NYC Ferry is a network of ferry routes in New York City operated by Hornblower Cruises. As of August 2018, there are six routes connecting 21 ferry piers in the Bronx, Brooklyn and Queens. NYC Ferry has a total of 23 vessels, providing half-hourly to hourly service on each of the routes; as of January 2019, two additional routes and six new piers are planned. Prior to NYC Ferry, there had been many ferries that traversed the East River and Hudson River, although by the 1960s all ferry services citywide had been discontinued due to the popularity of road and rail transit across the rivers. Ferries in New York City saw a revival in the 1990s; as a result of two studies in 2011 and 2013 that showed the impacts of these recent ferries, the city proposed its own ferry service in 2013, separate from existing New York City ferry systems such as NY Waterway, New York Water Taxi, the Staten Island Ferry. NYC Ferry was announced by the administration of Mayor Bill de Blasio in 2015, under the tentative name of Citywide Ferry Service.
It was planned to launch in two phases. The first phase launched on May 1, 2017, to the Rockaways. Routes to Bay Ridge and Astoria started in June and August of that year. A second phase, in August 2018, launched to the Lower East Soundview. Ferries to Coney Island and to St. George, Staten Island, are proposed to launch in 2020 and 2021 respectively. Single-ride trips on the system cost $2.75, with monthly and bike fares available, but there is no free transfer to other modes of transport in the city. NYC Ferry provides free shuttle buses in the Rockaways, connecting to the ferry stop there; the ferry service was expected to transport 4.5 to 4.6 million passengers annually. Higher-than-expected ridership on NYC Ferry routes in summer 2017 caused officials to order new vessels and expand the capacity of existing vessels. In spring 2018, the annual ridership estimates were revised to 9 million, double the original projection, a further expansion of the NYC Ferry fleet was announced. Despite its crowding, the ferry has received positive reviews from passengers.
However, there has been criticism over the subsided nature of the service, NYC Ferry's low ridership compared to the city's other public transit modes. Up until the 19th century, during a time when the city's waterways did not have bridge or tunnel crossings, there were many ferries traversing the area. New York's first ferries date to when the city was a Dutch colony named New Amsterdam, which comprises modern-day Lower Manhattan. A ferry across the East River, between New Amsterdam and modern-day Brooklyn, was created in 1642 by Cornelius Dircksen, "the earliest ferryman of whom the records speak." By 1654, New Amsterdam's government passed ordinances to regulate East River ferries. The first ferry to New Jersey was founded in 1661, traveling across the Hudson River from Manhattan to Communipaw. Ferries along the Harlem River, between uptown Manhattan and the Bronx, started in 1667, a ferry to Staten Island was started in 1712; the number of ferries would grow, by 1904, there would be 147 ferry services operating in New York City waters.
One of the first documented horse-powered "team" boats in commercial service in the United States was the Fulton Ferry Company, an East River ferry run that Robert Fulton implemented in 1814. The South Ferry Company, founded in 1836, merged with the Fulton Ferry Company three years and the combined companies underwent a series of acquisitions owning many of the East River ferries. However, by 1918, the construction of bridges and New York City Subway tunnels across the East River resulted in some companies, such as the New York and East River Ferry Company between Yorkville and Astoria, operating at a loss. With city ownership, many of the East River ferries were superseded by bridges, road tunnels, subway tunnels by the mid-20th century; the Yorkville–Astoria ferry, for instance, stopped in 1936 after being replaced by the Triborough Bridge. On the other side of Manhattan, there were a myriad of Hudson River ferries at one point, with boat routes running from New Jersey to twenty passenger docks in Manhattan.
However, the construction of the Holland Tunnel, Lincoln Tunnel, Hudson & Manhattan Railroad, George Washington Bridge between Manhattan and New Jersey, as well as the growth of car ownership in the United States, meant that these ferries were no longer needed by the mid-20th century. As a result, in 1967, the last cross-Hudson ferry ceased operations; the Richmond Turnpike Company started a steamboat service from Manhattan to Staten Island in 1817. Cornelius Vanderbilt bought the company in 1838, it was sold to the Staten Island Railroad Company in 1864; the Staten Island Ferry was sold to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in 1884, the City of New York assumed control of the ferry in 1905. The ferry, which still operates, was at one point the only commuter ferry within the entire city, after the discontinuation of the Hoboken ferry in 1967. Despite the discontinuation of ferry service to New Jersey, people moved to locations along the Hudson River waterfront there. In 1986, waterfront settlements like Bayonne, Keyport, Port Liberte, Weehawken saw a reinstatement of their ferry service to Manhattan, under the operation of NY Waterway.
By 1989, around 3,000 of the settlements' combined 10,500 residents paid a $5.00 fare in each direction to board the NY Waterway ferries, despite competition from cheaper alternatives like the PATH train system. Around this tim
Willis Avenue Bridge
The Willis Avenue Bridge is a swing bridge that carries road traffic northbound over the Harlem River between the New York City boroughs of Manhattan and the Bronx, United States. It connects First Avenue in Manhattan with Willis Avenue in the Bronx; the New York City Department of Transportation is responsible for maintaining and operating the bridge. The bridge is part of the course for the annual New York City Marathon; the runners, after crossing over from Manhattan to The Bronx via the bridge - which they have dubbed "the wall" because it marks the 20-mile point on the run - follow a short course through the borough and return to Manhattan for the race's final leg via the Madison Avenue Bridge. The bridge opened in 1901, at an original construction cost of $1,640,523.11 and a land cost of $803,988.37. Major reinforcing work was done in 1916. However, in 1941, the bridge failed monthly inspection and therefore was converted to one-way operation northbound on August 5, 1941 on the same day the Third Avenue Bridge was converted to one-way southbound.
Due to its poor condition, the bridge was replaced starting in 2007 and converted to pedestrian-only traffic for three years, was dismantled once a sidewalk was put in on the new bridge. In November 2005, New York City sought to replace the bridge. In an effort to preserve the structure, the city offered it for sale for $1, with free delivery within 15 miles. Due to the difficult logistics of moving the structure, there were no bids as of March 2007. On April 12, 2011, granite from the structure was given to a nearby park while the metal part was moved via tug to Jersey City; the steel was melted down and the concrete parts were made into fill. The Department of Transportation opted to construct a new structure to the south of the existing bridge at a projected cost of $417 million. On March 8, 2007, when bidding for construction was opened, of the two bids offered, the lowest came in at $612 million. Iris Weinshall, the department commissioner, said that the city had to go forward with the project because maintenance of the existing bridge was too expensive and the design of the ramps contributed to frequent accidents.
This was the most costly bridge construction project by the New York City Department of Transportation. Weinshall expected the project to last five years with construction beginning around the end of 2007; the replacement bridge was constructed at Port of Coeymans, 10 miles south of Albany. On July 13, 2010, the bridge was shipped down the Hudson on two barges; the new bridge is 65 feet high and 77 feet wide. The sight of the floating bridge caused a stir among onlookers all along the Hudson. After a stay at Port Jersey in Jersey City it was towed up the East River to its destination in the morning on July 26. Motor traffic was shifted to the new bridge on October 2, 2010, though the walkway of the old bridge continued to serve pedestrians and cyclists for a few weeks. Just upstream, the Third Avenue Bridge carries southbound traffic across the Harlem River from the Bronx to Manhattan as the other side of a one-way pair; that bridge was replaced in 2004. "Willis Avenue Bridge" is the name of a song by David Berkeley from his 2009 album Strange Light."Beneath the Willis Bridge" is the name of the 2015 album released by 80 REEF The Willis Avenue Bridge carries the Bx15 bus route operated by MTA New York City Transit.
The route's average weekday ridership is 19,951. NYCRoads.com: Willis Avenue Bridge Historic Overview New York City Department of Transportation - Willis Avenue Bridge
Bus lanes in New York City
Since 1963, New York City has been using a system of bus lanes that are intended to give priority to buses, which contain more occupants than passenger and commercial vehicles. Most of these lanes are restricted to buses only at certain days and times, but some bus lanes are restricted 24/7; as of July 2018, there are 120 miles of bus lanes within New York City. The lanes are used to speed up MTA bus routes on the city's public transport system, which would be otherwise held up by traffic congestion. Bus lanes are a key component of the Select Bus Service bus rapid transit network, improving bus travel speeds and reliability by reducing delay caused by other traffic. Since implementation, the lanes have helped to increase bus reliability citywide. However, there have been controversies on the benefits of the bus lanes due to the resulting increased traffic and the methods used to enforce bus lanes during their operating hours. In 2010 the city began enforcing the rule by placing cameras that take photos and videos of violators, leading to increased reports of bus-lane violations.
A curbside bus lane runs along the curb. Vehicles are not allowed to park or stand this lane, but may enter this lane to make right turns unless otherwise specified. An offset bus lane is placed one lane away from the curb. In this setup, vehicles are able to park or stand at the curb, but are not allowed to double park or stop on the bus lane. Vehicles may enter this lane to make right turns unless otherwise specified. There are median bus lanes, which are placed in the center of the road; this setup is only used along East 161st Street in the Bronx, used by the Bx6 and Bx6 Select Bus Service routes. As early as 1959, the city wished to build exclusive bus lanes on Lafayette and DeKalb Avenues in Brooklyn; the lanes would be built on streets. They were intended to increase the speed of bus service on these avenues, since without the bus lanes, the routes were projected to lose riders. However, traffic commissioner T. T. Wiley disapproved of the proposal, since the city did not install exclusive bus lanes.
The first two bus-lane corridors implemented in New York City were installed on May 5, 1963. One set of bus lanes was placed on Victory Boulevard in Staten Island, at the approach to the Saint George Ferry Terminal; the other set was placed on Livingston Street in Downtown Brooklyn between Boerum Street and Flatbush Avenue. The same year, the city's first highway bus lane was installed on the Long Island Expressway in Long Island City, under the proposal of Traffic Commissioner Henry A. Barnes; the Brooklyn bus lane soon encountered frequent traffic slowdowns, leading officials to propose adding no-parking signs and more traffic agents to enforce the lane. Another bus lane was soon installed along Hillside Avenue in Queens, with the westbound bus lane extending to the subway station at 169th Street. In 1969, one of the most congested corridors, 42nd Street between Third Avenue and Eighth Avenue, received a rush-hour-only bus lane. Crosstown bus service on 49th and 50th Streets in Manhattan had one of the slowest speeds of those on any crosstown street in Manhattan: 3 miles per hour.
As a result, on June 12, 1979, to speed travel, lanes were implemented to be dedicated for use by crosstown buses and taxis. Cars without a destination on this pair of streets were prohibited on weekdays from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. between Third Avenue and Seventh Avenue. A seven-minute reduction in travel time resulted from the change. On May 26, 1981, the New York City Department of Transportation implemented Commissioner Sam Schwartz's plan for bus lanes on Madison Avenue; these were the first exclusive concurrent dual bus lanes on a city street. Two lanes along Madison between 42nd Street and 59th Street were reserved for buses between 2 p.m. and 7 p.m on weekdays in order to reduce congestion and increase mass transit usage. Twenty-nine traffic enforcement agents monitored the operation; this plan was one of three major transportation initiatives undertaken by the Koch Administration. The plan was put into place after the city took a study of traffic going down Madison Avenue: 24,000 people were moved by bus, while only 11,000 moved by car between 2 p.m. and 7 p.m..
The maximum time to ride on a bus along the corridor was decreased from 36 minutes to 15 minutes. The Federal Urban Mass Transit Administration provided a grant of $788,000 for the project. While intended to only last for a year, the plan was so successful that the bus lanes were maintained. Local bus speeds increased from 2.9 miles per hour to 4.8 miles per a 65 % increase. Express bus speeds increased from 2.9 miles per hour to 5.8 miles per a 100 % increase. While it was expected to decrease speeds for private cars and taxis, the overall speed of traffic on the remainder of the avenue increased by 10%. Additional bus lanes were added in the 1980s. By 1981, Manhattan alone had 12 miles of priority bus lanes along First, Third and Eighth Avenues. Another federal grant of $575,000 allowed the city to hire 22 traffic agents to enforce bus lane rules. In 1982, the city started a pilot project in which it installed red thermoplastic strips along 10 bus lanes in Manhattan; the strips were installed to remind motorists of heavy bus-lane penalties.
The NYCDOT started painting bus lanes red in 2007-2008, with the introduction of Select Bus Service. The first bus lane, painted red was installed on 57th Street in 2007, but the red paint was removed two years later; the NYCDOT chose an epoxy-based red paint for visibility reasons, but after extensive
Madison Avenue Bridge
The Madison Avenue Bridge is a four lane swing bridge that crosses the Harlem River in New York City, connecting Madison Avenue in Manhattan with East 138th Street in the Bronx. It was designed by Alfred P. Boller and built in 1910 to replace and double the capacity of another earlier swing bridge dating from 1884; the bridge is maintained by the New York City Department of Transportation. For 2011, the NYCDOT reported an average daily traffic volume in both directions of 41,423; the bridge is part of the course for the annual New York City Marathon. The runners, after crossing over from Manhattan to The Bronx via the Willis Avenue Bridge, follow a short course through the borough and return to Manhattan for the race's final leg via the Madison Avenue Bridge; the Madison Avenue Bridge carries the Bx33 local bus route operated by MTA New York City Transit, the BxM3 and BxM4 express bus routes operated by the MTA Bus Company, the BxM4C express bus route operated by Westchester County's Bee Line Bus System.
The average weekday ridership of the Bx33 bus route is 3,216. The average weekday ridership on the BxM3 bus route is 718; the average weekday ridership on the BxM4 bus route is 414. Prior to June 27, 2010, the BxM4 was known as the BxM4A and BxM4B. Notes Madison Avenue Bridge - historic overview NYC DoT Madison Avenue Bridge
Bicycle safety is the use of road traffic safety practices to reduce risk associated with cycling. Risk can be defined as the number of incidents occurring for a given amount of cycling. In many countries both the number of incidents and the amount of cycling are not well known. Non-fatal accidents go unreported and bicycle use is only monitored; some of this subject matter is hotly debated: for example, the discussions as to whether bicycle helmets or cyclepaths improve safety. The merits of obeying the rules of the road including the use of bicycle lighting at night are less controversial; the overall risk of death from a cycling accident in developed countries has diminished over the last 25 years according to a 2017 analysis of OECD statistics. In the United States, cycling remains a more dangerous mode of transportation when compared to automobiles; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention took account of over 32,000 automobile related deaths in 2013 By comparison, WISQUARS the CDC’s injury statistics website found just over 1,000 deaths from cycling in 2015.
Despite the relative safety compared to automobiles, the number of fatalities and hospitalizations from cycling is greater in the United States compared to other western states such as Germany and the Netherlands. In a 2014 analysis, incidence of cycling death took place at a mean rate of 4.7 deaths per 100 million kilometers cycled in the U. S. compared to 1.3 deaths per 100 million kilometers in Germany, 1.0 in the Netherlands, 1.1 in Denmark. The first recorded bicycle crash occurred in 1842 between Kirkpatrick McMillan, an early rider of the velocipede, a young girl in Glasgow; the report, however, is vague and the identification disputed. Causes of crashes vary according to local conditions. Road conditions, speed, rider visibility and automobile traffic, driving under the influence, riding under the influence, distracted driving are contributing factors to accidents. A study conducted in 2000 by the Institute for Road Safety Research in the Netherlands found that single bicycle crashes accounted for 47% of all bicycle crashes, collisions with obstacles and animals accounted for 12%, collisions with other road users accounted for 40%, with the remaining 1% having unknown or unclassified cause.
Many bicycle crashes are unreported and therefore not included in official statistics. Prospective studies estimate that less than 10% of bicycle crashes are reported. In the United Kingdom, cyclists have half of the rate of motorcyclists but eight times the rate for motorists. Minor bicycle crashes not involving hospitalisation can incur significant costs for the cyclist and others; the Belgian SHAPES project has estimated the cost at 0.12 euros per kilometre cycled. A cyclist, hit by a car is more to be killed than one who just falls off. Hazards particular to bicycles include: Getting a wheel stuck in a road irregularity, such as a large pothole, railroad track, storm drain, expansion joint, or edge of a driveway; this can cause the bicycle to stop while the rider goes over the handlebars, or it can cause the wheel to travel in a direction different than the rest of the bicycle, which can lead to falling sideways. Dooring - When a cyclist collides with a car door opened into the cyclist's path, associated with the commonplace layout of streets with cars parallel parked near the curb, cyclists riding between parked cars and moving cars.
Failure of drivers to see or anticipate bicycles riding to the right of traffic, dangerous when automobiles are turning across the path of travel. Proceeding at speed past stopped traffic can result in collisions when automobiles turn, either leaving the stopped lane or turning across the road in front of stopped traffic. Lane splitting is illegal in some jurisdictions. Falling under the wheels of other vehicles large trucks. Bicycling in rain or snow can decrease visibility if wearing glasses, goggles, or helmet with wind screen, due to lack of windshield wipers. Falling sideways if going too or carrying a heavy, unbalanced load. Falling due to lack of traction on slippery surfaces, such as ice, mud, or railroad track. Bicyclists are subject to all the same types of collisions as automobiles, without the protection of a metal shell but traveling at lower speeds; these risks can be increased when bicyclists violate the rules of the road, such as going the wrong way down a one-way street, failing to stop at a red light, or traveling at night without lights.
During the mid-20th century, the traffic engineering solutions were sought which eased the passage of traffic through the streets and protected vulnerable road users. In the 1940s, an influential proponent of this ideology was Herbert Alker Tripp, an assistant commissioner of London's Metropolitan Police. Tripp argued in his book Town Planning and Road Traffic that: "If we could segregate pedestrians from the wheeled traffic, we could of course abolish pedestrian casualties"; this philosophy was pursued by Colin Buchanan. Buchanan knew that segregation had not been proven to work for cyclists: his 1958 book Mixed Blessing said: "The meagre efforts made to separate cyclists from motor traffic have failed, tracks are inadequate, the problem of treating them at junctions and intersect
Select Bus Service
Select Bus Service is a brand used by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority's Regional Bus Operations for bus rapid transit service in New York City. SBS began service in 2008 in order to improve reliability on long, busy corridors. SBS routes use camera-enforced bus lanes; the first route was the Bx12 along the Pelham Parkway. Twenty-one more routes are proposed through 2027. However, in summer 2018, the MTA announced that it was considering delaying the implementation of SBS routes outside Manhattan until 2021 because of the city's upcoming bus-network redesign. In 2002, Schaller Consulting conducted a study on potential bus rapid transit services in New York City. In 2004, the MTA in conjunction with the New York City Department of Transportation and New York State Department of Transportation, performed an initial study on bus rapid transit, with 80 corridors studied citywide. In late 2004, the MTA identified five corridors for implementation of bus rapid transit, one in each of the five boroughs: the Fordham Road/Pelham Parkway corridor in the Bronx, First Avenue and Second Avenue in Manhattan, Merrick Boulevard in Queens, Nostrand Avenue in Brooklyn, Hylan Boulevard in Staten Island.
Four bus priority corridors were identified for implementation or expansion: Madison Avenue, Fifth Avenue, 34th Street, Webster Avenue. The Merrick Boulevard corridor was scrapped because of community opposition related to loss of parking. However, the corridor is being considered again as part of the Bus Forward study in 2017; the Select Bus Service program was unveiled to the public on March 25, 2008. At the time of the announcement, the MTA and then-Mayor Michael Bloomberg had stated that implementation on other corridors was contingent on the passage of congestion pricing, which did not make it for a vote in the legislature; the first Select Bus Service corridor, on the Bx12 along 207th Street, Fordham Road, Pelham Parkway, was placed into service on June 29, 2008. The next line, the M15, saw Select Service begin on October 10, 2010 after the delivery of new low-floor buses; the M34/M34A line was started on November 13, 2011. A 34th Street busway was planned that would require eliminating 34th Street as a through street, but it was dropped in favor of the standard SBS model.
The B44 Rogers/Bedford/Nostrand Avenues bus route, the fifth Select Bus Service corridor in the city, was implemented on November 17, 2013 after the arrival of new fare machines. The S79 Hylan Boulevard/Richmond Avenue route slated to be converted to SBS in 2013, was moved up to September 2, 2012. A sixth corridor, the second for the Bronx, began service on the Bx41 Webster Avenue route on June 30, 2013. Another Select Bus Service route on Webster Avenue, which will be extended to run between LaGuardia Airport and Fordham Plaza alongside the local Bx41 route, is proposed for implementation. A seventh corridor, the third for Manhattan, the M60 125th Street–Triborough Bridge–Astoria Boulevard bus route to LaGuardia Airport, was converted to SBS on May 25, 2014. An eighth Select Bus Service route was planned in the 2014–2017 Financial Plan; the eighth Select Bus Service corridor, the fourth in Manhattan, was for the M86 running on 86th Street, scheduled to start running on June 28, 2015, but pushed back to July 13, 2015.
The ninth corridor, the second for Brooklyn, is the B46 on Utica Avenue. When implemented, the local and Select Bus Service route of the B46 changed northern terminals to improve reliability. Planned for implementation in fall 2015, it was instituted on July 3, 2016; the tenth corridor, the first for Queens, is the Q44 limited bus route running on East 177th Street and Main Street, which began on November 29, 2015. Selected stops in the Bronx were combined into much busier stops for faster service, some stops in Queens have been replaced by the Q20A/B local routes; as both the Q20 branches do not enter the Bronx and the Q44 ran local late nights only, the Q44 gained 24/7 SBS service between the Bronx Zoo and Jamaica. The Q20A replaced the Q44 local in Queens late nights. On September 25, 2016, the eleventh corridor and the second for Queens, the Q70, was rebranded as the "LaGuardia Link" and became a SBS route; as opposed to other SBS routes, the Q70 is wrapped in a light blue scheme with clouds and airplanes in order to encourage more people to use public transportation when using the airport.
This marked MTA Bus's first SBS route, as well as the second for the eleventh overall. The M23, the twelfth corridor and the fifth in Manhattan, became a Select Bus Service route on November 6, 2016 with dedicated bus lanes and countdown clocks at some stops, replacing M23 local service at the cost of $1.7 million. The M79 became an SBS route on May 2017, with the installation of bus lanes along its route; the Bx6, after the completion of bus lanes and widened sidewalks, became an SBS route on September 3, 2017. It supplements the local service by stopping at high riders
PATH (rail system)
Port Authority Trans-Hudson is a rapid transit system connecting the cities of Newark, Harrison and Jersey City, in metropolitan northern New Jersey, with the lower and midtown sections of Manhattan in New York City. The PATH is operated by the Port Authority Trans-Hudson Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. PATH trains run 7 days a week; the system contains 13 stations and has a total route length of 13.8 miles, not double-counting route overlaps. PATH trains use tunnels in Manhattan and Downtown Jersey City; the tracks cross the Hudson River through century-old cast iron tubes that rest on the river bottom under a thin layer of silt. The PATH tracks from Grove Street in Jersey City west to Newark Penn Station run in open cuts, at grade level, on elevated track; the routes of the PATH system were operated by the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad. The railroad's Uptown Hudson Tubes first opened in 1908, followed by the Downtown Hudson Tubes in 1909, the system was completed by 1911, with 16 stations.
The H&M system had reached its peak in 1927, with 113 million passengers, soon started to decline with the advent of vehicular travel. In 1937, two new stations in Harrison and Newark were built. Two other stations in Manhattan were closed in the mid-20th century; the H&M went into bankruptcy in 1954. It operated under bankruptcy protection until 1962, when the Port Authority took it over and renamed it PATH. In 1971, as part of the construction of the World Trade Center, the Hudson Terminal in Lower Manhattan was replaced by the World Trade Center station; the PATH system was disrupted for several years after the World Trade Center was destroyed on September 11, 2001, a new transport hub was built at the site of the World Trade Center station. There have been several unfulfilled proposals to extend the H&M and the PATH, including to Grand Central Terminal and Astor Place in New York City and to Plainfield, New Jersey. A PATH extension to Newark Airport, first proposed in the 1970s, was reconsidered in the 2000s and is projected to start construction in 2020.
The PATH's primary method of payment is SmartLink, a smart card, not presently compatible with any other transit system, though PATH has plans to expand its usage. PATH accepts the same pay-per-ride MetroCard used by the New York City Transit system, but it does not accept unlimited ride, reduced fare, or EasyPay MetroCards. In 2017, PATH had an annual ridership of 82.8 million passengers, with an average daily ridership of 283,719. The PATH system is technically a commuter railroad under the jurisdiction of the Federal Railroad Administration though it operates as a rapid transit system; this is because its predecessor, the H&M, used to share its route to Newark with the Pennsylvania Railroad. The PATH uses one class of rolling stock, the PA5, delivered in 2009–2011; the PATH predates the New York City Subway's first underground line, operated by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company. It was known as the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad. Although the railroad was first planned in 1874, existing technologies could not safely tunnel under the Hudson River.
Construction began on the existing tunnels in 1890, but stopped shortly thereafter when funding ran out. Construction resumed in 1900 under the direction of William Gibbs McAdoo, an ambitious young lawyer who had moved to New York from Chattanooga, Tennessee. McAdoo became president of the H&M; the H&M became so associated with McAdoo that, in its early years, they became known as the McAdoo Tubes or McAdoo Tunnels. The first tunnel, now called the Uptown Hudson Tubes, started construction in 1873; the chief engineer of the time, Dewitt Haskin, tried to construct the tunnel using compressed air and line it with brick. The workers succeeded in building the tunnel out by 1,200 feet from Jersey City. However, construction was disrupted by a lawsuit, as well as a series of blowouts, including a serious one in 1880 that killed 20 workers; the project was abandoned in 1883 due to a lack of funds. Another effort by a British company, between 1888 and 1892 proved to be unsuccessful; when the New York and Jersey Tunnel Company resumed construction on the uptown tubes in 1902, chief engineer Charles M. Jacobs employed a different method of tunneling.
He pushed a shield through the mud and placed tubular cast iron plating around the tube. As the northern tube of the uptown tunnel was completed shortly after the resumption of construction, the southern tube was constructed using the tubular cast iron method. Construction of the uptown tunnel was completed in 1906. By the end of 1904, the New York and Jersey Railroad Company had received permission from the New York City Board of Rapid Transit Commissioners to build a new subway line through Midtown Manhattan, which would connect with the Uptown Hudson Tubes; the Midtown Manhattan line would travel eastward under Christopher Street before turning northeastward under Sixth Avenue continue underneath Sixth Avenue to a terminus at 33rd Street. In January 1905, the Hudson Companies was incorporated for the purpose of completing the Uptown Hudson Tubes and constructing the Sixth Avenue line; the company, contracted to construct the Uptown Hudson Tubes' subway tunnel connections on each side of the river had a capital of $21 million.
The H&M was incorporated in December 1906 to operate a passenger railroad system between New York and New Jer