The New World vulture or condor family, contains seven extant species in five genera. It includes five extant vultures and two extant condors found in warm and temperate areas of the Americas; the "New World" vultures were widespread in both North America during the Neogene. Old World vultures and New World vultures do not form a single clade, but the two groups appear similar because of convergent evolution. Vultures are scavenging birds, feeding from carcasses of dead animals without apparent ill effects. Bacteria in the food source, pathogenic to other vertebrates, dominate the vulture's gut flora, vultures benefit from the bacterial breakdown of carrion tissue; some species of New World vulture have a good sense of smell, whereas Old World vultures find carcasses by sight. A particular characteristic of many vultures is a bald head, devoid of feathers; the New World vultures comprise seven species in five genera. The genera are Coragyps, Gymnogyps and Vultur. Of these, only Cathartes is not monotypic.
The family's scientific name, comes from cathartes, Greek for "purifier". Although New World vultures have many resemblances to Old World vultures they are not closely related. Rather, they resemble Old World vultures because of convergent evolution. Phylogenetic analyses including all Cathartidae species found two primary clades: Black Vulture together with the three Cathartes species, King Vulture and Andean Condors. New World vultures were traditionally placed in a family of their own in the Falconiformes. However, in the late 20th century some ornithologists argued that they are more related to storks on the basis of karyotype and behavioral data, thus some authorities placed them in the Ciconiiformes with herons. This was criticized, an early DNA sequence study was based on erroneous data and subsequently retracted. There was an attempt to raise the New World vultures to the rank of an independent order, Cathartiformes not associated with either the birds of prey or the storks and herons.
However, recent multi-locus DNA studies on the evolutionary relationships between bird groups indicate that New World vultures are related to the other birds of prey, excluding the Falconidae which are distantly related to other raptors, are not close to storks. In this analysis, the New World vultures should be part of a new order Accipitriformes instead, or as part of an order related to, but distinct from, other birds of prey. New World vultures are a sister group to Accipitriformes when the latter is viewed as a group consisting of Accipitridae, the osprey and secretarybird. Both groups are basal members of the recognized clade Afroaves; the fossil history of the Cathartidae is complex, many taxa that may have been New World vultures have at some stage been treated as early representatives of the family. There is no unequivocal European record from the Neogene, it is clear that the Cathartidae had a much higher diversity in the Plio-Pleistocene, rivalling the current diversity of Old World vultures and their relatives in shapes and ecological niches.
Extinct taxa are: Diatropornis Late Eocene/Early Oligocene –? Middle Oligocene of France Phasmagyps Chadronian of Colorado Cathartidae gen. et sp. indet. Late Oligocene of Mongolia Brasilogyps Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of Brazil Hadrogyps Middle Miocene of SW North America Cathartidae gen. et sp. indet. Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Lee Creek Mine, USA Pliogyps Late Miocene – Late Pliocene of S North America Perugyps Pisco Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of SC Peru Dryornis Early – Late? Pliocene of Argentina. Middle Pliocene of Argentina Aizenogyps Late Pliocene of SE North America Breagyps Late Pleistocene of SW North America Geronogyps Late Pleistocene of Argentina and Peru Gymnogyps varonai Late Quaternary of Cuba Wingegyps Late Pleistocene of Brazil Pleistovultur Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene of Brazil Cathartidae gen. et sp. indet. Cuba Gymnogyps amplus Late Pleistocene – Holocene of W North America New World vultures are large, ranging in length from the lesser yellow-headed vulture at 56–61 centimeters up to the California and Andean condors, both of which can reach 120 centimeters in length and weigh 12 or more kilograms.
Plumage is predominantly black or brown, is sometimes marked with white. All species have featherless necks. In some, this skin is brightly colored, in the king vulture it is developed into colorful wattles and outgrowths. All New World vultures have a stiff tail, suitable for soaring, they are the best adapted to soaring of all land birds. The feet are clawed but weak and not adapted to grasping; the front toes are long with small webs at their bases. No New World vulture possesses the vocal organ of birds. Therefore, the voice is limited to infrequent hisses; the beak is hooked and is weak compared with those of other birds of prey. This is because it is adapted to tear the weak flesh of rotted carrion, rather than fresh meat; the nostrils are set in a soft cere. The nasal passage is perforate, not divided by a septum, so tha
Brian L. Ellis is a former member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, who represented the 11th House district in Butler County, he served as Chairman of the House Consumer Affairs Committee until 2019. Born in Butler, Pennsylvania, in 1969, Ellis graduated from Butler Senior High School and graduated from the University of Pittsburgh with a degree in communications. Prior to his election, he worked for his family's automobile dealership in Western Pennsylvania. Ellis first won a seat in the House in 2004, finishing first in a three-way GOP primary and going on to defeat Democrat Fred Vero with 55.9% of the vote. In 2006, he defeated a challenger in the GOP primary with 78% of the vote and won the general election over Democrat Bill Neel with over 64% of the vote. Ellis was unopposed in the 2008 primary and was opposed in the general election by Democrat Dave Wilson, he was re-elected in the 2010 general election. Ellis has served as the Pennsylvania State Leader for the American Legislative Exchange Council.
In January 2019, the Dauphin County District Attorney’s Office opened a criminal investigation into allegations Ellis had raped a female state employee while she was incapacitated, prompting members of the Pennsylvania state house, including the Republican leadership, to call for his resignation. The victim issued a complaint to the PA House Ethics Committee detailing the alleged assault. Ellis resigned on March 2019, six days after the complaint was issued. In August 2019, Dauphin County District Attorney Fran Chardo declined to charge Ellis. Representative Ellis Official web site PA House profile Profile at Vote Smart
The High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, together with the Office of the High Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina, were created in 1995 after the signing of the Dayton Agreement which ended the 1992–95 Bosnian War. The purpose of the High Representative and the OHR is to oversee the civilian implementation of the Dayton agreement, they serve to represent the countries involved in the implementation of the Dayton Agreement through the Peace Implementation Council. So far, all of the High Representatives named have been from European Union countries, while their principal deputies have been from the United States; the Principal Deputy High Representative serves as International Supervisor for Brčko, representing the international community in the Brčko District. The Dayton Agreement created the legal basis for the OHR, its Annex 10 provides for the institution of the Office of the High Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina to oversee the civilian implementation of the agreement, representing the countries involved in the Dayton Accords through the Peace Implementation Council.
At its December 1997 meeting in Bonn, the Peace Implementation Council agreed in granting further substantial powers to the OHR, in order to avoid the implementation of the Dayton Agreement being delayed or obstructed by local nationalist politicians. The OHR was requested to: adopt binding decisions when local parties seem unable or unwilling to act; the Bonn powers were extensively used by the OHR in the following decade. Some examples include the adoption of the Defence reform in April 2003, with the suppression of the Supreme Defence Council of the Republika Srpska, the amendment of Entity Constitutional Laws; until 2004, the OHR had dismissed a total of 139 officials, including judges, civil servants and members of parliaments, sometimes along with freezing their bank accounts. After the 2002 elections, the OHR scrutinised all political candidates for major ministerial positions at Entity and State level. Criticisms of the action of the OHR through its Bonn powers include: the lack of accountability of his position, only responsible to the Peace Implementation Council.
Removals may in some cases impose a life-ban on public offices. The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, which Bosnia and Herzegovina had joined in 2002, has voiced complaints against the actions of the OHR, requiring it to transfer his powers to the Bosnian authorities as soon as possible; the OHR's prolonged interference in the politics of Bosnia and Herzegovina is considered to be one of the causes of the low commitment of citizens towards the state and of low accountability of politicians. Between 2002 and 2011 the High Representative served as the European Union Special Representative to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Under Christian Schwarz-Schilling, the OHR seemed to soften its invasiveness, thanks to pressures from the Council of Europe and a growing EU involvement; the number of OHR legislative initiatives and of dismissed officials lowered. On 27 February 2008, the PIC decided to end the High Representative's mandate on 30 June 2008; the EU decision to shut down the OHR by June 2007 unexpectedly aroused disappointment and concern in the Bosnian population, NGOs, politicians.
However, since the PIC February 2008 review, it was decided to extend that mandate indefinitely until a set of positive benchmarks have been fulfilled. The "double hatting" between EUSR and OHR was discontinued in 2011, when the EU representative post was fused between the EUSR and the head of the EU delegation. In February 2008 the Peace Implementation Council set the conditions for closure of the OHR; the most critical issues will be considered objectives to be achieved by the BiH authorities before transition from OHR to a European Union presence can take place. From a long list of known priorities the PIC selected the key ones for transition, for closure of OHR: Resolution of State Property Resolution of Defence Property Completion of the Brčko Final Award Fiscal Sustainability of the State – completed as of May 2010, should be continuously sustained Entrenchment of the Rule of Law – completed as of May 2010, should be continuously sustainedIn addition to these objectives there are two conditions: signing of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement – completed on 16 June 2008 positive assessment of the situation in BiH by the PIC Steering Board – to be assessed after all others are completedAdditional non-written condition to be enforced through the "assessment by the PIC Steering Board" final condition, was adopted by the US and some EU countries: reform of the constitution to comply with ECHR decision of December 2009Closure of the OHR is considered by the Steering Board of the Peace Implementation Council to be a pre-condition for EU membership and for candidate status.
EUFOR Althea – European peacekeeping force for overseeing the military implementation of the Dayton agreement. European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina – Police mission in the framework of the European Union's Common Foreign and Security Policy, helping local police with organized crime and police reform. Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Kosovo Official website Reports of the High Representative for Implementation of the Peace Agreement on Bosnia and Herzegovina to the Secretary-General of the United Nations "Bosnia: Europe's time to act", International Crisis Group report, 11 January 2011.
Davao Metro Shuttle Corporation known as Davao Metro Shuttle Bus Company, Inc. is a large bus company in Mindanao, Philippines. It operates bus transport services in and outside Davao Region with its headquarters, main garage and offices in Davao City, its main terminals are located in Davao Tagum. Davao Metro Shuttle started as a local taxi service in 1995 serving the city of Davao in what has been a partnership between businessmen Reynaldo T. Uy and Reynaldo Alba; when it procured its first air-conditioned bus units in 1996, its first service was the Davao-Digos route. In 1998 the company started servicing the Davao-Tagum route after purchasing 20 non-aircon bus units. In 1998 their range of service once again expanded when they started servicing the Davao-Kidapawan route using Daewoo buses; as time went on, as the company went cycles of financial setbacks and recovery, its service routes expanded on time to include Bansalan, Monkayo, New Bataan, & Laak. The Davao Metro shuttle is set to launch the Go-Mindanao Tour Bus program in 2017, an initiative supported by the Department of Tourism.
They are targeting to launch the route by March next year which would travel from the city to Bukidnon, Cagayan de Oro and Butuan. In 2 August 2017 the company started servicing the Davao-Butuan-Nasipit route for the first time using Guilin Daewoo buses. Shortly thereafter the company's Go-Mindanao Tour Bus program commenced operation as a few of its units high-deck buses procured from Zhengzhou Yutong Bus covered with stickers of the Go-Mindanao Tour Bus brand, started plying the Davao-Butuan and Davao-New Bataan routes. In 8 November 2018 the company, under its Go-Mindanao Tour Bus subsidiary brand, started plying the Butuan-Bislig route using newly-acquired Golden Dragon luxury buses, marking the first instance that, although the company bears the namesake of the city and the situate region it was serving and based from, the company served outside its main areas of operation; the first bus units of Davao Metro Shuttle came from Daewoo Bus. They have units from Hino. In 2008 they purchased units from Xiamen Golden Dragon Bus, the first in Mindanao, in 2010 they purchased units from Zhengzhou Yutong Bus.
To date, the fleet of Davao Metro Shuttle is composed of buses and minibuses acquired from Yutong, Golden Dragon, Daewoo, Nissan Diesel and Volvo. The company was the first in the Philippines to field buses from THACO acquired in year 2020; the company is the largest indigenous bus company in Mindanao, possessing more than 200 bus units including from its Go-Mindanao subsidiary. Buses of Davao Metro Shuttle in Davao City Despite its name, Davao Metro Shuttle not only serves the Metro Davao area; the company operates routes in other parts of Mindanao and the Visayas. Davao Region is the main and home operational area of Davao Metro Shuttle, with the overland transport terminals of the cities of Davao and Tagum serving as its main hubs; the Davao-Tagum express route had its main hub and terminal at Ayala Abreeza Mall in J. P. Laurel St. Davao City. Living up to its name, Davao Metro Shuttle offers city shuttle routes within Davao City as part of the city's Peak-Hour Augmentation Bus Service program.
Augmenting it is its acquisition of the local city liner Annil Transport in September 2019, therefore expanding its shuttle service area within the city. Kidapawan Makilala Destinations within Caraga region are served by Davao Metro Shuttle's tourist line subsidiary, Go-Mindanao Tour Bus; the entrance of Davao Metro Shuttle in Leyte in 5 July 2019 marked the first time the company ventured outside its main areas of operation in Mindanao and the second time the company operated outside its home operational area at Davao Region. Husky Tours Mindanao Star Yellow Bus Line List of bus companies of the Philippines Davao Metro Shuttle
The Oblong Friends Meeting House is a mid-18th century Friends Meeting House of the Religious Society of Friends in the hamlet of Quaker Hill, in the town of Pawling, Dutchess County, New York, United States listed in the National Register of Historic Places since 1973. Members of the Religious Society of Friends settled on Quaker Hill in the 1730s and sought permission to establish a meeting and build a meeting house in 1740; the first meeting house was constructed across from the present building in 1742, but as membership grew, this building became too small and in 1763, the Yearly Meeting decided to erect "a framed house of timber, the dimensions to be 45 feet long, 40 feet wide and 15 feet stud to admit of galleries." This new house is the structure that has remained on the site since. Benjamin Sherman, carpenter of Quaker Hill, is credited with building the new Hicksite Meeting House in 1764. Https://archive.org/details/recordsofsherman00sher/page/20 https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=yale.39002013828612&view=1up&seq=1279 In 1767, the question was raised in the meeting house whether it was "consistent with the Christian spirit to hold a person in slavery".
After years of discussion, the question was answered in 1776 by the resolution that meetings were not to accept financial contributions or services from members owning slaves. During the American Revolutionary War a portion of the Continental Army camped in the nearby hills, both during the fall of 1778 and the winter of 1779; the meeting house was commandeered by General Washington's officers to be used as a military hospital. In 1828, the New York Meeting of the Society of Friends split into the Orthodox and Hicksite Societies of Friends. From on, the Hicksites used the Meeting House, the Orthodox Society, which had fewer members, built its own meeting house in 1831, just 200 feet to the northwest; the latter building was converted into a private residence. Membership in the area's Society of Friends declined in the course of the 19th century and the meetings were "laid down" in 1885; the property was acquired by the Historical Society of Quaker Hill and Pawling in 1936 which has preserved the building since then.
The building is a two-story building, two bays deep. Inside the shingled structure, there are sliding panels which divide the men's and women's portions of the building; as with most meeting houses, there are one for each gender. The Meeting House is located on the north side of Meeting House Road, about 100 meters from where it branches off from Quaker Hill Road, in the Hamlet of Quaker Hill, Town of Pawling, NY 12564. Online article by the Purchase Quarterly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends online article by the Historical Society of Quaker Hill & Pawling Records of the Sherman Family, as relating to the ancestors and descendants of Benjamin Sherman, from Henry Sherman, county of Suffolk, down to the 13th generation, by David H. Sherman [https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=yale.39002013828612&view=1up&seq=1279 Commemorative Biographical record of Dutchess County, New York, containing biographical sketches of prominent and representative citizens, many early settled families List of Quaker meeting houses National Register of Historic Places listings in Dutchess County, New York
The Ersu language proper is a Qiangic language spoken in western Sichuan, China. It is the most spoken of the three Ersu languages. There are 13,000 speakers according to Sun. Yu lists three varieties of Ersu. Zeluo Ersu: Sun documents Ersu of Zela Township 则拉乡, Yutian District 玉田区, Ganluo County 甘洛县, Sichuan. Qingshui Ersu: The Qingshui dialect of Ersu documented by Liu is spoken in Qingshui Village 清水村, Liaoping Township 廖坪乡, Ganluo County 甘洛县, Sichuan. Hanyuan Ersu: Ersu of Hanyuan County, now extinct, was documented in Baber. Ersu is categorized as a member of the southern subgroup of the Qiangic branch within the Sino-Tibetan language family, though there is debate over the classification due to the lack of information about the language history and the precise criteria underlying the grouping not being specified. There is few written records available in Ersu, therefore not much is known about the history of the people who spoke it. While it has been theorized that the Ersu people moved from Tibet, or were from neighbouring ethnic groups such as the Yi, there is some evidence that the Ersu predated the Yi in settlement in that area.
The Yi people who moved during the Tang Dynasty to the regions near where the Ersu resided documented the Ersu as "the aboriginals". Therefore, it is argued that the Ersu people's settlement in the place they can be found now must be no than the beginning of the Tang Dynasty. Most of the early Ersu people could not read or write since there are no written scripts to represent their vernacular language; the only ones who were literate were the religious practitioners called "Shaba". Shaba were believed to "know everything in the sky above and the earth underneath", possessed magical powers that allowed them to chant scriptures to call for rain or curse the enemies of the Ersu, they are still active in the Ersu communities to the present day. They are always present at important events such as festivals and funerals, they are important most because they were the only group of people who were able to read the only form of written script found in Ersu history. It is known as Shaba pictographic script.
The not much is known about the script, only that it used to be only taught from father to son in a Shaba family. Now, there are less than 10 people who can read the script and much fewer who can understand it in the region. There are about 200 independent Shaba characters which are not directly linked to the Ersu people's spoken language, one character may correspond with one or more syllables, it may take several lines of words to explain one character. Each aspect of the "picture" would convey a meaning. Different animals would indicate different months or dates. Colors conveyed meaning, they matched the "five elements" as follows: metal is dark, wood is green, water is dark grey, fire is red, earth is yellow. Ersu has 22 cluster initial consonants. Besides the ones found in Mandarin loanwords, there are no syllabic final consonants; the following table shows the phonological system of younger. All the sounds represented below are word initial except the nasals, which can occasionally be used as an independent syllable.
There are 22 cluster initials, eighteen of which are composed of two consonants and four are composed of 3 consonants. They are as follows: There is some restrictions on what vowels the cluster initials can precede and are more limited than the number of vowels that the simple consonants can precede. More on allophones of these consonants can be found in S.'s 2013 dissertation. Their vowel system includes seven basic vowels, three rhotic vowels, six diphthongs, one triphthong. Ersu does not have nasalized vowels, there are nasalized vowels in loan words from Chinese. There are no long vowels; the seven basic vowels are: /i/, /y/, /u/, /ɛ/, /ə/, /ɑ/ and /o/. The three rhotic vowels are: /ɑɹ/, /əɹ/, /oɹ/. There are six diphthongs, three rising and three falling; the three rising diphthongs are /iɛ/, /iɑ/ and /uɑ/. The three falling diphthongs end with a less prominent front vowel /i/, but begin with a more prominent vowel, they are: /ui/, /ɛi/, /ɑi/. All of the diphthongs besides /uɑ/ are not found in Ersu, only in a few individual words.
/uɑ/ is found in a large number of words, following a variety of consonant initials such as /kh/, /k/, /n/, /ŋ/, /l/, /tsh/, /ʂ/, /x/. /uɑo/ is the only triphthong found in Ersu, only to exist in one word'bowl'. The basic syllable pattern is CV. C can be a single consonant cluster. V can be a single vowel, triphthong. Native words of Ersu do not contain coda consonants; each syllable will have a nucleus, a vowel, diphthong, or triphthong, rarely a syllabic nasal. A syllable can be V or C; the vowels /ɑ/, /ɑɹ/ and /əɹ/ can function as a syllable V. Nasals /m/, /n/, /ŋ/ can form independent syllables as C, however they are much rarer. Lastly, there is the NCV pattern, which refers to nasalized syllables, where the N stands for a nasal /n/ or /m/; the rest of the structure is the same as the basic CV structure above. The tone bearing unit is a syllable, each syllable is obligatorily assigned a tone. There are two tones with contrastive minimal pairs found in Ersu; the assignment of the tones in a particular morpheme or word is unpredictable, though data suggests that the high level tone is much more frequent than the mid level tone.
The pitch contour of the Ersu tones is much less stabl