SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

New York Herald Tribune

The New York Herald Tribune was a newspaper published between 1924 and 1966. It was created in 1924, it was regarded as a "writer's newspaper" and competed with The New York Times in the daily morning market. The paper won at least nine Pulitzer Prizes during its lifetime. A "Republican paper, a Protestant paper and a paper more representative of the suburbs than the ethnic mix of the city", according to one reporter, the Tribune did not match the comprehensiveness of The New York Times' coverage, its national and business coverage, was viewed as among the best in the industry, as was its overall style. At one time or another, the paper was home to such writers as Dorothy Thompson, Red Smith, Roger Kahn, Richard Watts, Jr. Homer Bigart, Walter Kerr, Walter Lippmann, St. Clair McKelway, Judith Crist, Dick Schaap, Tom Wolfe, John Steinbeck, Jimmy Breslin. Editorially, the newspaper was the voice for eastern Republicans referred to as Rockefeller Republicans, espoused a pro-business, internationalist viewpoint.

The paper, first owned by the Reid family, struggled financially for most of its life and generated enough profit for growth or capital improvements. However, it enjoyed prosperity during World War II and by the end of the conflict had pulled close to the Times in ad revenue. A series of disastrous business decisions, combined with aggressive competition from the Times and poor leadership from the Reid family, left the Herald Tribune far behind its rival. In 1958, the Reids sold the Herald Tribune to John Hay Whitney, a multimillionaire Wall Street investor, serving as ambassador to the United Kingdom at the time. Under his leadership, the Tribune experimented with new layouts and new approaches to reporting the news, made important contributions to the body of New Journalism that developed in the 1960s; the paper revived under Whitney, but a 114-day newspaper strike stopped the Herald Tribune's gains and ushered in four years of strife with labor unions the local chapter of the International Typographical Union.

Faced with mounting losses, Whitney attempted to merge the Herald Tribune with the New York World-Telegram and the New York Journal-American in the spring of 1966. Combined with investments in the World Journal Tribune, Whitney spent $39.5 million in his attempts to keep the newspaper alive. After the New York Herald Tribune closed, the Times and The Washington Post, joined by Whitney, entered an agreement to operate the International Herald Tribune, the paper's former Paris publication; the International Herald Tribune was renamed the International New York Times in 2013 and is now named The New York Times International Edition. New York magazine, created as the Herald Tribune's Sunday magazine in 1963, was revived by editor Clay Felker in 1968, continues to publish today; the New York Herald was founded on May 6, 1835 by James Gordon Bennett, a Scottish immigrant who came to the United States aged 24. Bennett, a firm Democrat, had established a name in the newspaper business in the 1820s with dispatches sent from Washington to the New York Enquirer, most critical of President John Quincy Adams and Secretary of State Henry Clay.

Bennett was a pioneer in crime reporting. The fight over access overshadowed the trial itself. Bennett founded the New York Globe in 1832 to promote the re-election of Andrew Jackson to the White House, but the paper folded after the election. After a few years of journalistic piecework, he founded the Herald in 1835 as a penny newspaper, similar in some respects to Benjamin Day's Sun but with a strong emphasis on crime and financial coverage. Bennett, who wrote much of the newspaper himself, "perfected the fresh, pointed prose practiced in the French press at its best"; the publisher's coverage of the 1836 murder of Helen Jewett—which, for the first time in the American press, included excerpts from the murder victim's correspondence—made Bennett "the best known, if most notorious…journalist in the country". Bennett put his profits back into his newspaper, establishing a Washington bureau and recruiting correspondents in Europe to provide the "first systematic foreign coverage" in an American newspaper.

By 1839, the Herald's circulation exceeded that of The London Times. When the Mexican–American War broke out in 1846, the Herald assigned a reporter to the conflict—the only newspaper in New York to do so—and used the telegraph a new technology, to not only beat competitors with news but provide Washington policymakers with the first reports from the conflict. During the American Civil War, Bennett kept at least 24 correspondents in the field, opened a Southern desk and had reporters comb the hospitals to develop lists of casualties and deliver messages from the wounded to their families; the New-York Tribune was founded by Horace Greeley in 1841. Greeley, a native of New Hampshire, had begun publishing a weekly paper called The New-Yorker (u

Cooke Optics

Cooke Optics Ltd. is a camera lens manufacturing company based in Leicester. Administratively speaking, Cooke Optics is a spin-off of the company Taylor-Hobson. However, Taylor-Hobson used to be a lens manufacturer and Cooke lenses used to be its sole activity before Taylor-Hobson moved to the market of metrology instruments. Hence the foundation of Cooke Optics can be regarded as the foundation of Taylor and Hobson in 1886, Cooke Optics can be regarded as the successor of the original Taylor and Hobson business; the name Cooke came from the company T. Cooke & Sons of York, a manufacturer of telescopes; the optical manager of that company, H. Dennis Taylor, devised the Cooke triplet lens in the 1890s. Cooke of York was not interested in the manufacture of camera lenses, licensed this design and others to TTH. Subsequently many of TTH's own designs, though unconnected with Cooke of York carried the Cooke brand; the Cooke triplet lens was made under licence by Voigtländer and other companies. Throughout the twentieth century TTH produced a series of innovations, supplied lenses for the UK camera industry, for photolithography in the printing industry in the USA and UK, for cinematography.

It provided a succession of technical solutions for Hollywood's evolving needs. Notable products include: a soft-focus'portrait' lens favoured by Clarence White and Alfred Stieglitz, the Aviar aerial survey lens, designed in World War I when German lenses and optical glass became unavailable to the RAF. the Series XV triple-convertible lens for 10×8 inch cameras, favoured by Ansel Adams and others, the Opic and Speed Panchro large-aperture lenses used by Hollywood, the inverse telephoto lens, created for use with the early Technicolor process, now the standard design for wide-angle lenses in 35 mm and other small-format cameras, high-quality zoom lenses for cinematography and television, high quality lenses for cinema projectors. Bell & Howell took control of the company in 1930, but it was sold to Rank in 1946. In its years, Taylor-Hobson's main interest was metrology, it now operates as a subsidiary of Ametek. In 1998, Cooke Optics was a new company formed following a buy-out of the Optical division of Taylor-Hobson.

Chairman Les Zellan led the buy-out. Dave Stevens was Managing Director of the Leicester-based facility and remained so until 2008 when Robert Howard replaced him as Chief Executive Officer; the company now manufactures 35 mm lenses for the film industry. In a reversion to its previous markets, it has made limited quantities of the PS945, a redesigned Pinkham and Smith portrait lens, the Series XVa, a redesigned triple-convertible lens for 10×8 inch format; the company exports 90 % of its production. In 2013, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences gave the company an award of merit, saying it "helped define the look of motion pictures over the last century," with innovations over the years that have included zoom lenses for movie cameras and lenses that did not require bright lights. Resulting in lenses that produce what is known in the industry as the "Cooke look" — warm, natural images on the screen. Wilkinson and Colin Glanfield. A lens collector's vade mecum. "Version 7/5/2001". Official siteHistory Cooke Soft Focus Lenses 1890s: Cooke triplet 1910s: Shackleton and World War I 1920s: Hollywood and Everest conquered 1930s: Technicolor and Beyond 1940s: Bell & Howell 1950s: Pros and amateurs 1960s: The cinema advances 1970s: 20–100mm 1980s: Zoom, zoom 1990s: Cooke S4 primes 2000s: and Beyond

Uncial 0167

Uncial 0167, is a Greek uncial manuscript of the New Testament, dated paleographically to the 7th century. The codex contains a small part of the Gospel of Mark 4:24-29,37-41. Leaves are in fragmentary condition; the text is written in two columns per page, 12 lines per page, in large uncial letters. The Greek text of this codex is a representative of the Alexandrian text-type. Aland placed it in Category III, it means. It is dated by the INTF to the 7th century; the codex was divided and is housed in two places. One of its parts is still housed at the Great Lavra in Athos peninsula, the other is housed at the University of Louvain at Louvain, it was described by Kurt Treu. List of New Testament uncials Textual criticism Kurt Treu, Neutestamentliche Unzialfragmente in einer Athos-Handschrift 0167 Lavra, Δ' 61, ZNW 54, pp. 53-58