A portico is a porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls. This idea was used in ancient Greece and has influenced many cultures, including most Western cultures; some noteworthy examples of porticos are the East Portico of the United States Capitol, the portico adorning the Pantheon in Rome and the portico of University College London. Porticos are sometimes topped with pediments. Palladio was a pioneer of using temple-fronts for secular buildings. In the UK, the temple-front applied to The Vyne, was the first portico applied to an English country house. A pronaos is the inner area of the portico of a Greek or Roman temple, situated between the portico's colonnade or walls and the entrance to the cella, or shrine. Roman temples had an open pronaos with only columns and no walls, the pronaos could be as long as the cella; the word pronaos is Greek for "before a temple". In Latin, a pronaos is referred to as an anticum or prodomus.
The different variants of porticos are named by the number of columns. The "style" suffix comes from the Greek στῦλος, "column"; the tetrastyle has four columns. The Romans favoured the four columned portico for their pseudoperipteral temples like the Temple of Portunus, for amphiprostyle temples such as the Temple of Venus and Roma, for the prostyle entrance porticos of large public buildings like the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine. Roman provincial capitals manifested tetrastyle construction, such as the Capitoline Temple in Volubilis; the North Portico of the White House is the most notable four-columned portico in the United States. Hexastyle buildings had six columns and were the standard façade in canonical Greek Doric architecture between the archaic period 600–550 BCE up to the Age of Pericles 450–430 BCE; some well-known examples of classical Doric hexastyle Greek temples: The group at Paestum comprising the Temple of Hera, the Temple of Apollo, the first Temple of Athena and the second Temple of Hera The Temple of Athena Aphaia at Aegina c. 495 BCE Temple E at Selinus dedicated to Hera The Temple of Zeus at Olympia, now a ruin Temple F or the so-called "Temple of Concord" at Agrigentum, one of the best-preserved classical Greek temples, retaining all of its peristyle and entablature.
The "unfinished temple" at Segesta The Hephaesteum below the Acropolis at Athens, long known as the "Theseum" one of the most intact Greek temples surviving from antiquity The Temple of Poseidon on Cape Sunium Hexastyle was applied to Ionic temples, such as the prostyle porch of the sanctuary of Athena on the Erechtheum, at the Acropolis of Athens. With the colonization by the Greeks of Southern Italy, hexastyle was adopted by the Etruscans and subsequently acquired by the ancient Romans. Roman taste favoured narrow pseudoperipteral and amphiprostyle buildings with tall columns, raised on podiums for the added pomp and grandeur conferred by considerable height; the Maison Carrée at Nîmes, France, is the best-preserved Roman hexastyle temple surviving from antiquity. Octastyle buildings had eight columns; the best-known octastyle buildings surviving from antiquity are the Parthenon in Athens, built during the Age of Pericles, the Pantheon in Rome. The destroyed Temple of Divus Augustus in Rome, the centre of the Augustan cult, is shown on Roman coins of the 2nd century CE as having been built in octastyle.
The decastyle has ten columns. The only known Roman decastyle portico is on the Temple of Venus and Roma, built by Hadrian in about 130 CE. Classical architecture List of classical architecture terms Hypostyle Loggia Stoa Porte-cochere "Greek architecture". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1968. Stierlin, Henri. Editor-in-chief Angelika Taschen, ed. Greece: From Mycenae to the Parthenon. Cologne: TASCHEN. ISBN 3-8228-1225-0. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list Stierlin, Henri. Silvia Kinkle, ed; the Roman Empire: From the Etruscans to the Decline of the Roman Empire. Cologne: TASCHEN. ISBN 3-8228-1778-3
Birmingham pub bombings
The Birmingham pub bombings were carried out on 21 November 1974, when bombs exploded in two public houses in Birmingham, killing 21 people and injuring 182 others. The Provisional Irish Republican Army has never admitted responsibility for the Birmingham pub bombings, although a former senior officer of the organisation confessed to their involvement in 2014. In 2017, one of the alleged perpetrators, Michael Hayes claimed that the intention of the bombings had not been to harm civilians, that their deaths had been caused by an unintentional delay in delivering an advance telephone warning to security services. Six Irishmen were arrested within hours of the blasts, in 1975 sentenced to life imprisonment for the bombings; the men—who became known as the Birmingham Six—maintained their innocence and insisted police had coerced them into signing false confessions through severe physical and psychological abuse. After 16 years in prison, a lengthy campaign, their convictions were declared unsafe and unsatisfactory, quashed by the Court of Appeal in 1991.
The episode is seen as one of the worst miscarriages of justice in British legal history. The Birmingham pub bombings were one of the deadliest acts of the Troubles, the deadliest act of terrorism to occur in England between the Second World War and the 2005 London bombings. In 1973, the Provisional IRA extended its campaign to mainland Britain, attacking military and symbolically important targets to both increase pressure on the British government, via popular British opinion, to withdraw from Northern Ireland, to maintain morale amongst their supporters. By 1974, mainland Britain saw an average of one attack—successful or otherwise—every three days; these attacks included five explosions which had occurred in Birmingham on 14 July, one of which had occurred at the Rotunda. Prior to any attack upon civilian targets, a code of conduct was followed in which the attacker or attackers would send an anonymous telephone warning to police, with the caller reciting a confidential code word known only to the Provisional IRA and to police, to indicate the authenticity of the threat.
On 14 November, James McDade, a 28-year-old UK-based member of the Provisional IRA, was killed in a premature explosion as he attempted to plant a bomb at a telephone exchange and postal sorting office in Coventry. Another man, Raymond McLaughlin, was arrested near the scene; the republican movement in England had planned to bury McDade in Birmingham, with a paramilitary guard of honour. These plans were altered after the British Home Secretary vowed that such a funeral, any associated sympathy marches, would be prevented. Councils in the West Midlands chose to ban any processions linked to the death of McDade under the Public Order Act 1936. McDade's body was driven to Birmingham Airport and flown to Ireland on the afternoon of 21 November 1974, his body had been scheduled to be flown to Belfast Airport. All police leave was cancelled on this date, with an extra 1,300 officers drafted into Birmingham to quell any unrest as the hearse carrying McDade's coffin was driven to the airport. McDade's body was buried in Milltown Cemetery in Belfast on 23 November.
According to a senior Provisional IRA figure, tensions within the Birmingham IRA unit were "running high" over the disrupted funeral arrangements for James McDade. In the early evening hours of 21 November, at least three bombs connected to timing devices were planted inside two separate public houses and outside a bank located in and around central Birmingham, it is unknown when these bombs were planted. According to testimony delivered at the 1975 trial of the six men wrongly convicted of the Birmingham pub bombings, the bomb planted inside the Mulberry Bush was concealed inside either a duffel bag or briefcase, whereas the bomb planted inside the Tavern in the Town was concealed inside a briefcase or duffel bag and Christmas cracker boxes; the remnants of two alarm clocks recovered from the site of each explosion leaves the possibility that two bombs had been planted at each public house. Those who planted these bombs walked to a preselected phone box to telephone the advance warning to security services.
At 20:11, an unknown man with a distinct Irish accent telephoned the Birmingham Post newspaper. The call was answered by an operator named Ian Cropper; this caller said: "There is a bomb planted in the Rotunda and there is a bomb in New Street at the tax office. This is Double X", before terminating the call. A similar warning was sent to the Birmingham Evening Mail newspaper, with the anonymous caller again giving the code word, but again failing to name the public houses in which the bombs had been planted; the Rotunda is a 25-storey office block. Within minutes of the warning, police arrived and began checking the
Lloyds Bank plc is a British retail and commercial bank with branches across England and Wales. It has traditionally been considered one of the "Big Four" clearing banks; the bank was founded in Birmingham in 1765. It expanded during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and took over a number of smaller banking companies. In 1995 it merged with the Trustee Savings Bank and traded as Lloyds TSB Bank plc between 1999 and 2013; the bank is the principal subsidiary of Lloyds Banking Group, formed in January 2009 by the acquisition of HBOS by the then-Lloyds TSB Group. That year, following the UK bank rescue package, the British Government took a 43.4% stake in Lloyds Banking Group. As a condition imposed by the European Commission regarding state aid, the group announced that it would create a new standalone retail banking business, made up of a number of Lloyds TSB branches and those of Cheltenham & Gloucester; the new business began operations on 9 September 2013 under the TSB brand. Lloyds TSB was subsequently renamed Lloyds Bank on 23 September 2013.
On 17 March 2017, the British Government confirmed its remaining shares in Lloyds Banking Group had been sold. Lloyds Bank is the largest retail bank in Britain, has an extensive network of branches and ATM in England and Wales and offers 24-hour telephone and online banking services; as of 2012 it has 16 million small business accounts. It has other offices in Wales and Scotland, it operates a number of office complex, brand headquarters and data centres in Yorkshire including Leeds and Halifax. The origins of Lloyds Bank date from 1765, when button maker John Taylor and Quaker iron producer and dealer Sampson Lloyd set up a private banking business in Dale End, Birmingham; the first branch office opened in Oldbury, some six miles west of Birmingham, in 1864. The symbol adopted by Taylors and Lloyds was the beehive, representing hard work; the black horse regardant device dates from 1677, when Humphrey Stokes adopted it as sign for his shop. Stokes was a goldsmith and "keeper of the running cashes" and the business became part of Barnett, Hoares & Co.
When Lloyds took over that bank in 1884, it continued to trade "at the sign of the black horse". The association with the Tailor family ended in 1852 and, in 1865, Lloyds & Co. converted into a joint-stock company known as Lloyds Banking Company Ltd. The first report of the company in 1865 stated:LLOYDS BANKING COMPANY LIMITED – Authorized Capital £2,000,000. FOUNDED ON The Private Banks of Messrs. Lloyds & Co. and Messrs. Moilliet and Sons, with-which have subsequently been amalgamated the Banks of Messrs. P. H. Williams and Messrs. Stevenson, Salt, & Co. Stafford and Lichfield. Your Directors have the satisfaction to report that they have concluded an agreement with the well-known and old-established firm of Messrs. Stevenson, Salt & Company for the amalgamation with this Company of their Banking Business at Stafford, Lichfield and Eccleshall, that this agreement has had the unanimous approval of the Extraordinary General Meeting held on 31st January last, it will be again submitted to you for final confirmation after the close of the Ordinary General Meeting.
TIMOTHY KENRICK, Chairman. BIRMINGHAM, 9th February 1866Two sons of the original partners followed in their footsteps by joining the established merchant bank Barnett, Hoares & Co. which became Barnetts, Hoares and Lloyd— based in Lombard Street, London. This became absorbed into the original Lloyds Banking Company, which became Lloyds and Bosanquets Bank Ltd. in 1884. And Lloyds Bank Limited in 1889. Through a series of mergers, including Cunliffe, Brooks in 1900, the Wilts. and Dorset Bank in 1914 and, by far the largest, the Capital and Counties Bank in 1918, Lloyds emerged to become one of the "Big Four" clearing banks in the United Kingdom. By 1923, Lloyds Bank had made some 50 takeovers, one of, the last private firm to issue its own banknotes—Fox and Company of Wellington, Somerset. Today, the Bank of England has a monopoly of banknote issue in Wales. In 2011, the company founded SGH Martineau LLP. In 1968, a failed attempt at merger with Barclays and Martins Bank was deemed to be against the public interest by the Monopolies and Mergers Commission.
Barclays acquired Martins the following year. In 1972, Lloyds Bank was a founding member of the Joint Credit Card Company which launched the Access credit card; that same year it introduced Cashpoint, the first online cash machine to use plastic cards with a magnetic stripe. In popular use, the Cashpoint trademark has become a generic term for an ATM in the United Kingdom. Under the leadership of Sir Brian Pitman between 1984 and 1997, the bank's business focus was narrowed and it reacted to disastrous lending to South American states by trimming its overseas businesses and seeking growth through mergers with other UK banks. During this period, Pitman tried unsuccessfully to acquire The Royal Bank of Scotland in 1984, Standard Chartered in 1986, Midland Bank in 1992. Lloyds Bank International merged into Lloyds Bank in 1986, since there was no longer an advantage in operating separately. In 1988, Lloyds merged five of its businesses with the Abbey Life Insurance Company to create Lloyds Abbey Life.
The bank merged first with the newly demutualised Cheltenham & Gloucester Building Society with the TSB Group
J. A. Chatwin
Julius Alfred Chatwin FRIBA, ARBS, FSAScot, was a designer of buildings and the most prolific architect involved with the building and modification of churches in Birmingham, building or altering many of the parish churches in the city. He used both the Classical styles, his designs always included all of internal fittings. Born the son of John and Harriet Chatwin, educated at King Edward's School on New Street and the University of London, he was known by the name Alfred, he worked from 1846 as an architect for the largest builders in the country and Gwyther of Birmingham. He was articled to Charles Barry in 1851 and worked with Barry and Augustus Pugin on the Victoria Tower of the Houses of Parliament, he worked again for Gwyther on his enterprises in Llandudno, North Wales. In 1855 he opened an office on Bennett's Hill in Birmingham, he was, from 1866, architect to the Governors of King Edward's School and designed the first King Edward VI High School for Girls on New Street. From 1864 he became architect to Lloyds Bank for over thirty years.
From 1866 he worked with his son, Philip Boughton Chatwin who became his partner in 1897. He was made a Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects on 30 November 1863 and member of the Royal British Society of Sculptors, Royal Society of Arts, Fellow of the Royal Antiquary Society of Scotland, he married at St James, Handsworth on 26 October 1869. He is buried with his wife Edith Isabella Chatwin and daughter Isabella Gertrude Chatwin in St Bartholomew's Church, Edgbaston, his gravestone mentions his daughter Grace Constance Chatwin. J. A. Chatwin was the great-grandfather of the writer Bruce Chatwin, he designed: Bingley Hall, 1850, now demolished School House, Solihull School, 1882, Grade II listed Most of the north side of Colmore Row after 1866 Birmingham Greek Orthodox Cathedral - Dormition of the Mother of God and St Andrew, Grade II listed St Clement, Nechells Park Road, 1857-9 Holy Trinity Church, Birchfield, 1860-3 Grade II* The Joint Stock Bank, Temple Row West, 1862–64, Grade II listed St Matthew's Church and Nechells 1866 addition of galleries to increase seating capacity.
Knutsford Lodge, 25 Somerset Road, Grade II* listed St Augustine's Church, Edgbaston, 1868, with 185 foot spire added Grade II* listed St Lawrence's Church, Duddeston 1868 St Gabriel's Church, Deritend 1867 - 1869 Christ Church, Edgbaston 1883 - 1885 St. John's Church, Ladywood 1881 new chancel All Saints' Church, King's Heath 1883 north aisle St John, Bewdley Road, Kidderminster new nave 1890–94 King Edward VI Five Ways School 1882 - 1883 Lloyds Bank, Queen Square, Grade II listed St Mark's Church, Washwood Heath 1890 - 1899 St Martin in the Bull Ring, Grade II* listed St Mary, chancel 1898 St Mary, Bearwood Road, Bearwood, 1888 St. Mary's Church, Grade II listed St Mary the Virgin, Acocks Green, chancel 1894 St Mary and St Ambrose, Pershore Road, Grade II listed Saints Peter and Paul - Aston Parish Church, 1879, Grade II* listed St. Paul's, Lozells Road, Birmingham St Philip's Cathedral, Grade I listed School and church, Catherine-de-Barnes, Solihull, 1880 Work on Uppingham School, 1870 St John the Evangelist's Church, Perry Barr 1888 new chancel and organ chamber Wolverhampton Art Gallery, 1882, Grade II listed New Berry Hall,1880 & Berry Hall Lodge, Marsh Lane, Solihull, 1884, Grade II listed St. Bartholomew's Church, Edgbaston 1885 new chancel and north arcade.
Church of St. Michael and All Angels, Underwood 1890 Bishop Ryder Church, Birmingham 1894 new chancel St. John's Church, Kidderminster 1892–1904 new chancel and aisles St James' Church, Handsworth 1895. Birmingham. Pevsner Architectural Guides. ISBN 0-300-10731-5. Blue plaque in Wolverhampton St. Martin's in the Bull Ring. Church Guide. 1991. ISBN 0-85101-282-5. Incorporated Church Building Society - Church Plans Online Waterhouse, Rachel. King Edward High School Birmingham 1883-1983. Noszlopy, George T.. Jeremy Beach, ed. Public Sculpture of Birmingham including Sutton Coldfield. ISBN 0-85323-692-5; the Life Story of J. A. Chatwin FRIBA, FSA. Scot 1830-1907, P. B. Chatwin. Oxford University Press. 1952. Bridges, Tim. Phillada Ballard, ed. Birmingham's Victorian and Edwardian Architects. Oblong. ISBN 978-0-9556576-2-7. Autographed portrait from Birmingham Images
HSBC Holdings plc is a British multinational banking and financial services holding company. It is the 7th largest bank in the world, the largest in Europe, with total assets of US$2.558 trillion. HSBC traces its origin to a hong in Hong Kong, its present form was established in London by the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation to act as a new group holding company in 1991; the origins of the bank lie in Hong Kong and to a lesser extent in Shanghai, where branches were first opened in 1865. The HSBC name is derived from the initials of the Shanghai Banking Corporation; the company was first formally incorporated in 1866. The company continues to see both the United Kingdom and Hong Kong as its "home markets". HSBC has around 3,900 offices in 67 countries and territories across Africa, Oceania, North America, South America, around 38 million customers; as of 2014, it was the world's sixth-largest public company, according to a composite measure by Forbes magazine. HSBC is organised within four business groups: Commercial Banking, Global Banking and Markets, Retail Banking and Wealth Management, Global Private Banking.
HSBC has a dual primary listing on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the Hang Seng Index and the FTSE 100 Index. As of 6 July 2012, it had a market capitalisation of £102.7 billion, the second-largest company listed on the London Stock Exchange, after Royal Dutch Shell. It has secondary listings on the New York Stock Exchange, Euronext Paris, the Bermuda Stock Exchange. In February 2015, the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists released information about the business conduct of HSBC under the title Swiss Leaks; the ICIJ alleges that the bank profited from doing business with other clients. The BBC reported that HSBC had put pressure on media not to report about the controversy, with British newspaper The Guardian claiming HSBC advertising had been put "on pause" after The Guardian's coverage of the matter. Peter Oborne, chief political commentator at The Daily Telegraph, resigned from the paper. In 2016, HSBC was sued by Mexican families involved in deaths by organized-crime gangs for processing funds for the Sinaloa cartel.
The Hongkong and Shanghai Bank was founded by Scotsman Thomas Sutherland in the then-British colony of Hong Kong on 3 March 1865, in Shanghai a month benefiting from the start of trading into China, including opium trading. It was formally incorporated as The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation by an Ordinance of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong on 14 August 1866. In 1980, HSBC acquired a 51% shareholding in US-based Marine Midland Bank, which it extended to full ownership in 1987. On 6 October 1989, it was renamed by the Legislative Council, by an amendment to its governing ordinance made in 1929, to The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited, became registered as a regulated bank with the Banking Commissioner of the Government of Hong Kong. HSBC Holdings plc incorporated in England and Wales, in the United Kingdom, as Vernat Trading Company Limited on 1 January 1959 and renamed Vernat Eastern Agencies Limited in the same year, was by a non-trading, dormant shelf company under a different, nominal name, when it completed its transformation on 25 March 1991 into the parent holding company to the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited now as a subsidiary, in preparation for its purchase of the UK-based Midland Bank and the impending transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong to China.
HSBC Holdings' acquisition of Midland Bank was completed in 1992 and gave HSBC a substantial market presence in the United Kingdom. As part of the takeover conditions for the acquisition, HSBC Holdings plc was required to relocate its world headquarters from Hong Kong to London in 1993. Major acquisitions in South America started with the purchase of the Banco Bamerindus of Brazil for $1 billion in March 1997 and the acquisition of Roberts SA de Inversiones of Argentina for $600 million in May 1997. In May 1999, HSBC expanded its presence in the United States with the purchase of Republic National Bank of New York for $10.3 billion. Expansion into Continental Europe took place in April 2000 with the acquisition of Crédit Commercial de France, a large French bank for £6.6 billion. In July 2001 HSBC bought an insolvent Turkish bank. In July 2002, Arthur Andersen announced that HSBC USA, Inc. through a new subsidiary and Tax Advisory Services USA Inc. would purchase a portion of Andersen's tax practice.
The new HSBC Private Client Services Group would serve the wealth and tax advisory needs of high-net-worth individuals. In August 2002 HSBC acquired Grupo Financiero Bital, SA de CV, Mexico's third largest retail bank for $1.1 billion. In November 2002, HSBC expanded further in the United States. Under the chairmanship of John Bond, it spent £9 billion to acquire Household Finance Corporation, a US credit card issuer and subprime lender. In a 2003 cover story, The Banker noted "when banking historians look back, they may conclude, the deal of the first decade of the 21st century". Under the new name of HSBC Finance, the division was the second largest subprime lender in the United States; the new headquarters of HSBC Holdings at 8 Canada Square, London opened in April 2003. In September 2003 HSBC bought Polski Kredyt Bank SA of Poland for $7.8 million. In June 2004 HSBC expanded into China buying 19.9% of the Bank of Communications of Shanghai. In the United Kingdom HSBC acquired
King Edward VI High School for Girls
King Edward VI High School for Girls is an independent secondary school in Edgbaston, England. It is part of the Foundation of the Schools of King Edward VI in Birmingham and occupies the same site as, is twinned with, King Edward's School. KEHS was founded in occupied part of the 1838 New Street boys' school. In 1887, when the adjacent Hen & Chickens Hotel was known to be closing the governors considered acquiring it. In 1888, KEHS moved to the vacated, brand new, Liberal Club in Congreve Street under a short lease. Meanwhile, plans for a new school on the Hen and Chickens site were being drawn up by the foundation's architect, J. A. Chatwin. In 1892, land behind the hotel was bought with the intention of building the girls' school off the main road, hidden behind new commercial premises on New Street to shelter it from street noise; the New Street school opened in 1896. It moved, along with the boys' school, to its present location opposite the University in 1940 to new buildings designed by Holland W. Hobbiss.
At this time a new, green uniform was introduced. The New Street site was leased for the Odeon cinema. Over one of the entrances is the motto Trouthe Schal Delyvere from a poem Truth by Geoffrey Chaucer; the school has been ranked top of the national league tables for both A level and GCSE which has resulted in the school receiving such recent accolades as "Independent School of the Year" from The Times. There are places for 560 girls, 80 in a year with entrance exams taking place in late January; the school encourages independent fostering creativity. Students are offered a wide range of extra-curricular opportunities; the school places great emphasis on community service and each year forms elect a charity to support host countless cake sells, car washes etc. to raise money for the chosen charity. Unlike state secondary schools and in common with many independent schools, KEHS does not use modern year group names, e.g. Year 11, Year 12, etc; the table below attempts to clarify the names of forms used for the different years: The school works in partnership with the adjoining boys' school in many orchestras and drama productions.
During the course of the year there are several plays. There are two separate plays for the junior and senior members of the school. In recent years the two schools have cooperated on productions such as West Side Story, Les Miserables and 13 Mathering End. Towards the end of the year, Upper Sixth-Formers from both schools organise and rehearse a Syndicate play, performed in the last week of term. Previous productions have included The Lion King. In December, the school holds two Christmas Concerts in its newly built Performing Arts Centre. In March every year there is an Orchestral and Choral concert and a Summer Concert in Symphony Hall, to which all the'new' girls for the following September are invited with their families; the school year finishes with the Syndicate Concert, planned and performed by students about to leave the two King Edward's Schools. Throughout the year there are six Lunchtime Concerts, held on Thursdays in the Concert Hall of King Edward's School; these concerts give the musicians, both girls and boys, the opportunity to perform in front of a smaller audience.
The boys school and KEHS now share the newly finished Performing Arts Centre, completed in July 2012. It offers a wide range of facilities, including multiple drama studios and tiered seated hall for assemblies and orchestra performances. In May 2018, KEHS pupil and pianist Lauren Zhang won the prestigious award of BBC Young Musician 2018. Activities are run during the lunch hour but some may take place after school when both training and matches take place; as well as staff within the Department organising teams, the school has a number of external coaches. KEHS runs a Duke of Edinburgh's Award Scheme where girls can gain Bronze and Gold Awards, it now runs a residential activities week for all of the first years at Condover Hall. Each year the school plans to offer students in year 8 the opportunity to take part in Voyager expeditions whilst in year 9 students will be able to take part in First Challenge expeditions. Cycling Tours and Ski Trips are offered throughout the year, weekly Climbing and Cross Country clubs add to the large range of outdoors activities on offer.
Activities on offer during the course of the year are: Janet Ruth Bacon, Royal Holloway College, University of London 1935–44 Celia Barlow, Labour MP and BBC home news editor Reeta Chakrabarti, BBC political correspondent Lindsay Duncan, actress Gillian Evans, philosopher Karthi Gnanasegaram, BBC presenter Anita Harding, neurologist Natalie Haynes and writer Joanne Johnson, polar scientist Sally Jones, TV presenter Olga Kevelos, Motorbike trials rider Vivien Knight, art historian and gallerist Ida Maclean, biochemist Georgina Lee, Olympic swimmer Dorothy Jordan Lloyd, protein scientist Dame Hilda Lloyd, first woman professor at Birmingham University and first female president of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Constance Savery and author of children's books Rose Stern, chemistry teacher and writer Mary Stewart, Baroness Stewart of Alvechurch, politician Waterhouse, Rachel. King Edward VI High School Birmingham 1883–1983. King Edward VI High School Birmingham, Winifred I Candler, Ailsa M Jacques, Beatrice Marion Willmott Dobbie, Birmingham Girls' Old Edwardian Club, Publ