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New York City Police Department

The New York City Police Department the City of New York Police Department, is the primary law enforcement and investigation agency within the City of New York. Established on May 23, 1845, the NYPD is one of the oldest police departments in the United States, is the largest police force in the United States; the NYPD headquarters is at 1 Police Plaza, located on Park Row in Lower Manhattan across the street from City Hall. The department's mission is to "enforce the laws, preserve the peace, reduce fear, provide for a safe environment"; the NYPD's regulations are compiled in title 38 of the New York City Rules. The New York City Transit Police and New York City Housing Authority Police Department were integrated into the NYPD in 1995 by New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani. In June 2004, there were about 45,000 sworn officers plus several thousand civilian employees. In December 2011 that figure increased to over 36,600, helped by the graduation of a class of 1,500 from the New York City Police Academy.

As of fiscal year 2018, the NYPD's current authorized uniformed strength is 38,422. There are approximately 4,500 auxiliary police officers, 5,000 school safety agents, 2,300 traffic enforcement agents, 370 traffic enforcement supervisors employed by the department; the Police Benevolent Association of the City of New York, the largest municipal police union in the United States, represents over 50,000 active and retired NYC police officers. The NYPD has a broad array of specialized services, including the Emergency Service Unit, K9, harbor patrol, air support, bomb squad, counter-terrorism, criminal intelligence, anti-gang, anti-organized crime, public transportation, public housing; the NYPD Intelligence Division & Counter-Terrorism Bureau has officers stationed in eleven cities internationally. In the 1990s the department developed a CompStat system of management which has since been established in other cities; the NYPD has extensive crime scene investigation and laboratory resources, as well as units which assist with computer crime investigations.

The NYPD runs a "Real Time Crime Center" a large search engine and data warehouse operated by detectives to assist officers in the field with their investigations. A Domain Awareness System, a joint project of Microsoft and the NYPD, links 6,000 closed-circuit television cameras, license plate readers, other surveillance devices into an integrated system. Due to its high-profile location in the largest city and media center in the United States, fictionalized versions of the NYPD and its officers have been portrayed in novels, television, motion pictures, video games; the Municipal Police were established in 1845, replacing an old night watch system. Mayor William Havemeyer shepherded the NYPD together, originating the phrase "New York's Finest". In 1857, it was tumultuously replaced by a metropolitan force, which abolished the Municipal Police. Twentieth-century trends included professionalization and struggles against corruption. Officers begin service with the rank of "probationary police officer" referred to as "recruit officer".

After successful completion of five and a half to six months of Police Academy training in various academic and tactical fields, officers graduate from the Police Academy. While graduates are referred to as "police officers", they continue to be "probationary police officers", or informally "rookies", until they have completed an additional 18 month probationary period. There are three career "tracks" in the NYPD: supervisory and specialist; the supervisory track consists of nine sworn titles, referred to as ranks. Promotion to the ranks of sergeant and captain are made via competitive civil service examinations. After reaching the civil service rank of captain, promotion to the ranks of deputy inspector, deputy chief, assistant chief and chief of department is made at the discretion of the police commissioner. Promotion from the rank of police officer to detective is discretionary by the police commissioner or required by law when the officer has performed eighteen months or more of investigative duty.

The entry level appointment to detective is third grade or specialist. The commissioner may grant discretionary grades of second and first; these grades offer compensation equivalent to that of supervisors. A second grade detective's pay corresponds to a sergeant's and a first grade detective's pay corresponds to a lieutenant's. Detectives are police officers who perform investigatory duties but have no official supervisory authority. A "detective first grade" still falls under the command of a sergeant or above. Just like detectives and lieutenants can receive pay grade increases within their respective ranks. ^ †: Uniform rank that has no police powers There are two basic types of detective in the NYPD: "detective-investigators" and "detective-specialists". Detective-investigators are the type most people associate with the term "detective" and are the ones most portrayed on television and in the movies. Most police officers gain their detective title by working in the Narcotics Division of the Detective Bureau.

Detectives assigned to squads are co-located within each precinct and are responsible for investigating murders, robberies and other crimes within that precinct's boundaries. Other detective-investigators are assigned to specialized units at either the major command or citywide level, investigating terrorist groups, organized crime, narcotics dealing, bias crimes, political corruption, major fraud

Final Fantasy XIII

Final Fantasy XIII is a science fiction role-playing video game developed and published by Square Enix for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 consoles and for the Microsoft Windows operating system. Released in Japan in December 2009 and worldwide in March 2010, it is the thirteenth title in the mainline Final Fantasy series; the game includes fast-paced combat, a new system for the series for determining which abilities are developed for the characters called "Crystarium", a customizable "Paradigm" system to control which abilities are used by the characters. Final Fantasy XIII includes elements from the previous games in the series, such as summoned monsters and airships; the game takes place in the fictional floating world of Cocoon, whose government, the Sanctum, is ordering a purge of civilians who have come into contact with Pulse, the much-feared world below. The former soldier Lightning begins her fight against the government in order to save her sister, branded as an unwilling servant to a god-like being from Pulse, making her an enemy of Cocoon.

Lightning is soon joined by a band of allies, together the group become marked by the same Pulse creature. They rally against the Sanctum while trying to discover their assigned task and whether they can avoid being turned into monsters or crystals at the completion. Development began in 2004, the game was first announced at Electronic Entertainment Expo 2006. Final Fantasy XIII is the flagship title of the Fabula Nova Crystallis collection of Final Fantasy games and is the first game to use Square Enix's Crystal Tools engine. Final Fantasy XIII received positive reviews from video game publications, which praised the game's graphics and battle system; the game's story received a mixed response from reviewers, its linearity compared to previous games in the series was criticized. Selling 1.7 million copies in Japan in 2009, Final Fantasy XIII became the fastest-selling title in the history of the series. As of 2017, the game has sold over 7 million copies worldwide on consoles; the Microsoft Windows version has sold over 746,000 copies according to SteamSpy.

A sequel, titled Final Fantasy XIII-2, was released in December 2011 in Japan and in February 2012 in North America and PAL regions. A second sequel, titled Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII, which concludes Lightning's story and the Final Fantasy XIII series, was released in November 2013 in Japan and in February 2014 in North America and PAL regions. In September 2014, Square Enix announced the Final Fantasy XIII series has been successful and has shipped over 11 million copies worldwide. On November 13, 2018 it was added to Xbox One Backward Compatibility along with its sequels making it playable on the console, it is Xbox One X Enhanced allowing it to run at a higher resolution. The player directly controls the on-screen character through a third-person perspective to interact with people and enemies throughout the game; the player can turn the camera around the characters, which allows for a 360° view of the surroundings. The world of Final Fantasy XIII is rendered to scale relative to the characters in it.

The player navigates the world by chocobo. Players may save their game to a hard disk drive using save stations, where the player can purchase items from retail networks or upgrade their weapons. An in-game datalog provides a bestiary and incidental information about the world of Final Fantasy XIII; the Final Fantasy XIII Ultimate Hits International version of the game, released in Japan contains an "Easy" mode option. As in Final Fantasy XII, enemies are integrated into the open field and can be approached or avoided by the player; when the player's character touches an enemy, the screen transitions from the regular map to a separate battle screen similar to those used in previous Final Fantasy titles. A maximum of three characters may be used in battles, which use a variant on the series' traditional Active Time Battle system first featured in Final Fantasy IV. Under this system, the player selects an action from the menus, such as Attack and Item. Unlike previous games in the series, the player only controls the lead character while the remaining two characters are controlled by the game's artificial intelligence.

Each action requires a specific number of slots on the ATB bar, which continually refills to a set maximum number of slots. The ATB bar increases in size throughout the game from two slots to six; the player may select less than the maximum number of possible actions, or may stop the filling of the ATB bar and perform as many actions as can be done with the current ATB amount. The player may select an autobattle command, which fills the ATB slots with actions chosen automatically. Actions cannot be performed outside of battle, the characters' health is restored after each battle; each enemy has a meter, called a chain counter, consisting of a percentage starting at 100 which increases when the enemy is struck by attacks or spells. Attacks by different roles have different effects; the amount of damage performed by an attack is multiplied by the chain percentage before it is applied to the enemy. When the chain counter reaches a preset amount, different for each enemy, the enemy is placed into Stagger State.

In this mode, the enemy may be launched into the air. The Paradigm system allows the player to program six different roles which the characters can assume to perform certain formations

Kyros of Constantinople

Kyros or Cyrus, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 705 to 712. He is regarded as a saint in the Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic Church, which had set his feast for January 7 in Roman Catholic Church and January 8 in Orthodox Church. Cyrus was placed on the patriarchal throne in 705 by Emperor Justinian II, as a replacement for the deposed Patriarch Callinicus I. Soon after Justinian's fall in December 711, Kyros was replaced by the new Emperor Philippicus with Patriarch John VI, who shared Philippicus' Monothelite sympathies. Eastern Orthodoxy The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991. Santiebeati:Kyros of Constantinople


OSCAR III is the third amateur radio satellite launched by Project OSCAR into Low Earth Orbit. OSCAR 3 was launched March 9, 1965 by a Thor-DM21 Agena D launcher from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California; the satellite, weighing 16.3 kg, was launched piggyback with seven United States Air Force satellites. The satellite employed no attitude control system. OSCAR III linear transponder lasted 18 days. More than 1000 amateurs in 22 countries communicated through the linear transponder; the two beacon transmitters continued operating for several months. Project OSCAR Inc. started in 1960 with the radio amateurs from the TRW Radio Club of Redondo Beach, many who worked at TRW and defense industries, to investigate the possibility of putting an amateur satellite in orbit. Project OSCAR was responsible for the construction of the first Amateur Radio Satellite OSCAR-1, launched from Vandenberg AFB in California. OSCAR-1 orbited the earth for 22 days. Project OSCAR was responsible for launching 3 other amateur radio satellites during the 1960s: OSCAR 1, OSCAR 2, OSCAR 4 In 1969, AMSAT-NA was founded by radio amateurs working at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and the Baltimore-Washington DC region, to continue the efforts begun by Project OSCAR.

Its first project was to coordinate the launch of Australis-OSCAR 5, constructed by students at the University of Melbourne. Today, over fifty years Project OSCAR still exists as part of the San Jose Amateur Radio Club, its mission is “To initiate and support activities that promote the Satellite Amateur Radio Hobby”. The primary goal is to reach out and provide logistical support, training and in some cases equipment to amateur radio associations and the public at large. Oscar III was an upgrade from the earlier Oscar I and Oscar II amateur satellites, three years earlier. Improvements included: Oscar 3 was the first true amateur satellite relaying voice contacts in the VHF 2 meter band through a 1 W 50 kHz wide linear transponder. First amateur satellite to operate from solar power and relay signals from Earth. First usage of beacon transmitters, separate from the main communications system. Early Bird known as Intelsat I, the world's first commercial communications satellite, would be launched 28 days later.

OSCAR OSCAR 2 OSCAR 3 Report - Communications Results Project OSCAR This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

William Henry Johnson (VC)

William Henry Johnson was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He was 27 years old, on 3 October 1918 at Ramicourt, France, he performed the deed for which he was awarded the VC. Johnston was a sergeant in 1/5th Battalion, The Sherwood Foresters, British Army during the First World War, his VC was gazetted on 14 December 1918 with the following citation: No. 306122 Sjt. William Henry Johnson, 1/5th Bn. Notts. & Derby. R.. For most conspicuous bravery at Ramicourt on the 3rd of October, 1918; when his platoon was held up by a nest of enemy machine guns at close range, Sjt. Johnson worked his way forward under heavy fire, single-handed charged the post, bayoneting several gunners and capturing two machine guns. During this attack he was wounded by a bomb, but continued to lead forward his men. Shortly afterwards the line was once more held up by machine guns. Again he attacked the post singlehanded.

With wonderful courage he bombed the garrison, put the guns out of action, captured the teams. He showed throughout devotion to duty, he was awarded the French Médaille militaire. He had to resign due to ill-health, his Victoria Cross is displayed at Nottingham Castle, England. Monuments to Courage The Register of the Victoria Cross VCs of the First World War - The Final Days 1918 Major R. E. Priestley, Breaking the Hindenburg Line: The Story of the 46th Division, London: T. F. Unwin, 1919 Location of grave and VC medal The Victoria Cross Awards to the Sherwood Foresters William Henry Johnson at Find a Grave Matt Davis. "World War I tourism: Looking for your family hero". BBC News. Retrieved 7 August 2013. "Sergeant William Henry Johnson, VC". Art UK. Retrieved 20 October 2017. "My Tommy's War: W H Johnson – the bellringer VC". The National Archives. 3 October 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018. William Henry Johnson on Lives of the First World War

Lion's Den (2008 film)

Lion's Den is a 2008 Argentine drama film directed, co-written, co-produced and co-edited by Pablo Trapero. Addressing motherhood within the prison system, it stars Martina Gusmán, Elli Medeiros and Rodrigo Santoro; the film competed in the Competition at the 2008 Cannes Film Festival. It was Argentina's official submission for the 2009 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Martina Gusmán - Julia Elli Medeiros - Sofia Rodrigo Santoro - Ramiro Laura García - Marta Tomás Plotinsky - Tomás VI Leonardo Sauma - Ugo Casman List of submissions to the 81st Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of Argentine submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Lion's Den on IMDb