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New Territories

The New Territories is one of the three main regions of Hong Kong, alongside Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula. It makes up 86.2% of Hong Kong's territory, contains around half of the population of Hong Kong. It is the region described in the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory. According to that treaty, the territories comprise the mainland area north of the Boundary Street of Kowloon Peninsula and south of the Sham Chun River, as well as over 200 outlying islands, including Lantau Island, Lamma Island, Cheung Chau, Peng Chau in the territory of Hong Kong. After New Kowloon was defined from the area between the Boundary Street and the Kowloon Ranges spanned from Lai Chi Kok to Lei Yue Mun, the extension of the urban areas of Kowloon, New Kowloon was urbanised and absorbed into Kowloon; the New Territories now comprises only the mainland north of the Kowloon Ranges and south of the Sham Chun River, as well as the Outlying Islands. It comprises an area of 952 km2. New Kowloon has remained statutorily part of the New Territories instead of Kowloon.

The New Territories were leased from Qing China to the United Kingdom in 1898 for 99 years in the Second Convention of Peking. Upon the expiry of the lease, sovereignty was transferred to the People's Republic of China in 1997, together with the Qing-ceded territories of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Peninsula. In 2011, the population of the New Territories was recorded at 3,691,093. With a population density of 3,801 per square kilometer. Hong Kong Island was ceded to Britain in 1842 and Kowloon south of Boundary Street and Stonecutters Island in 1860; the colony of Hong Kong attracted a large number of Chinese and Westerners to seek their fortune in the city. Its population increased and the city became overcrowded; the outbreak of bubonic plague in 1894 became a concern to the Hong Kong Government. There was a need to expand the colony to accommodate its growing population; the Qing Dynasty's defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War had shown that it was incapable of defending itself. Victoria City and Victoria Harbour were vulnerable to any hostile forces launching attacks from the hills of Kowloon.

Alarmed by the encroachment of other European powers in China, Britain feared for the security of Hong Kong. Using the most favoured nation clause that it had negotiated with Peking, the United Kingdom demanded the extension of Kowloon to counter the influence of France in southern China in June 1898. In July, it secured Weihaiwei in Shandong in the north as a base for operations against the Germans in Qingdao and the Russians in Port Arthur. Chinese officials stayed in the walled cities of Kowloon Weihaiwei; the extension of Kowloon was called the New Territories. The additional land was estimated to be 365 square miles or 12 times the size of the existing Colonial Hong Kong at the time. Although the Convention was signed on the 9 June 1898 and became effective on 1 July, the British did not take over the New Territories immediately. During this period, there was no Hong Kong Wilsone Black acted as administrator. James Stewart Lockhart, the Colonial Secretary of Hong Kong, was sent back from England to make a survey of New Territories before formal transfer.

The survey found that the new frontier at Sham Chun River suggested by Wilsone Black was far from ideal. It excluded the town of Shenzhen, the boundary would divide the town. There was no mountain range as a natural border. Lockhart suggested moving the frontier to the line of hills north of Shenzhen; this suggestion was not received favourably and the Chinese official suggested the frontier be moved to the hill much further south of the Sham Chun River. It was settled in March 1899; the new Hong Kong Governor Henry Blake arrived in November 1898. The date for the takeover of the New Territories was fixed as 17 April 1899 and Tai Po was chosen as the administrative centre; however the transfer was not peaceful. Before the handover in early April, Captain Superintendent of Police, Francis Henry May and some policemen erected a flagstaff and temporary headquarters at Tai Po and posted the Governor's proclamation of the takeover date. Fearing for their traditional land rights, in the Six-Day War of 1899, a number of clans attempted to resist the British, mobilising clan militias, organised and armed to protect against longshore raids by pirates.

The militia men attempted a frontal attack against the temporary police station in Tai Po, the main British base but were beaten back by superior force of arms. An attempt by the clansmen at guerilla warfare was put down by the British near Lam Tsuen with over 500 Chinese men killed, collapsed when British artillery was brought to bear on the walled villages of the clansmen. Most prominent of the villages in the resistance Kat Hing Wai, of the Tang clan, was symbolically disarmed, by having its main gates dismounted and removed. However, in order to prevent future resistance the British made concessions to the indigenous inhabitants with regards to land use, land inheritance and marriage laws; some of the concessions with regard to land use and inheritance remain in place in Hong Kong to this day and is a source of friction between indigenous inhabitants and other Hong Kong residents. Lord Lugard was Governor from 1907 to 1912, he proposed the return of Weihaiwei to the Chinese government, in return for the ceding of the leased New

Raymond G. Sanchez

Raymond G. Sanchez is an American lawyer, a long-time member of the New Mexico House of Representatives. Raymond G. Sanchez was born in Albuquerque, New Mexico, on September 22, 1941, he attended the University of New Mexico where he obtained a BA in Government, a JD from the School of Law. Sanchez was elected to the New Mexico House of Representatives for district 15, North Valley: Bernalillo, in 1971, he held office until 2000. Sanchez and Walter K. Martinez were leaders of the liberal "Mama Lucy Gang"; this group controlled the house and prevented conservative "Cowboy Democrats" from the ranching areas in the south of the state from controlling the main committees. In the 1982 election the liberal Democrats formed a solid majority of the forty seven Democrat members, Sanchez was elected speaker without opposition from the Cowboys. Sanchez was speaker of the house for sixteen years. In 2000 Raymond Sanchez failed to be reelected to the house, losing to the newcomer John Sanchez, a Republican.

The defeat may have been due to voters being confused by the names. After leaving office Sanchez returned to practicing the law working on government relations and personal injury. Sanchez became a president of the regents of the University of New Mexico, his younger brother is Michael Sanchez, former Democrat majority leader of the New Mexico State Senate, a position he held until 2016 when he lost to Republican newcomer, Gregory Baca. In the 2010s Sanchez was working as a lobbyist at the New Mexico legislature for clients such as Virgin Galactic. In 2013 as lobbyist for two Albuquerque cab companies Sanchez was critical of a bill that would open up competition in the industry. Notes Citations Sources

List of state leaders in 1650

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, other rulers in the year 1650. Kingdom of DahomeyHouegbadja Ethiopian EmpireFasilides Emirate of Harar – `Ali ibn Da`ud Kingdom of Kongo - Garcia II of Kongo Sultanate of MoroccoMohammed esh Sheikh es Seghir Ayutthaya KingdomPrasat Thong China Qing dynasty – Shunzhi Emperor Southern MingPrince of Lu Prince of Gui Kingdom of Coorg - Muddu Raja I Dzungar Khanate - Erdeni Batur Empire of Japan – Monarch – Go-Kōmyō Tokugawa shogunateTokugawa Iemitsu Ryukyu KingdomShō Shitsu JoseonHyojong Mughal EmpireShah Jahan Sirmoor StateMandhata Prakash, Raja of Sirmoor Kingdom of Denmark–NorwayFrederick III Kingdom of EnglandOliver Cromwell - Lord Protector, - Rump Parliament Kingdom of France Monarch – Louis XIV RegentAnne of Austria Holy Roman EmpireFerdinand III Electorate of BavariaMaximilian I Brandenburg-Prussia – Frederick William Brunswick-CelleChristian Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Celle Brunswick-Kalenberg – George William, Duke of Brunswick-Kalenberg Duchy of Brunswick-WolfenbüttelAugustus Electorate of CologneFerdinand Maximilian Henry Electorate of Mainz – Johann Philipp Electorate of Trier – Philipp Christoph Electorate of the PalatinateCharles I Louis Electorate of SaxonyJohn George I Stolberg-Wernigerode - Henry Ernest, Count of Stolberg Kingdom of Hungary – Ferdinand III Duchy of MantuaCharles II Duchy of Modena – Francesco I Kingdom of NaplesPhilip IV Ottoman EmpireMehmed IV, the Hunter, Ottoman Sultan Papal StatesPope Innocent X Duchy of ParmaRanuccio II Farnese Polish–Lithuanian CommonwealthJan II Kazimierz Vasa Kingdom of Portugal and the AlgarvesJohn IV Duchy of Prussia – Frederick William Russia - Alexis, Tsar of Russia Duchy of SavoyCharles Emmanuel II Kingdom of Scotland – Charles II Kingdom of Spain – Philip IV Kingdom of Sweden – Christina Principality of TransylvaniaGeorge II Rákóczi Grand Duchy of TuscanyFerdinando II de' Medici United Provinces Estates of Friesland, Guelders, Overijssel, Zeeland Stadtholder - William II, Prince of Orange, Stadtholder of Guelders, Overijssel, Zeeland Grand Pensionary of Holland - Jacob Cats Republic of Venice - Francesco Molin, Doge of Venice BabanFaqi Ahmad Sultanate of Oman – Sultan I bin Saif Mecca – Zeid bin Muhsin, Sharif of Mecca PersiaAbbas II, Shah of Persia YemenAl-Mutawakkil Isma'il, Imam of Yemen