Government of New York City
The government of New York City, headquartered at New York City Hall in Lower Manhattan, is organized under the New York City Charter and provides for a "strong" mayor-council system. The mayor is elected to a four-year term and is responsible for the administration of city government; the New York City Council is a unicameral body consisting of 51 members, each elected from a geographic district for four-year terms. All elected officials—other than those elected before 2010, who are limited to three consecutive terms—are subject to a two consecutive-term limit; the court system consists of three statewide courts. New York City government employs 325,000 people, more than any other city in the United States and more than any U. S. state but three: California and New York. The city government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, public safety, recreational facilities, water supply, welfare services. New York City's political geography is unique, consisting of five boroughs, each coterminous with one of five counties of New York State: Brooklyn is Kings County, the Bronx is Bronx County, Manhattan is New York County, Queens is Queens County, Staten Island is Richmond County.
When New York City was consolidated into its present form in 1898, all previous town and county governments within it were abolished in favor of the present five boroughs and a unified, centralized city government. However, each county retains its own district attorney to prosecute crimes, most of the court system is organized around the counties; the executive branch of New York City consists of the Mayor, numerous departments and commissions. The Mayor appoints several deputy mayors to head major offices within the executive branch of the city government; the City Record is the official journal published each weekday containing legal notices produced by city agencies, regulations are compiled in the Rules of the City of New York. The Mayor is the chief executive officer of the city and a magistrate and removes all unelected officers and exercises all the powers vested in the city except otherwise provided by law, is responsible for the effectiveness and integrity of city government operations.
The mayor is directly elected by popular vote for a four-year term. The mayor is responsible for creating the city's budget through the Office of Management and Budget, submitted for approval, not drafting, to the Council. Along with the mayor, the Public Advocate and the Comptroller are the only three directly elected citywide officials in New York City; the Public Advocate is an elected official with responsibility to ease public relations with the government, investigate complaints regarding city agencies, mediate disputes between city agencies and citizens, serve as the city's ombudsman and advise the mayor on community relations. The Public Advocate is a member of the Council; the Public Advocate stands first in line of succession to the mayoralty. The Comptroller conducts performance and financial audits of all city agencies, serves as a fiduciary to the city's five public pension funds totaling nearly $160 billion in assets, provides comprehensive oversight of the city's budget and fiscal condition, reviews city contracts for integrity and fiscal compliance, manages the fair and effective resolution of claims against the city, ensures transparency and accountability in the prevailing wage rate-setting process and enforces prevailing wage and living wage laws.
The Comptroller stands second, after the Public Advocate, in the line to succeed a mayor who has become unable to serve. Legislative power in the City of New York is vested in the New York City Council; the New York State Constitution empowers local governments to adopt local laws in addition to ordinances, resolutions and regulations. The Council is a unicameral body consisting of 51 Council members, whose districts are defined by geographic population boundaries that each contain 157,000 people. Council members are elected every four years, except that after every census held in years divisible by twenty, districts are redrawn, requiring two consecutive two-year terms, the second of, held in the redrawn districts; the Speaker of the Council, selected by the 51 Council members, is considered the second most powerful post in New York City's government after the Mayor. Bills passed by a simple majority are sent to the mayor. If the mayor vetoes a bill, the Council has 30 days to override the veto by a two-thirds majority vote.
A local law has a status equivalent with a law enacted by the New York State Legislature, is superior to the older forms of municipal legislation such as ordinances, resolutions and regulations. The codified local laws of New York City are contained in the New York City Administrative Code; the Council has several committees with oversight of various functions of the city government. Each council member sits on at least three standing, subcommittees; the standing committees meet at least once per month. The Speaker of the Council, the Majority Leader, the Minority Leader are all ex officio members of every committee. Prior to 1990, the city had a powerful Board of Estimate, a unique legislative-executive hybrid. Although it could not pass laws, it shared authority for the city budget with the council and controlled functions such as land use, municipal contracts and water and sewer rates; the Board's membership consisted of the mayor, president of the City Council, the five borough presidents.
The three citywide officials each cast two votes, the borough presidents one each. In 1989, the Suprem
Federal Hall is the name given to the first of two historic buildings located at 26 Wall Street, New York City. The original, a Greek Revival structure completed in 1703, served as New York's first City Hall, it was the site where the colonial Stamp Act Congress met to draft its message to King George III claiming entitlement to the same rights as the residents of Britain and protesting "taxation without representation". After the American Revolution, it served as meeting place for the Congress of the Confederation held under the Articles of Confederation. In 1788, the building was remodeled and enlarged under the direction of Pierre Charles L'Enfant, becoming the first example of Federal Style architecture in the United States, it was renamed Federal Hall when it became the first Capitol of the newly created United States in 1789 and hosted the 1st United States Congress. On its steps George Washington was sworn in as the first President, it was demolished in 1812. The current structure, completed in 1842 and one of the best surviving examples of neoclassical architecture in New York, was built as the U.
S. Custom House for the Port of New York, it served as a sub-Treasury building. Though never referred to as "Federal Hall", today it is operated by the National Park Service as a national memorial and designated the Federal Hall National Memorial to commemorate the historic events that occurred at the previous structure; the original structure on the site was built as New York's second City Hall in 1699 - 1703, on Wall Street, in what is today the Financial District of Lower Manhattan. In 1735, John Peter Zenger, an American newspaper publisher, was arrested for committing libel against the British royal governor and was imprisoned and tried there, his acquittal on the grounds that the material he had printed was true established freedom of the press as it was defined in the Bill of Rights. In October 1765, delegates from nine of the 13 colonies met as the Stamp Act Congress in response to the levying of the Stamp Act by the Parliament of Great Britain. Drawn together for the first time in organized opposition to British policy, the attendees drafted a message to King George III, the House of Lords, the House of Commons, claiming entitlement to the same rights as the residents of Britain and protesting the colonies' "taxation without representation".
After the American Revolution, the City Hall served as the meeting place for the Congress of the Confederation of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, from 1785 until 1789. Acts adopted here included the Northwest Ordinance, which set up what would become the states of Ohio, Illinois and Wisconsin, but more fundamentally prohibited slavery in these future states. In 1788, the building was remodeled and enlarged under the direction of Pierre Charles L'Enfant, selected by President George Washington to design the capital city on the Potomac River; this was the first example of Federal Style architecture in the United States. The building was renamed Federal Hall when it became the first Capitol of the United States under the Constitution in 1789; the 1st United States Congress met there on March 4, 1789, to establish the new federal government, the first thing it did was to count the votes that elected George Washington as the first President of the United States. He was inaugurated on the balcony of the building on April 30, 1789.
Many of the most important legislative actions in the United States occurred with the 1st Congress at Federal Hall. Foremost was the proposal and initial ratification of the Bill of Rights to the U. S. Constitution; the Judiciary Act of 1789 was enacted in the building, which set up the United States federal court system, still in use today. In 1790, the United States capital was moved to Philadelphia, what had been Federal Hall once again housed the government of New York City until 1812, when the building was razed with the opening of the current New York City Hall. Part of the original railing and balcony floor where Washington was inaugurated are on display in the memorial; the current structure, one of the best surviving examples of classical architecture in New York, was built as the first purpose-built U. S. Custom House for the Port of New York. Designed by John Frazee, it was constructed of Tuckahoe marble and took more than a decade to complete, it opened in 1842. In 1862, Customs moved to 55 Wall Street and the building served as one of six United States Sub-Treasury locations.
Millions of dollars of gold and silver were kept in the basement vaults until the Federal Reserve Bank replaced the Sub-Treasury system in 1920. In 1882, John Quincy Adams Ward's bronze George Washington statue was erected on its front steps, marking the approximate site where he was inaugurated as President in the former structure. In 1920, a bomb was detonated across the street from Federal Hall at 23 Wall Street, in what became known as the Wall Street bombing. Thirty-eight people were killed and 400 injured, 23 Wall Street was visibly damaged, but Federal Hall received no damage. A famous photograph of the event shows the destruction and effects of the bombing with the statue of President Washington standing stoically in the face of chaos; the building was designated as Federal Hall Memorial National Historic Site on May 26, 1939, redesignated a national memorial on August 11, 1955. Administered by the National Park Service, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966.
Federal Hall was designated a landmark by th
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Brownstone is a brown Triassic-Jurassic sandstone, once a popular building material. The term is used in the United States to refer to a townhouse clad in this, or any of a number of aesthetically similar materials. In the 19th century, Basswood Island, was the site of a quarry run by the Bass Island Brownstone Company which operated from 1868 into the 1890s; the brownstone from this and other quarries in the Apostle Islands was in great demand, with brownstone from Basswood Island being used in the construction of the first Milwaukee County Courthouse in the 1860s. Hummelstown brownstone is popular along the East Coast of the United States, with numerous government buildings from the U. S. states of West Virginia, New York and Delaware being faced with the stone. The stone comes from the Hummelstown Quarry in Hummelstown, Pennsylvania, a small town outside of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania; the Hummelstown Quarry is the largest provider of brownstone on the east coast. The stone was transported out of Hummelstown through the Brownstone and Middletown Railroad or taken by truck up to the Erie Canal.
Portland brownstone, a.k.a. Connecticut River Brownstone, is very popular; the stone from quarries located in Portland and nearby localities were used in a number of landmark buildings in Chicago, New York City, New Haven, Washington D. C. and Baltimore. Quarries from the Passaic Formation in northern New Jersey once supplied most of the brownstone used in New York City and in the state of New Jersey. Devonian aged sandstone is used in Southern Wales. There are many brownstones throughout numerous New York City neighborhoods in the Brooklyn neighborhoods of Park Slope, Clinton Hill, Fort Greene, Cobble Hill, Carroll Gardens, Boerum Hill, Windsor Terrace, Prospect Heights, Crown Heights, Brooklyn Heights, Bedford Stuyvesant, Sunset Park. Smaller concentrations exist in parts of Bay Ridge, Bushwick and Prospect Lefferts Gardens. Brownstones are scattered throughout Manhattan from the Lower East Side to Washington Heights, with notable concentrations in the Upper West Side, Upper East Side and East Harlem.
In Queens and The Bronx, the historic districts of Long Island City and Mott Haven host many brownstones. Brownstones predominate in some Hudson County neighborhoods directly across the Hudson River from Manhattan in Hoboken and around Van Vorst Park and Hamilton Park in Jersey City. New York City brownstones cost several million dollars to purchase. A typical architectural detail of brownstones in and around New York City is the stoop, a steep staircase rising from the street to the entrance on what amounts to the second-floor level; this design was seen as hygienic at the time many were built, because the streets were so foul with animal waste. It has become fashionable to use the term "brownstone" to refer to any townhouse from a certain period though they may not have been built of brownstone. For example, many townhouses in Boerum Hill, Brooklyn are built of brick, but have concrete masonry cladding so they resemble actual stone. There are many brick townhouses that have brownstone-built stoops throughout the outer boroughs.
Such neighborhoods that consist of these homes are Borough Park, Dyker Heights, Bath Beach, Flatbush, East New York, Cypress Hills in Brooklyn, Glendale, Woodhaven in Queens, Longwood and Morrisania in the Bronx. The Rittenhouse Square and Fairmount neighborhoods of Philadelphia include examples of brownstone architecture. Many of these homes have been converted into apartment buildings. Back Bay, Boston, is known for its Victorian brownstone homes – considered some of the best-preserved examples of 19th-century urban design in the United States. Although some brownstones exist in Chicago, a similar residential form known as "greystones" is by far more prevalent. A greystone is a type of residential structure that utilizes Indiana limestone for its facade, regardless of its overall architectural style; as in Brooklyn, there exists a "Greystone Belt" in Chicago, with large numbers of such structures located in the south and northwest quadrants of the city. It is estimated that around 30,000 of Chicago's greystones built between 1890 and 1930 are still standing.
Brownstone known as freestone due to its durability and advantages as a building material, was used by early Pennsylvanian Quakers to construct stone mills and mill houses. In central Pennsylvania, some 1700s-era structures survive, including one still used as a residence, known as the Quaker Mill House. Brownstone was deemed "not much good as a building material" by Vincent Scully, professor emeritus of the history of art at Yale University. Brownstone was popular because it is unusually easy to carve and quarry, but these qualities made houses clad in it to be susceptible to weathering and damage over time. Besançon, noted for building façades made of stone from the Chailluz Quarry Dimension stone Greystone Hummelstown Brownstone Company Railroad apartment Sandstone NPS Article on the Brownstone quarries of Wisconsin's Apostle Islands. Website devoted to the Weser brownstone quarries from Germany being imported into the US. "After Fight, a Brooklyn Brownstone's Costly Rescue" The New York Times, March 31, 2010.
Website devoted to the colonial-era Quaker Mill House in Pennsylvania
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t
Castle Clinton or Fort Clinton known as Castle Garden, is a circular sandstone fort now located in Battery Park, in Manhattan, New York City. It is best remembered as the first U. S. immigration station, where more than 8 million people arrived in the United States from 1855 to 1890. Over its active life, it has functioned as a beer garden, exhibition hall and public aquarium, is a national monument. Castle Clinton stands two blocks west of where Fort Amsterdam was built in 1626, when New York City was known by the Dutch name New Amsterdam. Construction began in 1808 and was completed in 1811; the fort, known as West Battery, was designed by Jr. and Jonathan Williams. It was built on a small artificial island just off shore. West Battery was intended to complement the three-tiered Castle Williams on Governors Island, East Battery, to defend New York City from British forces in the tensions that marked the run-up to the War of 1812, but it never saw action in that or any war. Subsequent landfill expanded Battery Park, the fort was incorporated into the mainland of Manhattan Island.
Castle Clinton National Monument was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. West Battery was renamed Castle Clinton in 1815, its current official name, in honor of New York City Mayor DeWitt Clinton; the United States Army stopped using the fort in 1821, it was leased to New York City as a place of public entertainment. It opened as Castle Garden on July 3, 1824, a name by which it was popularly known for most of its existence to the present time, it served in turn as a promenade, beer garden/restaurant, exhibition hall, opera house, theater. Designed as an open-air structure, it was roofed over to accommodate these uses. In 1850, the castle was the site of two concerts given for charity by Swedish soprano Jenny Lind to initiate her American tour. A year European dancing star Lola Montez performed her notorious "tarantula dance" in Castle Garden. In 1853–54, Louis-Antoine Jullien, the eccentric French conductor and composer of light music, gave dozens of successful concerts mixing classical and light music.
The Max Maretzek Italian Opera Company notably staged the New York premieres of Gaetano Donizetti's Marino Faliero on June 17, 1851, Giuseppe Verdi's Luisa Miller on July 20, 1854, at Castle Garden. In the first half of the 19th century, most immigrants arriving in New York City landed at docks on the east side of the tip of Manhattan, around South Street. On August 1, 1855, Castle Clinton became the Emigrant Landing Depot, functioning as the New York State immigrant processing center, it was operated by the state until April 18, 1890, when the U. S. government assumed control of immigration processing, soon moving the center to the larger, more isolated Ellis Island facility on January 2, 1892. The new facility was needed because immigrants were known to carry diseases, which led to epidemics of cholera and smallpox. After many unnecessary deaths, scandals over immigration workers cheating and stealing from immigrants, the immigration center was moved to Ellis Island. Most of Castle Clinton's immigrant passenger records were destroyed in a fire that consumed the first structures on Ellis Island on June 15, 1897, but it is accepted that over 8 million immigrants were processed during its operation.
Called Kesselgarten by Yiddish-speaking Eastern European Jews, a Kesselgarten became a generic term for any situation, noisy, confusing or chaotic, or where a "babel" of languages was spoken. Prominent persons associated with the administration of the immigrant station included Gulian Crommelin Verplanck, Friedrich Kapp, John Alexander Kennedy. From 1896 to 1941, Castle Garden was the site of the New York City Aquarium. For many years, it was the city's most popular attraction, drawing hundreds of thousands of visitors each year; the structure was extensively altered and roofed over to a height of several stories, though the original masonry fort remained. In 1941, Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority Commissioner Robert Moses wanted to tear the structure down claiming that this was necessary to build the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel. To expedite construction of the tunnel, the city closed the New York Aquarium and moved its fish to other aquariums in September 1941. Moses advocated for the demolition of Castle Clinton, but preservationists who opposed Moses's proposed action asked federal judge to grant an injunction to prevent demolition.
Though Moses got the injunction dismissed, the public outcry prevented his effort at demolition. However, the aquarium was closed and not replaced until Moses opened a new facility on Coney Island in 1957. Albert S. Bard, Walter D. Binger, other civic reformers advocated to save the castle, which resulted in both houses of the United States Congress to pass legislation to make the castle a U. S. historic monument. President Harry S. Truman signed the legislation on August 12, 1946. Although Castle Garden had been designated a national monument, the city still owned the property. In July 1947, the New York City Board of Estimate voted to demolish Castle Garden. However, the Board delayed the demolition for another year to allow the federal government to review the decision. In May 1948, the Board voted to demolish the castle for the sixth time in as many years. After another year of discussion, the New York State Assembly reversed its decision to allow the castle to be demolished
Mayor of New York City
The Mayor of the City of New York is head of the executive branch of the Government of New York City. The mayor's office administers all city services, public property and fire protection, most public agencies, enforces all city and state laws within New York City; the budget, overseen by New York City Mayor's Office of Management and Budget, is the largest municipal budget in the United States at $82 billion a year. The city employs 325,000 people, spends about $21 billion to educate more than 1.1 million students and levies $27 billion in taxes. It receives $14 billion from the state and federal governments; the mayor's office is located in New York City Hall. The mayor appoints a large number of officials, including commissioners who head city departments, his deputy mayors; the mayor's regulations are compiled in title 43 of the New York City Rules. According to current law, the mayor is limited to two consecutive four-year terms in office but may run again after a four year break, it was changed from two to three terms on October 23, 2008, when the New York City Council voted 29–22 in favor of passing the term limit extension into law.
However, in 2010, a referendum reverting the limit back to two terms passed overwhelmingly. The current mayor is Democrat Bill de Blasio, elected on November 5, 2013 and reelected to a second term on November 7, 2017. In 1665, Governor Richard Nicolls appointed Thomas Willett as the first mayor of New York. For 156 years, the mayor had limited power. Between 1783 and 1821 the mayor was appointed by the Council of Appointments in which the state's governor had the loudest voice. In 1821 the Common Council, which included elected members, gained the authority to choose the mayor. An amendment to the New York State Constitution in 1834 provided for the direct popular election of the mayor. Cornelius W. Lawrence, a Democrat, was elected that year. Gracie Mansion has been the official residence of the mayor since Fiorello La Guardia's administration in 1942, its main floor serves as a small museum. The mayor is entitled to a salary of $258,750 a year. Michael Bloomberg, mayor of the city from 2002 to 2013 and one of the richest people in the world, declined the salary and instead was paid $1 yearly.
In 2000 direct control of the city's public school system was transferred to the mayor's office. In 2003 the reorganization established the New York City Department of Education. Tammany Hall, which evolved from an organization of craftsmen into a Democratic political machine, gained control of Democratic Party nominations in the state and city in 1861, it played a major role in New York City politics into the 1960s and was a dominant player from the mayoral victory of Fernando Wood in 1854 through the era of Robert Wagner. The Mayor of New York City may appoint several deputy mayors to help oversee major offices within the executive branch of the city government; the powers and duties, the number of deputy mayors, are not defined by the City Charter. The post was created by Fiorello La Guardia to handle ceremonial events that the mayor was too busy to attend. Since deputy mayors have been appointed with their areas of responsibility defined by the appointing mayor. There are five deputy mayors, all of whom report directly to the mayor.
Deputy mayors do not have any right to succeed to the mayoralty in the case of vacancy or incapacity of the mayor. The current deputy mayors are: First deputy mayor: Dean FuleihanAdvises the mayor on citywide administrative and policy matters. Deputy mayor for housing and economic development: Alicia GlenOversees and coordinates the operations of the Economic Development Corporation, the Department of Transportation, the Department of Buildings, the Department of City Planning, Department of Housing Preservation and Development, New York City Housing Development Corporation and related agencies. Deputy mayor for health and human services: Herminia PalacioOversees and coordinates the operations of the Human Resources Administration, Department of Homeless Services, the Administration for Children's Services, New York City Health and Hospitals, related agencies. Deputy mayor for operations: Laura AnglinDeputy mayor for strategic initiatives: J. Phillip Thompson Lilliam Barrios-Paoli 2014–2016, Anthony Shorris 2014-2017, under Bill de Blasio Daniel L. Doctoroff, Stephen Goldsmith 2010–2011, Patricia Harris 2002–2013, Robert K. Steel, Dennis M. Walcott, Howard Wolfson—under Michael Bloomberg Joe Lhota—under Rudolph Giuliani William Lynch 1990s—under David Dinkins Herman Badillo 1977–1979—under Ed Koch Robert W. Sweet 1966–1969 "The mayor has the power to appoint and remove the commissioners of more than 40 city agencies and members of City boards and commissions."
These include: New York City Police Commissioner New York City Fire Commissioner New York City Criminal Court judges New York City Marshals New York City Schools Chancellor New York City Office of Management and Budget Commissioner of Health of the City of New York The Mayor of New York City is an ex-officio board member of the following organizations: Local tabloid newspapers refer to the mayor as "Hizzoner", a corruption of the title His Honor. Spin City, a 1990s TV sitcom, starred Michael J. Fox as a deputy mayor of New York under Barry Bostwick's fictional Mayor Randall Winston. Several mayors have appeared in television and movies, as well as on Broadway, most notably in The Will Rogers Follies. In