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New York Dolls

The New York Dolls were an American hard rock band formed in New York City in 1971. Along with the Velvet Underground and the Stooges, they were one of the first bands of the early punk rock scenes. Although their original line-up fell apart the band's first two albums—New York Dolls and Too Much Too Soon —became among the most popular cult records in rock; the line-up at this time comprised vocalist David Johansen, guitarist Johnny Thunders, bassist Arthur Kane and pianist Sylvain Sylvain and drummer Jerry Nolan. On stage, they donned an androgynous wardrobe, wearing high heels, eccentric hats, makeup and dresses. Nolan described the group in 1974 as "the Dead End Kids of today". According to the Encyclopedia of Popular Music, the New York Dolls predated the punk and glam metal movements and were "one of the most influential rock bands of the last 20 years", they influenced rock groups such as the Sex Pistols, the Ramones, Guns N' Roses, the Damned and the Smiths, whose frontman Morrissey organized a reunion show for the New York Dolls' surviving members in 2004.

After reuniting, they recorded and released three more albums—One Day It Will Please Us to Remember Even This, Cause I Sez So and Dancing Backward in High Heels. Following a 2011 British tour with Alice Cooper, the band once again disbanded. Sylvain Sylvain and Billy Murcia, who went to junior high school and high school together, started playing in a band called "the Pox" in 1967. After the frontman quit and Sylvain started a clothing business called Truth and Soul and Sylvain took a job at A Different Drummer, a men's boutique, across the street from the New York Doll Hospital, a doll repair shop. Sylvain said. In 1970 they formed a band again and recruited Johnny Thunders to join on bass, though Sylvain ended up teaching him to play guitar, they called themselves the Dolls. When Sylvain left the band to spend a few months in London and Murcia went their separate ways. Thunders was recruited by Kane and Rick Rivets, playing together in the Bronx. At Thunders' suggestion, Murcia replaced the original drummer.

Thunders sang for the band Actress. An October 1971 rehearsal tape recorded by Rivets was released as Dawn of the Dolls; when Thunders decided that he no longer wanted to be the front man, David Johansen joined the band. The group was composed of singer David Johansen, guitarists Johnny Thunders and Rick Rivets, bass guitarist Arthur "Killer" Kane and drummer Billy Murcia; the original lineup's first performance was on Christmas Eve 1971 at a homeless shelter, the Endicott Hotel. After getting a manager and attracting some music industry interest, the New York Dolls got a break when Rod Stewart invited them to open for him at a London concert. While on a brief tour of England in 1972, Murcia was invited to a party, where he passed out from an accidental overdose, he was put in force-fed coffee in an attempt to revive him. Instead, it resulted in asphyxiation, he was found dead on the morning of November 6, 1972, at the age of 21. Once back in New York, the Dolls auditioned drummers, including Marc Bell, Peter Criscuola, Jerry Nolan, a friend of the band.

They selected Nolan, after US Mercury Records' A&R man Paul Nelson signed them, they began sessions for their debut album. In 1972, the band took on Marty Thau as manager. New York Dolls was produced by singer-songwriter and solo artist Todd Rundgren. In an interview in Creem magazine, Rundgren says he touched the recording. Sales were sluggish in the middle US, a Stereo Review magazine reviewer in 1973 compared the Dolls' guitar playing to the sound of lawnmowers. America's mass rock audience's reaction to the Dolls was mixed. In a Creem magazine poll, they were elected both best and worst new group of 1973; the Dolls toured Europe, while appearing on UK television, host Bob Harris of the BBC's Old Grey Whistle Test derided the group as "mock rock," comparing them unfavorably to the Rolling Stones. For their next album, Too Much Too Soon, the quintet hired producer George "Shadow" Morton, whose productions for the Shangri-Las and other girl-groups in the mid-1960s had been among the band's favorites.

Mercury dropped the Dolls not long after the second album. By 1975 the Dolls were playing smaller venues. Drug and alcohol abuse by Thunders and Kane as well as artistic differences added to the tensions among members. In late February or early March Malcolm McLaren became their informal manager, he got the band red leather outfits to wear on a communist flag as backdrop. The Dolls did a 5-concert tour of New York's five boroughs, supported by Pure Hell; the Little Hippodrome show was recorded and released by Fan Club records in 1982 as Red Patent Leather. It was a bootleg album, remixed by Sylvain, with former manager Marty Thau credited as executive producer. Due to Kane being unable to play that night, roadie Peter Jordan played bass, though he was credited as having played "second bass". Jordan filled in for Kane. In March and April McLaren took the band on a tour of South Florida. Jordan replaced Kane for most of those shows. Thunders and Nolan left after an argument with Johansen. Blackie Lawles


Solicitation is the act of offering, or attempting to purchase, goods or services. Legal status may be specific to the place where it occurs; the crime of "solicitation to commit a crime" occurs when a person encourages, "solicits, commands, importunes or otherwise attempts to cause" another person to attempt or commit a crime, with the purpose of thereby facilitating the attempt or commission of that crime. In England and Wales, the term soliciting is "for a person persistently to loiter or solicit in a street or public place for the purpose of prostitution" under the Street Offences Act 1959 as amended; the crime of soliciting should not be confused with the profession of a solicitor, which under UK law is that of a lawyer, who may function as a legal agent to obtain the services of a barrister on behalf of a client. In the United States, solicitation is the name of a crime, an inchoate offense that consists of a person offering money or inducing another to commit a crime with the specific intent that the person solicited commit the crime.

For example, under federal law, for a solicitation conviction to occur the prosecution must prove both that defendant had the intent that another person engage in conduct constituting a felony crime of violence, that the defendant commanded, induced, or otherwise endeavored to persuade the other person to commit the felony. In the United States, the term "solicitation" implies some part of commercial element, consideration, or payment. In some other common law countries, the situation is different: where the substantive offense is not committed, the charges are drawn from incitement and attempt. Solicitation has in the U. S. these unique elements: the encouraging, requesting, or commanding a person to commit a substantive crime, with the intent that the person solicited commit the crime. Unlike conspiracy, there is no overt step necessary for solicitation, one person can be a defendant and it merges with the substantive crime, it is not necessary that the person commit the crime, nor is it necessary that the person solicited be willing or able to commit the crime.

For example, if Alice commands Bob to assault Charlie, Alice intends for Bob to assault Charlie Alice is guilty of solicitation. However, if Alice commands Bob to assault Charlie without intending that a crime be committed there is no solicitation. An interesting twist on solicitation occurs when a third party that the solicitor did not intend to receive the incitement overhears the request to the original solicitee and unbeknownst to the solicitor, commits the target offense. In a minority of jurisdictions in the United States, this situation would still be considered solicitation though the defendant never intended the person that committed the crime to have done so. Solicitation is subject to the doctrine of merger, which applies in situations where the person solicited commits the crime. In such a situation, both Alice and Bob could be charged with the crime as accomplices, which would preclude conviction under solicitation. In addition to the inchoate offense of solicitation, "solicitor" can refer to a door-to-door salesman.

This creates another form of illegal solicitation, as in many jurisdictions, it is illegal to ignore "no soliciting" signs with the burden resting upon the solicitor to look for the sign and upon observation to vacate the premises without attempting to contact the homeowner. Some cities require the employer to properly train employees on the appropriate observation of local solicitation ordinances and instruct them to always carry an identifying badge that they must show upon request. City ordinances vary but may require a soliciting sign to be of a certain dimension to qualify for legal protection; some signs may describe the consequences to the solicitor. Although not required, such methods may be more effective at deterring unwanted solicitation. Begging#Legal restrictions Incitement Inchoate offence Murder for hire Prostitution Soliciting to murder Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives - fictional sting operations - rejected US legal case justified by Department of Justice as preventing crime Spamming Flyposting Email spam Spam

MaracanĂ£ Marine Extractive Reserve

The Maracanã Marine Extractive Reserve is a coastal marine extractive reserve in the state of Pará, Brazil. It protects an area of mangroves, allows the local population to make sustainable use of the natural resources; the Maracanã Marine Extractive Reserve is in the municipality of Maracanã in the state of Pará. It has an area of 30,179.20 hectares. The municipality of Maracanã was founded in 1653 when father António Vieira arrived in Pará on a mission to the village of Maracanã Indians. Today there are 75 coastal communities in the reserve living by fishing. Other activities include animal husbandry and support of tourism; the holidays are religious, include the festivals of Saint Michael the Archangel, Our Lady of Nazareth and Saint Benedict. Handcrafts include construction of fishing equipment; the reserve protects the mangroves of the lower reaches of the Maracanã and Caripi rivers and the Maracanã Bay up to Algodoal Island at the northwest of the bay. To the west the reserve protects the eastern side of the bay at the mouth of the Marapanim River south to where the Cuinarana River enters that bay, the mangroves of the east side of the Cuinarana River.

The reserve protects the mangroves of the east side of the peninsula to the east of Maracanã Bay, opposite the town of Salinópolis. The Mestre Lucindo Marine Extractive Reserve lies to the west, on the opposite shore of the Marapanim River. Further south, the Cuinarana Marine Extractive Reserve lies to the west on the opposite shore of the Cuinarana River; the Chocoaré - Mato Grosso Extractive Reserve is to the south, higher up the Maracanã River. It adjoins the Algodoal-Maiandeua Environmental Protection Area to the north; the Maracanã Marine Extractive Reserve was created by decree on 13 December 2002 with the objectives of ensuring the sustainable use and conservation of renewable natural resources, while protecting the livelihoods and culture of the local extractive population. The reserve is classed as IUCN protected area category VI. On 22 June 2005 the Instituto Nacional de Colonização e Reforma Agrária recognised the reserve as supporting 1,000 families of small rural producers, allowing them to participate in PRONAF.

On 30 October 2008 the environment ministry authorised a research project by the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi entitled "Ethnobotany in the fishing community of Vila da Penha: Knowing and Valuing". The deliberative council was created on 29 July 2009. Administrative responsibility was transferred to the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation on 22 March 2010. On 23 March 2010 ICMBio granted the right to use the reserve to the Association of Users of the Maracanã Marine Extractive Reserve; the reserve is supported by the Amazon Region Protected Areas Program. The climate is Amazon equatorial, with annual rainfall of about 2,200 millimetres. Temperatures range from 23 to 33 °C and average 29 °C; the terrain is flat, with poorly drained clay soil, flooded by the tides all year. Altitudes range from 0 to 20 metres above sea level; the reserve protects a typical coastal mangrove ecosystem with trees of the genera Rhizophora and Laguncularia. In the fringe along the left side of Maracanã Bay there are Laguncularia racemosa, followed by Avicennia germinans and Avicennia schaueriana, with a few Rhizophora mangle further inland.

The terra firma forest consists of capoeiras. Birds include white heron and hawks. Crustaceans include crabs, molluscs and mussels. Mammals include dolphins and giant anteater. There are turtles.

Liquefied natural gas

Liquefied natural gas is natural gas, cooled down to liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport. It takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the gaseous state, it is odorless, non-toxic and non-corrosive. Hazards include flammability after vaporization into a gaseous state and asphyxia; the liquefaction process involves removal of certain components, such as dust, acid gases, helium and heavy hydrocarbons, which could cause difficulty downstream. The natural gas is condensed into a liquid at close to atmospheric pressure by cooling it to −162 °C; the gas produced from hydrocarbon deposits contains a wide range of hydrocarbon products, which includes methane, ethane and butane. All these products have wide-ranging boiling points and different heating values allowing different routes to commercialization and different uses; the "acidic" elements such as hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide, together with oil, mud and mercury, are removed from the gas to deliver a clean sweetened stream of gas.

Failure to remove such acidic molecules and other impurities could result in damage to the equipment. Corrosion of steel pipes and amalgamization of mercury to aluminium within cryogenic heat exchangers could cause expensive damage; the gas stream is separated into the Liquefied Petroleum fractions, which can be stored in liquid form at low pressure, the lighter ethane and methane fractions. These lighter fractions of methane and ethane are liquefied to make up the bulk of LNG, shipped. Natural gas was considered to be economically unimportant wherever gas-producing oil or gas fields were distant from gas pipelines or located in offshore locations where pipelines were not viable. In the past this meant that natural gas produced was flared since unlike oil no viable method for natural gas storage or transport existed other than pipelines which required the immediate use by end users of the same gas; this meant that natural gas markets were entirely local and any production had to be consumed within the local network.

Developments of production processes, cryogenic storage, transportation created the tools required to commercialize natural gas into a global market which now competes with other fuels. Furthermore, the development of LNG storage introduced a reliability in networks, thought impossible. Given that storage of other fuels is easily secured using simple tanks, a supply for several months could be kept in storage. With the advent of large scale cryogenic storage, it was possible to create long term gas storage reserves; these reserves of liquefied gas could be deployed at a moment's notice through regasification processes and today are the main means for networks to handle local peak shaving requirements. The advent of a commercial market for LNG transport over the seas from locations where gas deposits are in excess of local pipeline demand, led to a huge commercial opportunity; this is the economic strategy pursued where pipeline infrastructure is either technically and economically not viable.

LNG achieves a higher reduction in volume than compressed natural gas so that the energy density of LNG is 1.4 times greater than that of CNG or 60 percent that of diesel fuel. This makes LNG cost efficient in marine transport over long distances. However, CNG carrier ships can be used economically up to medium distances in marine transport. Specially designed cryogenic sea vessels or cryogenic road tankers are used for LNG transport. LNG is principally used for transporting natural gas to markets, where it is regasified and distributed as pipeline natural gas, it can be used in natural gas vehicles, although it is more common to design vehicles to use CNG. LNG's high cost of production and the need to store it in expensive cryogenic tanks have hindered widespread commercial use. Despite these drawbacks, on energy basis LNG production is expected to hit 10% of the global crude production by 2020; the heating value depends on the source of gas, used and the process, used to liquefy the gas. The range of heating value can span +/- 10 to 15 percent.

A typical value of the higher heating value of LNG is 50 MJ/kg or 21,500 BTU/lb. A typical value of the lower heating value of LNG is 19,350 BTU/lb. For the purpose of comparison of different fuels the heating value may be expressed in terms of energy per volume, known as the energy density expressed in MJ/litre; the density of LNG is 0.41 kg/litre to 0.5 kg/litre, depending on temperature and composition, compared to water at 1.0 kg/litre. Using the median value of 0.45 kg/litre, the typical energy density values are 22.5 MJ/litre or 20.3 MJ/litre. The energy density of LNG is 2.4 times that of CNG which makes it economical to transport natural gas by ship in the form of LNG. The energy density of LNG is comparable to propane and ethanol but is only 60 percent that of diesel and 70 percent that of gasoline. Experiments on the properties of gases started early in the seventeenth century. By the middle of the seventeenth century Robert Boyle had derived the inverse relationship between the pressure and the volume of gases.

About the same time, Gui

Grange Arch

Grange Arch known as Creech Folly, is an 18th-century folly, located near the second highest point of the Purbeck Hills, Ridgeway Hill, in Dorset. It lies within the parish of Steeple; the folly, built by a former owner of Creech Grange, Denis Bond, in 1746, is built in the form of a triple arch of ashlar stone. The central archway is surmounted by battlements and flanked by stone walls with smaller doorway arches. Today the arch is owned by the National Trust. English Heritage have designated it a Grade II* listed building. Sham Castle

Waverly Hills Historic District

The Waverly Hills Historic District is a national historic district located at Arlington County, Virginia. It contains 439 contributing buildings in a residential neighborhood in North Arlington; the area is the result of the combination of five separate subdivisions platted for development between 1919 and 1939. The dwelling styles include a variety of architectural styles, including Tudor Revival, Colonial Revival, Dutch Colonial Revival, Bungalow / Craftsman, Cape Cods. Located within the district is the separately listed Glebe House, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2004