New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Seas to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In March 2019, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a British penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony also included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the original inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi wodi peoples are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi peoples lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung peoples are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. In 1770 Lieutenant James Cook was the first European to visit New South Wales when he conducted a survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I
Hangin' Tough is an album by American country music artist Waylon Jennings, released on MCA Records in 1987. Jennings, who fought RCA and the Nashville system tooth and nail to gain control over his music in the early seventies sought out Music Row's most commercial songwriters for Hangin' Tough, produced by Jennings and Jimmy Bowen. Like his previous album Will the Wolf Survive, it displays a slicker sound typical of the records coming out of Nashville in the mid-1980s, utilizing synthesizers and digital recording, but Jennings vocal style on the LP, which AllMusic describes as "stout and unflappable," carries off the songs with conviction. "Rose in Paradise," written by Jim McBride and Stewart Harris, was released in January 1987 as the first single from the album and became Jennings' twelfth number one country single, remaining there for one week and spending a total of nineteen weeks on the country chart. The song tells the story of a wealthy, jealous banker from Macon who keeps his wife a virtual prisoner in his mansion.
The woman, the "rose in paradise," leaves her husband and runs off with the gardener. A second single, "Fallin' Out," a song about a troubled marriage, reached #8. Hangin' Tough displays Jennings' fondness for digressing beyond the country format. "Chevy Van,", a hit single for Sammy Johns in 1973, details how an unnamed male driver picks up an unnamed female, who proceeds to seduce him into a one-night stand in the back of his Chevrolet Van. At the end he drops her off "in a town, so small, you could throw a rock from end to end. A dirt road main street, she walked off in bare feet", laments "It's a shame I won't be passing through again." Jennings looks back to the seventies again with his reading of Gerry Rafferty's 1978 hit "Baker Street," which opens the album and substitutes a bluesy, Eric Clapton-sounding guitar solo for the original's famous saxophone tag line. Another interesting song choice is "Defying Gravity". Jennings, only drug-free at the time of the sessions expressed disappointment with the album and his performance: "After I signed with MCA, we gave it out best shot, through a couple of albums...
On Will the Wolf Survive? and Hangin' Tough, it was like I was off in a corner of a separate room, clouded by delay, distanced. I wasn't leading the band. I was trying to get my feet back on the ground, that took as much concentration as singing. Though I was off drugs, I was still smoking and my voice showed the wear and tear." Hangin' Tough, Jennings second release on MCA, peaked at #19 on the Billboard country albums chart, starting to be dominated by a new generation of younger country singers like Randy Travis. AllMusic: "Waylon articulates a unique romantic dilemma in'I Can't Help the Way I Don't Feel About You,' emphasizing the irony of the situation... Most impressive, though, is the unguarded melancholy so eloquently expressed in the heartbreaking'Crying Don't Even Come Close.' Hangin' Tough isn't a definitive Waylon album, but it will reveal its share of diamonds in the rough to hardcore fans." "Baker Street" – 4:33 "I Can't Help the Way I Don't Feel About You" – 4:21 "Rose in Paradise" – 3:42 "Crying Don't Even Come Close" – 2:28 "Chevy Van" – 3:06 "Fallin' Out" – 3:35 "Deep in the West" – 3:58 "Between Fathers and Sons" – 3:18 "The Crown Prince" – 4:08 "Defying Gravity" – 3:31 Richard Bennett - acoustic guitar Matt Betton - drums Jerry Bridges - bass guitar Larry Byrom - electric guitar John Jarvis - piano, synthesizer Waylon Jennings - lead and background vocals Ralph Mooney - steel guitar Mark O'Connor - mandola, mandolin Steve Schaffer - synclavier Gary Scruggs - electric guitar, acoustic guitar Billy Joe Walker, Jr. - electric guitar, acoustic guitar Curtis "Mr. Harmony" Young - background vocals Reggie Young - electric guitar
Giovanni Granafei was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archdiocese of Bari and Bishop of Alessano. Giovanni Granafei was born in Brindisi, Italy in 1605. On 9 June 1653, he was appointed during the papacy of Pope Innocent X as Bishop of Alessano. On 22 June 1653, he was consecrated bishop by Marcantonio Franciotti, Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria della Pace, with Giambattista Spada, Titular Patriarch of Constantinople, Ranuccio Scotti Douglas, Bishop Emeritus of Borgo San Donnino, serving as co-consecrators. On 11 October 1666, he was appointed during the papacy of Pope Alexander VII as Archdiocese of Bari, he served as Bishop of Bari until his death on 18 March 1683. While bishop, he was the principal consecrator of Bishop of Castro di Puglia. Cheney, David M. "Diocese of Alessano". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. Retrieved June 16, 2018. Chow, Gabriel. "Titular Episcopal See of Alessano". GCatholic.org. Retrieved June 16, 2018. Cheney, David M. "Archdiocese of Bari-Bitonto". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
Chow, Gabriel. "Metropolitan Archdiocese of Bari–Bitonto". GCatholic.org. Retrieved June 16, 2018