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New York City FC

New York City Football Club is an American professional soccer club based in New York City, that competes in Major League Soccer, the highest level of American soccer, as a member of the league's Eastern Conference. New York City played its first game as the twentieth overall expansion team of the league. Since 2015, the club have played at Yankee Stadium in The Bronx. Jason Kreis was appointed as the club's first coach, remaining for a single year prior to being replaced by Patrick Vieira. Vieira guided New York City to their first MLS Cup playoff appearance the following season, as well as a runner-up berth in the Supporters' Shield in 2017. Vieira's teams set Major League Soccer records for the largest improvement in wins for a consecutive season. Based on attendance from the 2019 regular season, New York City's attendance was ninth-largest in the league. In 2019, Forbes estimated the franchise was the seventh most valuable in MLS, worth over $385 million. MLS had an interest in placing a second team in the New York area as early as 2006, when the MetroStars' exclusive territorial rights reverted to the league as a condition of the club's sale to Red Bull GmbH.

By the following year, the league had held talks with several groups, including New York Mets owner Fred Wilpon and his family, about owning the second New York franchise. The Wilpons' interest in MLS faded following the family's losses in the Madoff investment scandal, but the league continued to look for investors. In 2010, MLS commissioner Don Garber announced the league's intent to make its 20th franchise a second team in the New York area. At that point, the league hoped to have the new team beginning operations by 2013. Garber held discussions with the owners of the rebooted New York Cosmos, but they balked at the league's expansion fee and single-entity structure and decided not to apply for entry, instead joining the second-tier North American Soccer League. Garber had cultivated an interest in acquiring investment from a major European soccer club to be owners of a future franchise, in December 2008, he announced a bid for a Miami expansion team led by FC Barcelona; the team was to begin play in 2010 if accepted, the bid fell through.

Garber briefly discussed Barcelona investing in a New York franchise, before moving the focus to Miami. In 2012, Ferran Soriano, Barcelona's vice president at the time of the Miami bid, was appointed Manchester City CEO, prompting Garber to reach out to him about a New York City team. In December 2012, unnamed sources told the media that Manchester City were close to being announced as the new owners of the 20th team of MLS, the brand name "New York City Football Club" was trademarked, although the club denied the report. However, Garber announced in March 2013 that he was ready to unveil the new expansion team. Manchester City, in association with the New York Yankees baseball team, paid the $100 million expansion fee to join the league. New York City Football Club, LLC was registered with the New York State Department on May 7, 2013, on May 21, the team was announced as the 20th Major League Soccer franchise. On May 22, 2013, the club named former United States and Manchester City midfielder Claudio Reyna as its director of football operations, responsible for coaching staff and player recruitment ahead of the team's inaugural MLS season in 2015.

Reyna, a New Jersey native played for the nearby New York Red Bulls. He said he had begun identifying candidates to be the club's head coach, but would not name one in 2013; the team announced an English-language radio deal with WFAN on October 3, 2013. The club made their first recruitment dealing in off-field matters on September 6, 2013, when they hired former Rutgers University Athletic Director Tim Pernetti to serve as Chief Business Officer, part of a five-year deal with the university. Further hirings were made in mid-November, when three experienced administrators were appointed to Vice President roles. On December 11, 2013, Jason Kreis was announced as the first head coach of the new franchise, having reached the end of his contract at Real Salt Lake and declined an extension; the move came just four days after he missed out on lifting his second MLS Cup with the Utah team, losing on penalties to Sporting Kansas City. It was revealed in the announcement that his contract, starting on January 1, 2014, would see him begin by traveling to Manchester, England, to familiarize himself with the set-up of the franchise owners.

Kreis' official unveiling was made at a press conference on January 10, 2014, where he made it public that his former assistant Miles Joseph had joined him at the club. On June 2, 2014, the club announced that Spanish World Cup-winning striker David Villa had signed as the first player. While the team awaited its MLS start in 2015, Villa was loaned to Melbourne City, a club owned by City Football Group, he was, called back after only four matches. On July 24, 2014, New York City announced at a live press conference in Brooklyn that ex-England international and Chelsea all-time top goal scorer Frank Lampard would be joining them as their second Designated Player. Reyna hailed Lampard as "one of the greatest players in world history", while Lampard stated "it is a privilege to be able to help make history here in New York City". On July 6, 2015, the club signed ex-Italian international Andrea Pirlo from Juventus as their third Designated Player. In the 2015 MLS SuperDraft, as an expansion team, New York City had second overall pick, choosing Oregon State forward Khiry Shelton as their first pick.

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Gun laws in Texas

Gun laws in Texas regulate the sale and use of firearms and ammunition in the U. S. state of Texas. The Texas Department of Public Safety shall issue a License to Carry a Handgun to an eligible person; the license permits the open carrying of a handgun. Vehicle carry is allowed without a license. Texas has state preemption of gun laws, so local governments can not further restrict or regulate the possession or use of firearms. Texas does not restrict NFA weapons that are possessed under federal law; the state does not require background checks for private sales of firearms. Texas has no laws regarding possession of any firearm regardless of age. A person of any age may possess a firearm such as at a firing range. Texas and Federal law only regulate the ownership of all firearms to 18 years of age or older, regulate the transfer of handguns to 21 years or older by FFL dealers. However, a private citizen may sell, lease etc. A handgun to anyone over 18, not Felon or is a Felon, 5 years removed from Felony infraction of probation or parole end date and is now a law abiding citizen.

NFA weapons other than clubs are only subject to Federal restrictions. Municipal and county ordinances on possession and carry are overridden due to the wording of the Texas Constitution, which gives the Texas Legislature the power to "regulate the wearing of arms, with a view to prevent crime". Penal Code Section 1.08 prohibits local jurisdictions from enacting or enforcing any law that conflicts with State statute. Local ordinances restricting discharge of a firearm are allowed as State law has little or no specification thereof, but such restrictions do not preempt State law concerning justification of use of force and deadly force. In Texas a convicted felon may possess a firearm in the residence in which he lives once five years have elapsed from his release from prison or parole, whichever is however if the felony conviction was outside of Texas, Federal Law prohibits possession unless the gun rights of the possessor have been restored in the jurisdiction under which the felony occurred in.

A convicted Felon once 5 years removed from release from prison or probation may private purchase a firearm. Under Texas Penal Code §§ 12.33, 46.04, the unlawful possession of a firearm is a third degree felony with a punishment range of two to ten years for a defendant with one prior felony conviction and fine up to $10,000. There is no legal statute prohibiting the carry of a firearm other than a handgun. However, if the firearm is displayed in a manner "calculated to cause alarm," it is "disorderly conduct". Open carry of a handgun in public had long been illegal in Texas, except when the carrier was on property he/she owned or had lawful control over, was hunting, or was participating in some gun-related public event such as a gun show. However, the 2015 Texas Legislature passed a bill to allow concealed handgun permit holders to begin carrying handguns openly; the bill was signed into law on June 13, 2015, took effect on January 1, 2016. A License to Carry is still required to carry a handgun or concealed in public.

The Texas handgun carry permit was called a "Concealed Handgun License" or CHL. This has changed on Jan 1. 2016 to LTC "License To Carry" and at the same time the laws changed to include "Open Carry". Permits are issued on a non-discretionary basis to all eligible, qualified applicants. Texas has full reciprocity agreements with 30 states, not including Vermont, most of these having some residency restrictions. Texas recognizes an additional 11 states' concealed-carry permits unilaterally; the handgun licensing law sets out the eligibility criteria. For example, an applicant must be eligible to purchase a handgun under the State and Federal laws, however an exception is granted to active members of the military who are age 18 and over. Additionally, a number of factors may make a person ineligible to obtain a license, including: felony convictions and Class A or B misdemeanors, including charges that resulted in probation or deferred adjudication; this last category, though having little to do with a person's ability to own a firearm, is in keeping with Texas policy for any licensing.

Papilio nephelus

Papilio nephelus is a species of swallowtail butterfly belonging to the family Papilionidae. Subspecies include P. n. chaon, the yellow Helen, P. n. sunatus, the black and white Helen. Papilio nephelus has a wingspan reaching about 10–12 centimetres; the basic colour of the wings is black, with a chain of white spots on the forewing and a large white or yellow area on the hindwing. The underside and the upperside of the wings in this species are similar; the hindwings have wavy margins, with long tails. The thorax and the abdomen are black. Papilio nephelus superficially resembles P. helenus. The differences are, both of structure and of colour. Male forewing upperside: without the thick coating of short hairs on the outer half. Upperside: black with a sprinkling of yellowish-brown scales on the forewing, that form four longitudinal streaks on the cell and internervular streaks on the outer half. Hindwing: the upper discal white patch larger, formed of elongate broad streaks in interspaces 4 to 7: no tornal nor subterminal markings.

Underside ground colour duller brownish black. Hindwing: basal area sprinkled with yellow scales that form three longitudinal slender lines in the cell: the upper white discal patch as on the upperside, but the elongate white markings that compose it well divided by the black veins. Antennae, head and abdomen black. Female similar. Upperside ground colour browner. Underside paler. Forewing with the cellular and internervular streaks and subcostal postcellular whitish patch more prominent. Hindwing markings similar to those in the male, but more prominent. Antennae, head and abdomen as in the male, but the abdomen beneath with lateral white markings. Larvae feed on Toddalia asiatica, Euodia meliifolia, Fagra rhetsa, Citrus species and Zanthoxylum rhetsa; this species can be found the Asian part of the Palaearctic ecozone and in the Australasia ecozone and in the Indomalaya ecozone, from Nepal, Assam, to the south of China, from Myanmar to Thailand and Indonesia. These butterflies are present in the lowlands in the primary forests.

Listed alphabetically: P. n. albolineatus Forbes, 1885 – P. n. annulus Pendlebury, 1936 – P. n. chaon Westwood, 1845 – yellow Helen P. n. chaonulus Fruhstorfer, 1902 – P. n. ducenarius Fruhstorfer, 1908 – P. n. nephelus – P. n. siporanus Hagen, 1898 – P. n. sunatus Corbet, 1940 – black and white Helen P. n. tellonus Fruhstorfer, 1906 – P. n. uranus Weymer, 1885 – Papilio nephelus is a member of the helenus species group. The members of this clade are: Papilio helenus Linnaeus, 1758 Papilio iswara White, 1842 Papilio iswaroides Fruhstorfer, 1898 Papilio nephelus Boisduval, 1836 Papilio nubilus Staudinger, 1895 Papilio sataspes C. & R. Felder, 1865 Papilionidae List of butterflies of India List of butterflies of India Collins, N. Mark. Threatened Swallowtail Butterflies of the World: The IUCN Red Data Book. Gland & Cambridge: IUCN. ISBN 978-2-88032-603-6 – via Biodiversity Heritage Library. Evans, W. H.. The Identification of Indian Butterflies. Mumbai, India: Bombay Natural History Society. Wynter-Blyth, Mark Alexander.

Butterflies of the Indian Region. Bombay, India: Bombay Natural History Society. ISBN 978-8170192329. Papilio nephelus chaon Papilio nephelus sunatus Papilio nephelus sunatus Papilio nephelus, Butterflycorner