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New Year's Day

New Year's Day simply called New Year, is observed on 1 January, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar. In pre-Christian Rome under the Julian calendar, the day was dedicated to Janus, god of gateways and beginnings, for whom January is named; as a date in the Gregorian calendar of Christendom, New Year's Day liturgically marked the Feast of the Naming and Circumcision of Jesus, still observed as such in the Anglican Church and Lutheran Church. The Roman Catholic Church celebrates on this day the Solemnity of Mother of God. In present day, with most countries now using the Gregorian calendar as their de facto calendar, New Year's Day is among the most celebrated public holidays in the world observed with fireworks at the stroke of midnight as the new year starts in each time zone. Other global New Year's Day traditions include making New Year's resolutions and calling one's friends and family. Mesopotamia instituted the concept of celebrating the new year in 2000 BC and celebrated new year around the time of the vernal equinox, in mid-March.

The early Roman calendar designated 1 March as the first day of the year. The calendar had just 10 months, beginning with March; that the new year once began with the month of March is still reflected in some of the names of the months. September through to December, the ninth through to the twelfth months of the Gregorian calendar, were positioned as the seventh through to the tenth months. Roman legend credited their second king Numa with the establishment of the two new months of Ianuarius and Februarius; these were first placed at the end of the year, but at some point came to be considered the first two months instead. The January kalend, the start of the month of January, came to be celebrated as the new year at some point after it became the day for the inaugurating new consuls in 153 BC. Romans had long dated their years by these consulships, rather than sequentially, making the kalends of January start the new year aligned this dating. Still and religious celebrations around the March new year continued for some time and there is no consensus on the question of the timing for 1 January's new status.

Once it became the new year, however, it became a time for family celebrations. A series of disasters, notably including the failed rebellion of M. Aemilius Lepidus in 78 BC, established a superstition against allowing Rome's market days to fall on the kalends of January and the pontiffs employed intercalation to avoid its occurrence. In 567 AD, the Council of Tours formally abolished 1 January as the beginning of the year. At various times and in various places throughout mediaeval Christian Europe, the new year was celebrated on 25 December in honour of the birth of Jesus; these days were astronomically and astrologically significant since, at the time of the Julian reform, 25 March had been understood as the spring equinox and 25 December as the winter solstice. Mediaeval calendars nonetheless continued to display the months running from January to December, despite their readers reckoning the transition from one year to the next on a different day. Among the 7th-century pagans of Flanders and the Netherlands, it was the custom to exchange gifts on the first day of the new year.

This custom was deplored by Saint Eligius, who warned the Flemish and Dutch: " make vetulas, little deer or iotticos or set tables at night or exchange New Year gifts or supply superfluous drinks." However, on the date that European Christians celebrated the New Year, they exchanged Christmas presents because New Year's Day fell within the 12 days of the Christmas season in the Western Christian liturgical calendar. Because of the leap year error in the Julian calendar, the date of Easter had drifted backward since the First Council of Nicaea decided the computation of the date of Easter in 325. By the sixteenth century, the drift from the observed equinox had become unacceptable. In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII declared the Gregorian calendar used today, correcting the error by a deletion of 10 days; the Gregorian calendar reform restored 1 January as New Year's Day. Although most Catholic countries adopted the Gregorian calendar immediately, it was only adopted among Protestant countries; the British, for example, did not adopt the reformed calendar until 1752.

Until the British Empire – and its American colonies – still celebrated the new year on 25 March. Most nations of Western Europe adopted 1 January as New Year's Day somewhat before they adopted the Gregorian Calendar. In Tudor England, New Year's Day, along with Christmas Day and Twelfth Night, was celebrated as one of three main festivities among the twelve days of Christmastide. There, until the adoption of the Gregorian Calendar in 1752, the first day of the new year was the Western Christian Feast of the Annunciation, on 25 March called "Lady Day". Dates predicated on the year beginning on 25 March became known as Annunciation Style dates, while dates of the Gregorian Calendar commencing

Nicolas Lancret

Nicolas Lancret was a French painter. Born in Paris, he was a brilliant depicter of light comedy which reflected the tastes and manners of French society under the regent Orleans, his first master was Pierre d'Ulin, but his acquaintance with and admiration for Watteau induced him to leave d'Ulin for Gillot, whose pupil Watteau had been. Lancret, who remained a pupil of Gillot from 1712–1713, was influenced by the older painter, whose typical slender figures can be found in many of his pupil's younger works. Two pictures painted by Lancret and exhibited on the Place Dauphine had a great success, which laid the foundation of his fortune, and, it is said, estranged Watteau, complimented as their author. In 1718 he was received as an Academician, from thereon becoming a respected artist amongst the admirers of Watteau, he completed works to decorate the Palace of Versailles, while his style was to prove popular with Frederick the Great. Lancret's popularity was reflected by the decision to make him a councillor at the Academie in 1735.

Lancret completed a significant proportion of which were engraved. Although he completed several portraits and historical pieces his favourite subjects were balls, village weddings and so forth. In this respect he was typical of Rococo artists; some have claimed Lancret's work is inferior to that of Watteau. In drawing and in painting his touch is considered intelligent but dry. Lancret's characteristics are due to the fact that he had been for some time in training under an engraver, it is considered that the artist produced his best work towards the latter end of his life, displaying, in the minds of several art historians, an increasing ability to create a sense of harmony between art and nature, as in Montreir de lanterne magique, a willingness to lend his, now bulkier, figures a firmer place in his compositions. These changes displayed the influence of Watteaus like L'Enseigne de Gersaint. Lancret's last painting, Family in a Garden, The National Gallery, is considered by Levey to be his'masterpiece'.

The scene, which depicts a family taking coffee, has an intimacy and hint of humour that are considered captivating. The work's flowing lines, Rococoesque harmony of pastel colours, painterly style and charming subject matter are seen to display a delicate sense of vitality and freshness that anticipate the works of both Thomas Gainsborough and Jean-Honoré Fragonard; the British Museum possesses an admirable series of studies by Lancret in red chalk, the National Gallery, shows four paintings—the "Four Ages of Man", cited by d'Argenville amongst the principal works of Lancret. Lancret was single for much of his life. Lancret was induced to marry her after finding her and her dying mother living in poverty in an attic room and hearing that the daughter was soon to be compelled to enter a convent. Lancret died of pneumonia on 14 September 1743; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lancret, Nicolas". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press.

P. 153. See d'Argenville, Vies des peintres. Holmes, Mary Tavener. Focarino, Joseph. Nicolas Lancret, 1690-1743. New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-3559-7 – via the Internet Archive. 38 paintings by or after Nicolas Lancret at the Art UK site Nicolas Lancret at the WikiGallery.org

John Kasich 2000 presidential campaign

The 2000 presidential campaign of John Kasich, a member of the United States House of Representatives from Ohio's 12th District who became the Governor of Ohio 10 years was launched on February 15, 1999, when he announced the formation of an exploratory committee. Had he won, Kasich would have been the first president since James A. Garfield to be elected from the House of Representatives, as well as the first Pennsylvania native since James Buchanan to hold the office. Kasich suspended his campaign on July 14, 1999. In 1996, while he was House Budget Committee chairman, John Kasich created the Pioneer Political Action Committee. Pioneer PAC was to help fund Kasich's travel costs so he could campaign for fellow Republicans across the country. In April 1997, Kasich began traveling to Iowa and New Hampshire, the first two contests in the primaries. On February 15, 1999, Kasich kicked off his campaign by announcing the formation of an exploratory committee; that same day, Kasich began a campaign swing through the early primary states of Iowa and New Hampshire.

At 46 years of age, John Kasich was one of the youngest candidates in the 2000 Republican primaries. Kasich played up this fact, portraying himself as a fresh face and comparing himself to "Jolt Cola in a market dominated by Pepsi and Coca-Cola", in reference to the early favorites in the race, George W. Bush and Elizabeth Dole. Kasich chose to portray himself as a candidate, not afraid to work with Democrats, he brought up his prominent role in helping to pass four balanced budgets with President Bill Clinton. In March, Kasich was involved in an incident with a reporter; when a reporter from WNDS-TV asked when he would decide to run for president and drop the exploratory committee, Kasich responded in an angry tone, "I have no idea. That's a mechanical, political question and I don't do politics. You'll have to ask my press secretary." The clip of the exchange was aired on television. Kasich's campaign responded. Kasich missed dozens of votes in order to spend time on the campaign trail, leading to upset voters in his home district.

Kasich was struggling to raise money, by June, he had yet to break $2 million. On July 14, Kasich announced. Kasich went on to become the Governor of Ohio in 2011. In 2016, Kasich again ran for president, earning 154 delegates in the Republican primaries and winning his home state of Ohio, but suspended his campaign May 4th, 2016