The açaí palm, Euterpe oleracea, is a species of palm tree cultivated for its fruit, hearts of palm and trunk wood. Global demand for the fruit expanded in the 21st century and so the tree is cultivated for that purpose primarily; the species is native to Brazil, Peru and Trinidad and Tobago in swamps and floodplains. Açaí palms are tall, slender trees growing to more than 25 m tall, with pinnate leaves up to 3 m long; the fruit is small and black-purple in color, may be sold as a frozen fruit pulp or bottled juice drink with added sugar or other sweeteners. The fruit is a staple food in the tree's native range, but was only introduced to international markets in the 1980s; the common name comes from the Portuguese adaptation of the Tupian word ïwaca'i, meaning " cries or expels water". The importance of the fruit as a staple food in the Amazon River delta gives rise to the local legend of how the plant got its name; the folklore says. When his own daughter gave birth and the child was sacrificed, she cried and died beneath a newly sprouted tree.
The tree fed the tribe and was called açaí because, the daughter's name spelled backwards. The fruit known as açaí berry or açaí, is a small, black-purple drupe about 25 mm in circumference, similar in appearance to a grape, but smaller and with less pulp and produced in branched panicles of 500 to 900 fruits; the exocarp of the ripe fruits is a deep purple color, or green, depending on the kind of açaí and its maturity. The mesocarp is thin, with a consistent thickness of 1 mm or less, it surrounds the voluminous and hard endocarp, which contains a single large seed about 7–10 mm in diameter. The seed makes up about 60-80% of the fruit; the palm bears fruit year round but the berry cannot be harvested during the rainy season. There are two harvests: one is between January and June, while the other is between August and December; the last harvest is the most important. Few named cultivars exist, varieties differ in the nature of the fruit:'Branco' is a rare variety local to the Amazon estuary in which the berries do not change color, but remain green when ripe.
This is believed to be due to a recessive gene since only about 30% of'Branco' palm seeds mature to express this trait. It has less iron and fewer antioxidants, but more oil, many believe it to have a superior taste and digestibility to purple açaí.'BRS-Para Dwarf' was developed by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Agency. The pulp yield ranges from 15% to 25%.. A powdered preparation of freeze-dried açaí fruit pulp and skin was reported to contain 534 calories, 52 g carbohydrates, 8 g protein, 33 g total fat; the carbohydrate portion included 44 g of dietary fiber with low sugar levels, the fat portion consisted of oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid. The powder was shown to contain negligible vitamin C, 260 mg calcium, 4 mg iron, 1002 IU vitamin A. A comparative analysis from in vitro studies reported that açaí has intermediate polyphenol content relative to 11 varieties of frozen juice pulps, scoring lower than acerola, mango and grapes; the extent to which polyphenols as dietary antioxidants may promote health is unknown, as no credible evidence indicates any antioxidant role for polyphenols in vivo.
When three commercially available juice mixes, containing unspecified percentages of açaí juice, were compared for in vitro antioxidant capacity against red wine, six types of pure fruit juice, pomegranate juice, the average antioxidant capacity ranked lower than that of pomegranate juice, Concord grape juice, blueberry juice, red wine. The average was equivalent to that of black cherry or cranberry juice, was higher than that of orange juice, apple juice, tea; the medical watchdog website Quackwatch said that "açaí juice has only middling levels of antioxidants — less than that of Concord grape and black cherry juices, but more than cranberry and apple juices." The anthocyanins of açaí have relevance to antioxidant capacity only in the plant's natural defense mechanisms, in vitro. Anthocyanins in açaí accounted for only about 10% of the overall antioxidant capacity in vitro; the Linus Pauling Institute and European Food Safety Authority state that "the relative contribution of dietary flavonoids to antioxidant function in vivo is to be small or negligible".
But unlike controlled test tube conditions, in vivo anthocyanins have been shown to be poorly conserved, most of what is absorbed exists as chemically modified metabolites destined for rapid excretion. A powdered preparation of freeze-dried açaí fruit pulp and skin was shown to contain cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside as major anthocyanins; the powdered preparation was reported to contain twelve flavonoid-like compounds, including homoorientin, taxifolin deoxyhexose, scoparin, as well as proanthocyanidins, low levels of resveratrol. In the 1980s, the Brazilian Gracie family marketed açaí as an energy drink or as crushed fruit served with granola and bananas. In the early 2000s, Ryan and Jeremy Black started Sambazon to import açaí into the US. In the early 2000s, many companies flooded the internet with açaí advertising, many of them with counterfeit testimonials
The cherimoya spelled chirimoya and called chirimuya by the Inca people, is an edible fruit-bearing species of the genus Annona from the family Annonaceae. It is thought to be native to Colombia, Ecuador and Bolivia, spreading through cultivation to the Andes and Central America. Cherimoya is grown in tropical regions throughout the world. Mark Twain called the cherimoya "the most delicious fruit known to men"; the creamy texture of the flesh gives the fruit custard apple. It is in Annona, as soursop; the name originates from the Quechua word chirimuya, which means "cold seeds", because the plant grows at high altitudes and the seeds will germinate at higher altitudes. In Bolivia, Chile and Colombia, the fruit is known as chirimoya. Annona cherimola is a dense, fast-growing, woody deciduous but evergreen low branched, spreading tree or shrub 5 metres to 9 metres tall. Mature branches are woody. Young branches and twigs have a matting of short, rust colored hairs; the leathery leaves are 5–25 centimetres long 3–10 centimetres wide and elliptic, pointed at the ends and rounded near the leaf stalk.
When young, they are covered with soft, tangled, rust colored hairs. When mature, the leaves bear hairs only along the veins on the undersurface. Tops are hairless and a dull medium green with paler veins, backs velvety, dull grey-green with raised pale green veins. New leaves are whitish below. Leaves are single and alternate, dark green and hairy on the upper surface, they attach to branches with stout 6 -- 10 millimetres densely hairy leaf stalks. Cherimoya trees bear pale green, fleshy flowers, they are 3 centimetres long, with strong fruity odor. Each flower has three outer, fleshy, downy petals and three smaller, pinkish inner petals with yellow or brown finely matted hairs outside, whitish with purple spot and many stamens on the inside. Flowers appear on the branches opposite to the leaves, solitary or in pairs or groups of three, on flower stalks that are covered densely with fine rust colored hairs, 8–12 millimetres long. Buds are 15 -- 5 -- 8 millimetres wide at the base; the pollen is shed as permanent tetrads.
Cherimoya fruit are large green conical or heart-shaped compound fruit, 10 centimetres to 20 centimetres long, with diameters of 5 centimetres to 10 centimetres, skin that gives the appearance of having overlapping scales or knobby warts. They ripen to brown with a fissured surface from winter into spring; the ripened flesh is creamy white. When ripe, the skin is green and gives to pressure; some characterize the fruit flavor as a blend of banana, papaya and strawberry. The fruit can be chilled and eaten with a spoon, which has earned it another nickname, the ice cream fruit. In Peru and Chile, it is used in ice creams and yogurt; the cherimoya fruits are classed according to degree of surface irregularity, as: Lisa smooth, difficult to discern areoles. The flesh of the cherimoya contains numerous hard, brown or black, bean-like, glossy seeds, 1 centimetre to 2 centimetres long and about half as wide. Cherimoya seeds are poisonous. Like other members of the family Annonaceae, the seeds contain small amounts of neurotoxic acetogenins, such as annonacin, which appear to be linked to atypical parkinsonism in Guadeloupe.
Moreover, an extract of the bark can induce paralysis if injected."The pineapple, the mangosteen, the cherimoya", wrote the botanist Berthold Carl Seemann, "are considered the finest fruits in the world, I have tasted them in those localities where they are supposed to attain their highest perfection – the pineapple in Guayaquil, the mangosteen in the Indian Archipelago, the cherimoya on the slopes of the Andes, if I were asked which would be the best fruit, I would choose without hesitation, cherimoya. Its taste, surpasses that of every other fruit, Haenke was quite right when he called it the masterpiece of Nature." The cherimoya of the Granada-Málaga Tropical Coast is a fruit of the cultivar ‘Fino de Jete′ grown in the Granada-Málaga tropical southern coast of Spain with the EU's appellation protected designation of origin status. The cultivar'Fino de Jete' has skin type Impressa, are smooth or concave at the edges; the fruit is round, heart-shaped or kidney-shaped. The seeds are enclosed in the carpels and so do not detach the flavour balances intense sweetness with slight acidity and the soluble sugar content exceeds 17° Bx.
This variety is prepared and packed in the geographical area because "it is a delicate perishable fruit and its skin is susceptible to browning caused by mechanical damage, such as rubbing, etc. The fruit must be handled with extreme care, from picking by hand in the field to packing in the warehouse, which must be carried out within 24 hours. Repacking or further handling is forbidden." Cultivated now, Annona cherimola is believed to originate from the Andes at altitudes of 700 metres to 2,400 metres although an alternative hypothesis postulates Central America as the origin of Annona cherimola be
The sugar-apple, or sweetsop, is the fruit of Annona squamosa, the most grown species of Annona and a native of the tropical Americas and West Indies. The Spanish traders of Manila galleons brought it to Asia, where its old Mexican name ate may still be found in Bengali ata, Nepalese aati, Sinhalese mati anoda, Burmese awzar thee, Indonesia “ Srikaya”’ and atis in the Philippines, it is known as sitaphal in India and Shareefa in Pakistan and in the Philippines and in Australia. The name is used in Portuguese as ata; the fruit is spherical-conical, 5–10 cm in diameter and 6–10 cm long, weighing 100–240 g, with a thick rind composed of knobby segments. The color is pale green through blue-green, with a deep pink blush in certain varieties, has a bloom, it is unique among Annona fruits in being segmented, the segments tend to separate when ripe, exposing the interior. The flesh is fragrant and sweet, creamy white through light yellow, resembles and tastes like custard, it is found adhering to 13-to-16-millimetre-long seeds forming individual segments arranged in a single layer around a conical core.
It is soft grainy, slippery. The hard, shiny seeds may number 20–40 or more per fruit and have a brown to black coat, although varieties exist that are seedless. There are new varieties being developed in Taiwan; the atemoya or "pineapple sugar-apple," a hybrid between the sugar-apple and the cherimoya, is popular in Taiwan, although it was first developed in the US in 1908. The fruit is similar in sweetness to the sugar-apple but has a different taste; as its name suggests, it tastes like pineapple. As a result of its widespread cultivation, many local names have developed for the fruit. In English, it is most known as a sugar apple or sweetsop as well as a custard apple in India and Australia. In Hispanic America, regional names include anón, anón de azucar, anona blanca, fruta do conde, saramuyo, riñon,grenadilla and many others. In Arabic, it is called قشطة, the translation being "cream". In Aceh, it is called "seureuba". In Angola, it is called fruta-pinha. In Assamese, it is called Atlos or অাতলচ.
In Bambara, it is called sunsun. In Bangladesh, it is called "Ata fol". In The Bahamas, it is called "sugar apple". In Brazil, it is called fruta-do-conde, fruta-de-conde, fruta-pinha, ata or anona, its name in Burmese is ဩဇာသီး or aawză tē. In Cambodia, regional names include "plae teib". In Curacao, it is called "skopapel". In Djibouti, it is called aag in Somali. In Ethiopia, it is called Gishta in Amharic. In Germany, it is called Zimtapfel, because of its taste. In Ghana, it is called "Sweet Apple". In Greece, it is called γλυκόμηλο. In Haiti, it is called kachiman. In Hebrew, it is called anonah. In Iceland, it is called sólberkja. In India it is known as: Sitaphal in most languages meaning Sita's fruit In Assamese: atlos In Bengali: ata In Gujarati: sitaphal In Hindi: sharifa In Bhojpuri: sharifa In Kannada: sitaphala In Malayalam: aathakka / seethappazham In Marathi: sitaphal In Odia: aata In Punjabi: sharifa In Tamil: sitappalam In Telugu: sita phalamu. In Indonesia, srimatikiya or, as people call it, srikaya.
In Jamaica, it is called "sweetsop" or "sweet-sop". in Japan, it is called shakatou. In Kenya, it is called matomoko. In Madagascar, it is pocanelle in French. In Malawi, it is called "mpoza" in chewa. In Malaysia, it is called buah nona. In Mauritius, it is called "zatte" in the Creole language. In Martinique it is called pomme cannelle. In Mozambique it is called ata. In Nepal, it is called "aati" as well as "saripha". In Nicaragua, it is called "annona guatemala". In Northern Nigeria, it is called fasadabur in Hausa In Pakistan, it is called Sharifa In the Philippines, it is called atis. In Singapore, it is called Lim kim. In Sri Lanka, it is "Katu Atha" in Sinhalese, "Annamunnaa" in Tamil. In Taiwan, it is called sakya. In Tanzania, it is called matopetope. In Thailand, it is called noi-na. In Uganda, it is called ekistaferi. In Vanuatu, it is called pomkanel. In Vietnam, it is called mãng cầu na. In Yemen, it is called Khirmish. In Oman, it is called Sa'fal. Sugar-apple is high in energy, an excellent source of vitamin C and manganese, a good source of thiamine and vitamin B6, provides vitamin B2, B3 B5, B9, magnesium and potassium in fair quantities.
A Philippine company produces sugar apple wine. For uses of other fruit from the Custard-apple family see: Atemoya Cherimoya Custard-apple Annonin Atemoya Cherimoya Custard-apple Soursop Flora of North America: Annona squamosa "Annona squamosa". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Fruits from Americas: Annona squamosa Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Annona squamosa Growing Sugar Apple Annona squamosa
Amaranthus, collectively known as amaranth, is a cosmopolitan genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants. Some amaranth species are cultivated as leaf vegetables and ornamental plants. Most of the Amaranthus species are summer annual weeds and are referred to as pigweed. Catkin-like cymes of densely packed flowers grow in autumn. 60 species are recognized, with inflorescences and foliage ranging from purple, through red and green to gold. Members of this genus share many characteristics and uses with members of the related genus Celosia. "Amaranth" derives from Greek ἀμάραντος, "unfading", with the Greek word for "flower", ἄνθος, factoring into the word's development as amaranth. Amarant is an archaic variant. Amaranthus shows a wide variety of morphological diversity among and within certain species. Although the family is distinctive, the genus has few distinguishing characters among the 70 species included; this complicates taxonomy and Amaranthus has been considered among systematists as a "difficult" genus.
Sauer classified the genus into two subgenera, differentiating only between monoecious and dioecious species: Acnida Aellen ex K. R. Robertson and Amaranthus. Although this classification was accepted, further infrageneric classification was needed to differentiate this diverse group. Amaranthus includes three recognized subgenera and 70 species, although species numbers are questionable due to hybridization and species concepts. Infrageneric classification focuses on inflorescence, flower characters and whether a species is monoecious/dioecious, as in the Sauer suggested classification. A modified infrageneric classification of Amaranthus was published by Mosyakin & Robertson and includes three subgenera: Acnida and Albersia; the taxonomy is further differentiated by sections within each of the subgenera. Species include: One cup of cooked amaranth grain provides 251 calories and is an excellent source of protein, dietary fiber, some dietary minerals. Amaranth is rich in manganese, magnesium and selenium.
Cooked amaranth leaves are a rich source of vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium and folate. Amaranth does not contain gluten. Amaranth contains phytochemicals that may be antinutrient factors, such as polyphenols, saponins and oxalates which are reduced in content and effect by cooking. Known to the Aztecs as huāuhtli, amaranth is thought to have represented up to 80% of their energy consumption before the Spanish conquest. Another important use of amaranth throughout Mesoamerica was to prepare ritual foods. To this day, amaranth grains are toasted much like popcorn and mixed with honey, molasses, or chocolate to make a treat called alegría, meaning "joy" in Spanish. Diego Durán described the festivities for Huitzilopochtli, the name of which means "left side of the hummingbird" or "hummingbird left-hand"; the Aztec month of Panquetzaliztli was dedicated to Huitzilopochtli. People decorated their trees with paper flags; this was one of the more important Aztec festivals, the people prepared for the whole month.
They fasted or ate little. After the Spanish conquest, cultivation of amaranth was outlawed, while some of the festivities were subsumed into the Christmas celebration; because of its importance as a symbol of indigenous culture, its palatability, ease of cooking, a protein, well-suited to human nutritional needs, interest in grain amaranth revived in the 1970s. It is now commercially cultivated, it is a popular snack sold in Mexico, sometimes mixed with chocolate or puffed rice, its use has spread to Europe and parts of North America. Amaranth and quinoa are not grasses and are called pseudocereals because of their similarities to cereals in flavor and cooking. Several species are raised for amaranth "grain" in Asia and the Americas. Ancient amaranth grains still used include the three species, Amaranthus caudatus, Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus hypochondriacus. Although amaranth was cultivated on a large scale in ancient Mexico and Peru, nowadays it is only cultivated on a small scale there, along with India, China and other tropical countries.
S. In a 1977 article in Science, amaranth was described as "the crop of the future", it has been proposed as an inexpensive native crop that could be cultivated by indigenous people in rural areas for several reasons: A small amount of seed plants a large area. It is harvested, its seeds are a good source of protein. In cooked and edible forms, amaranth retains adequate content of several dietary minerals, it is easy to cook. As befits its weedy life history, amaranth grains grow and, in three cultivated species of amaranth, their large seedheads can weigh up to 1 kg and contain a half-million small seeds. Amaranth species are consumed as a leaf vegetable in many parts of the world. Four species of Amaranthus are documented as cultivated vegetables in eastern Asia: Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus blitum, Amaranthus dubius, Amaranthus
The Americas comprise the totality of the continents of North and South America. Together, they comprise the New World. Along with their associated islands, they cover 8% of Earth's total surface area and 28.4% of its land area. The topography is dominated by the American Cordillera, a long chain of mountains that runs the length of the west coast; the flatter eastern side of the Americas is dominated by large river basins, such as the Amazon, St. Lawrence River / Great Lakes basin, La Plata. Since the Americas extend 14,000 km from north to south, the climate and ecology vary from the arctic tundra of Northern Canada and Alaska, to the tropical rain forests in Central America and South America. Humans first settled the Americas from Asia between 17,000 years ago. A second migration of Na-Dene speakers followed from Asia; the subsequent migration of the Inuit into the neoarctic around 3500 BCE completed what is regarded as the settlement by the indigenous peoples of the Americas. The first known European settlement in the Americas was by the Norse explorer Leif Erikson.
However, the colonization never became permanent and was abandoned. The Spanish voyages of Christopher Columbus from 1492 to 1502 resulted in permanent contact with European powers, which led to the Columbian exchange and inaugurated a period of exploration and colonization whose effects and consequences persist to the present. Diseases introduced from Europe and West Africa devastated the indigenous peoples, the European powers colonized the Americas. Mass emigration from Europe, including large numbers of indentured servants, importation of African slaves replaced the indigenous peoples. Decolonization of the Americas began with the American Revolution in the 1770s and ended with the Spanish–American War in the late 1890s. All of the population of the Americas resides in independent countries; the Americas are home to over a billion inhabitants, two-thirds of which reside in the United States, Brazil, or Mexico. It is home to eight megacities: New York City, Mexico City, São Paulo, Los Angeles, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Bogotá, Lima.
The name America was first recorded in 1507. Christie's auction house says a two-dimensional globe created by Martin Waldseemüller was the earliest recorded use of the term; the name was used in the Cosmographiae Introductio written by Matthias Ringmann, in reference to South America. It was applied to both North and South America by Gerardus Mercator in 1538. America derives from the Latin version of Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's first name; the feminine form America accorded with the feminine names of Asia and Europa. In modern English and South America are considered separate continents, taken together are called America or the Americas in the plural; when conceived as a unitary continent, the form is the continent of America in the singular. However, without a clarifying context, singular America in English refers to the United States of America. In the English-speaking world, the term America used to refer to a single continent until the 1950s: According to historians Kären Wigen and Martin W. Lewis, While it might seem surprising to find North and South America still joined into a single continent in a book published in the United States in 1937, such a notion remained common until World War II.
By the 1950s, however all American geographers had come to insist that the visually distinct landmasses of North and South America deserved separate designations. This shift did not seem to happen in Romance-speaking countries, where America is still considered a continent encompassing the North America and South America subcontinents, as well as Central America; the first inhabitants migrated into the Americas from Asia. Habitation sites are known in Alaska and the Yukon from at least 20,000 years ago, with suggested ages of up to 40,000 years. Beyond that, the specifics of the Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are subject to ongoing research and discussion. Widespread habitation of the Americas occurred during the late glacial maximum, from 16,000 to 13,000 years ago; the traditional theory has been that these early migrants moved into the Beringia land bridge between eastern Siberia and present-day Alaska around 40,000–17,000 years ago, when sea levels were lowered during the Quaternary glaciation.
These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific coast to South America. Evidence of the latter would since have been covered by a sea level rise of hundreds of meters following the last ice age. Both routes may have
Cucurbita is a genus of herbaceous vines in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae known as cucurbits, native to the Andes and Mesoamerica. Five species are grown worldwide for their edible fruit, variously known as squash, pumpkin, or gourd depending on species and local parlance, for their seeds. Other kinds of gourd called bottle-gourds, are native to Africa and belong to the genus Lagenaria, in the same family and subfamily as Cucurbita but in a different tribe; these other gourds are used as utensils or vessels, their young fruits are eaten much like those of Cucurbita species. Most Cucurbita species are herbaceous vines that grow several meters in length and have tendrils, but non-vining "bush" cultivars of C. pepo and C. maxima have been developed. The yellow or orange flowers on a Cucurbita plant are of two types: female and male; the female flowers produce the male flowers produce pollen. Many North and Central American species are visited by specialist bee pollinators, but other insects with more general feeding habits, such as honey bees visit.
There is debate about the taxonomy of the genus, as the number of accepted species varies from 13 to 30. The five domesticated species are Cucurbita argyrosperma, C. ficifolia, C. maxima, C. moschata, C. pepo. All of these can be treated as winter squash; the fruits of the genus Cucurbita are good sources of nutrients, such as vitamin A and vitamin C, among other nutrients according to species. The fruits have many culinary uses including pumpkin pie, bread, puddings and soups. Cucurbita species fall into two main groups; the first group are annual or short-lived perennial vines and are mesophytic, i.e. they require a more or less continuous water supply. The second group are perennials growing in arid zones and so are xerophytic, tolerating dry conditions. Cultivated Cucurbita species were derived from the first group. Growing 5 to 15 meters in height or length, the plant stem produces tendrils to help it climb adjacent plants and structures or extend along the ground. Most species do not root from the nodes.
The vine of the perennial Cucurbita can become semiwoody. There is wide variation in size and color among Cucurbita fruits, within a single species. C. ficifolia is an exception, being uniform in appearance. The morphological variation in the species C. pepo and C. maxima is so vast that its various subspecies and cultivars have been misidentified as separate species. The typical cultivated Cucurbita species has five-lobed or palmately divided leaves with long petioles, with the leaves alternately arranged on the stem; the stems in some species are angular. All of the above-ground parts may be hairy with various types of trichomes, which are hardened and sharp. Spring-like tendrils are branching in some species. C. argyrosperma has ovate-cordate leaves. The shape of C. pepo leaves varies widely. C. moschata plants can have dense pubescence. C. ficifolia leaves are angular and have light pubescence. The leaves of all four of these species may not have white spots. There are male and female flowers on a single plant, these grow singly, appearing from the leaf axils.
Flowers have five fused yellow to a green bell-shaped calyx. Male flowers in Cucurbitaceae have five stamens, but in Cucurbita there are only three, their anthers are joined together so that there appears to be one. Female flowers have thick pedicels, an inferior ovary with 3–5 stigmas that each have two lobes; the female flowers of C. argyrosperma and C. ficifolia have larger corollas than the male flowers. Female flowers of C. pepo have a small calyx, but the calyx of C. moschata male flowers is comparatively short. Cucurbita fruits are fleshy. Botanists classify the Cucurbita fruit as a pepo, a special type of berry derived from an inferior ovary, with a thick outer wall or rind with hypanthium tissue forming an exocarp around the ovary, a fleshy interior composed of mesocarp and endocarp; the term "pepo" is used for Cucurbitaceae fruits, where this fruit type is common, but the fruits of Passiflora and Carica are sometimes pepos. The seeds, which are attached to the ovary wall and not to the center, are large and flat with a large embryo that consists entirely of two cotyledons.
Fruit size varies considerably: wild fruit specimens can be as small as 4 centimeters and some domesticated specimens can weigh well over 300 kilograms. The current world record was set in 2014 by Beni Meier of Switzerland with a 2,323.7-pound pumpkin. Cucurbita was formally described in a way that meets the requirements of modern botanical nomenclature by Linnaeus in his Genera Plantarum, the fifth edition of 1754 in conjunction with the 1753 first edition of Species Plantarum. Cucurbita pepo is the type species of the genus. Linnaeus included the species C. pepo, C. verrucosa and C. melopepo, as well as C. citrullus and C. lagenaria (both are not Cucurbita but are in the family Cucurbitaceae. The Cucurbita digitata, C. foetidissima, C. galeotti, C. pedatifolia species groups are xerophytes, arid zone perennials with storage roots.
Phaseolus lunatus known as the lima bean, butter bean, sieva bean, or Madagascar bean, is a legume grown for its edible seeds or beans. Phaseolus lunatus is found in Meso- and South America. Two gene pools of cultivated lima beans point to independent domestication events; the Mesoamerican lima bean is distributed in neotropical lowlands while the other is found in the western Andes. They were discovered in Peru; the Andes domestication took place around 2000 BC, produced a large-seeded variety, while the second, taking place in Mesoamerica around 800 AD, produced a small-seeded variety. By around 1300, cultivation had spread north of the Rio Grande, in the 1500s, the plant began to be cultivated in the Old World; the small-seeded type is found distributed from Mexico to Argentina below 1,600 m above sea level, while the large-seeded wild form is found distributed in the north of Peru, from 320 to 2,030 m above sea level. The Moche Culture cultivated lima beans and depicted them in their art. During the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru, lima beans were exported to the rest of the Americas and Europe, since the boxes of such goods had their place of origin labeled "Lima, Peru", the beans got named as such.
Despite the origin of the name, when referring to the bean, the word "lima" is pronounced differently than the Peruvian capital. The term "butter bean" is used for a large and yellow/white variety of lima bean. In the United States Sieva-type beans are traditionally called butter beans otherwise known as the Dixie or Henderson type. In that area, lima beans and butter beans are seen as two distinct types of beans. In Spain, it is called garrofón, constitutes one of the main ingredients of the famous Valencian paella. In the United Kingdom and the United States, "butter beans" refers to either dried beans which can be purchased to rehydrate, or the canned variety which are ready to use. In culinary use there, lima beans and butter beans are distinct, the latter being large and yellow, the former small and green. In areas where both are considered to be lima beans, the green variety may be labelled as "baby" limas. Lima bean is a domesticated species of economic and cultural importance worldwide in Mexico.
The species has two varieties. The wild variety is silvester and the domesticated one is lunatus. In the U. S, it is a warm season crop, grown in Delaware and mid-Atlantic region for processing and in Midwest and California for dry beans. Baby lima beans are harvested about 10 -- 12 weeks later. In western New York State, baby lima bean production increased exponentially from 2011 to 2015. Cultivation: The main rainy season lasts from June to August and most of the above-ground parts die during dry season. Germination or budding occurs in July; the first inflorescence is in November. The production of flowers and fruits ends between February and April. Cultivars: Both bush and pole cultivars exist, the latter range from 1 to 5 metres in height; the bush cultivars mature earlier than the pole cultivars. The pods are up to 15 cm long; the mature seeds are oval to kidney-shaped. In most cultivars the seeds are quite flat, but in the "potato" cultivars, the shape approaches spherical. White seeds are common, but black, red and variously mottled seeds are known.
The immature seeds are uniformly green. Lima beans yield 2,900 to 5,000 kg of seed and 3,000 to 8,000 kg of biomass per hectare; the seeds of the cultivars listed below are white. Related or synonymous names are listed on the same line.'Henderson' /'Thorogreen', 65 days'Eastland', 68 days'Jackson Wonder', 68 days'Dixie Butterpea', 75 days'Fordhook 242', 75 days, 1945 AAS winner'Carolina' /'Sieva', 75 days'Christmas' /'Chestnut' /'Giant Speckled' /'Speckled Calico', 78 days'Big 6' /'Big Mama', 80 days'Willow Leaf', 80 days'King of the Garden', 85 days a. Phytophthora phaseoli is one example of a pathogen of the lima bean, it is an oomycete plant pathogen that causes downy mildew of lima bean during cool and humid weather conditions. To combat this pathogen, developing lima bean cultivars with resistance is a cost-efficient method, environmentally safe as compared to using pesticides.b. Didymella is a foliar disease found in baby lima beans first reported in New York State. Symptoms include small necrotic tan spots with red to reddish brown irregular margins that come together to cover the entire leaf.
Lesions occur after around 3–4 weeks of planting and increase till there is considerable defoliation. Lesions are observed on the stems. Two pynidial fungi were found on leaves included Didymella sp, and Boeremia exigua var. exigua, pathogenic on baby lima bean and plays a role in the foliar disease complex. Other fungal diseases on lima beans with similar symptoms are B. exigua var. exigua, pod blight caused by Diaporthe phaseolorum, leaf spots caused by Phyllosticta sp. and Phoma subcircinata. The two-spotted spider mites or Tetranychus urticae lay eggs on lima bean leaves, it prefers lima bean plants as host food source over other plants such as cabbage plants. Spider mites pose the greatest threat to the lima bean plants as compa