle State Park List of Louisiana state parks Pamphlets distributed by the Louisiana State Parks.
Bayou Segnette State Park – official state web page
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i