The Metropolitan Opera is an opera company based in New York City, resident at the Metropolitan Opera House at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. The company is operated by the non-profit Metropolitan Opera Association, with Peter Gelb as general manager; as of 2018, the company's current music director is Yannick Nézet-Séguin. The Met was founded in 1880 as an alternative to the established Academy of Music opera house, debuted in 1883 in a new building on 39th and Broadway, it moved to the new Lincoln Center location in 1966. The Metropolitan Opera is the largest classical music organization in North America, it presents about 27 different operas each year from late September through May. The operas are presented in a rotating repertory schedule, with up to seven performances of four different works staged each week. Performances are given in the evening Monday through Saturday with a matinée on Saturday. Several operas are presented in new productions each season. Sometimes these are shared with other opera companies.
The rest of the year's operas are given in revivals of productions from previous seasons. The 2015–16 season comprised 227 performances of 25 operas; the operas in the Met's repertoire consist of a wide range of works, from 18th-century Baroque and 19th-century Bel canto to the Minimalism of the late 20th century. These operas are presented in staged productions that range in style from those with elaborate traditional decors to others that feature modern conceptual designs; the Met's performing company consists of a large symphony-sized orchestra, a chorus, children's choir, many supporting and leading solo singers. The company employs numerous free-lance dancers, actors and other performers throughout the season; the Met's roster of singers includes both international and American artists, some of whose careers have been developed through the Met's young artists programs. While many singers appear periodically as guests with the company, such as Renée Fleming and Plácido Domingo, long maintained a close association with the Met, appearing many times each season until they retired.
The Metropolitan Opera Company was founded in 1880 to create an alternative to New York's old established Academy of Music opera house. The subscribers to the Academy's limited number of private boxes represented the highest stratum in New York society. By 1880, these "old money" families were loath to admit New York's newly wealthy industrialists into their long-established social circle. Frustrated with being excluded, the Metropolitan Opera's founding subscribers determined to build a new opera house that would outshine the old Academy in every way. A group of 22 men assembled at Delmonico's restaurant on April 28, 1880, they established subscriptions for ownership in the new company. The new theater, built at 39th and Broadway, would include three tiers of private boxes in which the scions of New York's powerful new industrial families could display their wealth and establish their social prominence; the first Met subscribers included members of the Morgan and Vanderbilt families, all of whom had been excluded from the Academy.
The new Metropolitan Opera House opened on October 22, 1883, was an immediate success and artistically. The Academy of Music's opera season folded. In its early decades the Met did not produce the opera performances itself but hired prominent manager/impresarios to stage a season of opera at the new Metropolitan Opera House. Henry Abbey served as manager for the inaugural season, 1883–84, which opened with a performance of Charles Gounod's Faust starring the brilliant Swedish soprano Christina Nilsson. Abbey's company that first season featured an ensemble of artists led by sopranos Nilsson and Marcella Sembrich, they gave 150 performances of 20 different operas by Gounod, Bellini, Verdi, Mozart, Bizet and Ponchielli. All performances were sung in Italian and were conducted either by music director Auguste Vianesi or Cleofonte Campanini; the company performed not only in the new Manhattan opera house, but started a long tradition of touring throughout the country. In the winter and spring of 1884 the Met presented opera in theaters in Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis, Washington D.
C. and Baltimore. Back in New York, the last night of the season featured a long gala performance to benefit Mr. Abbey; the special program consisted not only of various scenes from opera, but offered Mme. Sembrich playing the violin and the piano, as well as the famed stage actors Henry Irving and Ellen Terry in a scene from Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice; the Metropolitan Opera began a long history of performing in Philadelphia during its first season, presenting its entire repertoire in the city during January and April 1884. The company's first Philadelphia performance was of Faust on January 14, 1884, at the Chestnut Street Opera House; the Met continued to perform annually in Philadelphia for nearly eighty years, taking the entire company to the city on selected Tuesday nights throughout the opera season. Performances were held at Philadelphia's Academy of Music, with the company presenting close to 900 performances in the city by 1961 when the Met's regular visits ceased. On April 26, 1910, the Met purchased the Philadelphia Opera House from Oscar Hammerstein I.
The company renamed the house the Metropolitan Opera House and performed all of their Philadelphia performances there unti
Charter Communications, Inc. is an American telecommunications and mass media company that offers its services to consumers and businesses under the branding of Spectrum. Providing services to over 26 million customers in 41 states, it is the second-largest cable operator in the United States by subscribers, just behind Comcast, third largest pay TV operator behind Comcast and AT&T, it is the fifth largest telephone provider based upon residential subscriber line count. In late 2012, with the naming of longtime Cablevision executive Thomas Rutledge as their CEO, the company relocated its corporate headquarters from St. Louis, Missouri, to Stamford, although many operations still remain based out of St. Louis. On May 18, 2016, Charter completed its acquisition of Time Warner Cable and its sister company Bright House Networks, making it the third-largest pay television service in the United States. Charter ranked No. 74 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.
Charter Communications was founded in 1993 by Barry Babcock, Jerald Kent and Howard Wood, former executives at Cencom Cable Television in St. Louis, Missouri, it was incorporated in the state of Missouri in 1993. In 1995, Charter paid about $300 million for a controlling interest in Crown Media Holdings and acquired Cable South. In 1997, Charter and EarthLink joined forces to deliver high-speed Internet access through cable modems to Charter's customers in Los Angeles and Riverside, California. In 1998, Paul Allen bought a controlling interest; the company paid $2.8 billion to acquire Dallas-based cable company Marcus Cable. Charter Communications had 1 million customers in 1998. In November 1999, the company went public. At the time, it had 3.9 million customers. Charter completed more than 10 major acquisitions in 1999 when it: Added 68,000 subscribers in Southern California with the purchase of four cable systems from American Cable Entertainment of Stamford, Connecticut. Acquired 400,000 InterMedia Partners subscribers in the Southeast.
As part of the deal Charter would turn over about 140,000 of its subscribers to TCI in cable system swap. Merged with Marcus Cable Acquired cable systems serving 460,000 subscribers from Rifkin Acquisition Partners and InterLink Communications. Acquired 173,000 subscribers in central Massachusetts, from New Jersey–based Greater Media Inc. Acquired Renaissance Media Group, a New York partnership serving 130,000 customers near New Orleans, western Mississippi, Jackson, Tennessee. Acquired New Jersey-based Helicon Cable Communications; the systems served about 171,000 customers in eight states in the Northeast. Acquired Avalon Cable TV, adding 260,000 subscribers in Michigan and Massachusetts. Acquired Vista Broadband Communications in Smyrna, adding 30,000 more customers. Acquired Falcon Cable TV of Los Angeles. Falcon was the eighth-largest cable operator in the United States with about one million subscribers in 27 states in non-urban areas. Acquired Fanch Communications Inc. of Denver. Fanch had 547,000 subscribers in West Virginia, Michigan, Kentucky and Wisconsin.
Charter began swapping customers with other systems to improve the geographic clustering of its systems. In December 1999, it signed a letter of intent with AT&T Corporation to swap 1.3 million cable subscribers in St. Louis as well as in Alabama and Missouri. In 2000, Charter Communications bought select AT&T cable markets, including Reno and the City of St. Louis. In 2001, MSN and Charter signed an agreement to offer MSN content and services to Charter's broadband customers. In the same year, Charter received awards, including the Outstanding Corporate Growth Award from the Association for Corporate Growth, the R. E. "Ted" Turner Innovator of the Year Award from the Southern Cable Telecommunications Association, the Fast 50 Award for Growth from the St. Louis Regional Chamber and Growth Association. In 2008, Charter stock failed to meet NASDAQ standards and was given warning to comply by October 13 or request an extension. In 2008, it acquired the cable-television franchise and service for the Cerritos and Ventura, areas from Wave Broadband.
In February 2009, Charter Communications announced that it planned to file for Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code on or before April 1, 2009. The action would allow Charter to pay its debt obligations, cancel its obligations to shareholders. Private equity firm Apollo Management expected to own most of Charter's shares after the bankruptcy. Charter filed for a prearranged bankruptcy on March 28, 2009; the company expected the financial restructuring to reduce its debt by $8 billion, as well as adding $3 billion of new investment, refinancing other debt. On November 30, 2009, its bankruptcy plan was approved, which extinguished its stock and cut $8 billion in debt; that day, Charter emerged from bankruptcy despite many of its creditors' objections over its bankruptcy plan. On September 14, 2010, Charter Class A common stock was re-listed on NASDAQ under the symbol "CHTR". In 2011, Paul Allen stepped down as chairman and from the board of directors' seat, but at the time remained the largest single shareholder.
In that year, Charter signed a multi-year deal with TiVo to deliver content via its platform. Thomas M. Rutledge was appointed as a director and president and chief executive officer effective February 13, 2012; the same year, Charter prices $1.25 billion senior debt, offering to pay down short- and long-term debt. On February 8, 2013, Charter announced an agreement to acquire some former Bresnan Communications systems from Cablevision in a transaction worth US$1.63 billion. The deal brought Charte
Jai alai is a sport involving a ball bounced off a walled space by accelerating it to high speeds with a hand-held device. It is a variation of Basque pelota; the term, coined by Serafin Baroja in 1875, is often loosely applied to the fronton where the sport is played. The game is called "zesta-punta" in Basque; the court for jai alai consists of walls on the front and left, the floor between them. If the ball touches the floor outside these walls, it is considered out of bounds. There is a border on the lower 3 feet of the front wall, out of bounds; the ceiling on the court is very high, so the ball has a more predictable path. The court is divided by 14 parallel lines going horizontally across the court, with line 1 closest to the front wall and line 14 the back wall. In doubles, each team consists of a backcourt player; the game begins. The winner of each point stays on the court to meet the next team in rotation. Losers go to the end of the line to await another turn on the court; the first team to score 7 points wins.
The next highest scores are awarded "show" positions, respectively. Playoffs decide tied scores. A jai alai game is played in round robin format between eight teams of two players each or eight single players; the first team to score 7 or 9 points wins the game. Two of the eight teams are in the court for each point; the server on one team must bounce the ball behind the serving line with the cesta "basket" hurl it towards the front wall so it bounces from there to between lines 4 and 7 on the floor. The ball is in play; the ball used in jai alai consists of metal strands wound together and wrapped in goat skin. Teams alternate catching the ball in their cesta and throwing it "in one fluid motion" without holding or juggling it; the ball must be caught either after bouncing once on the floor. A team scores a point if an opposing player: fails to serve the ball directly to the front wall so that upon rebound it will bounce between lines No. 4 and 7. If it does not, it is the other team will receive the point.
Fails to catch the ball on the fly or after one bounce holds or juggles the ball hurls the ball out of bounds interferes with a player attempting to catch and hurl the ballThe team scoring a point remains in the court and the opposing team rotates off the court to the end of the list of opponents. Points double after the first round of play, once each team has played at least one point; the players attempt a "chula" shot, where the ball is played off the front wall high reaches the bottom of the back wall by the end of its arc. The bounce off the bottom of the back wall can be low, the ball is difficult to return in this situation. Since there is no wall on the right side, all jai alai players must play right-handed, as the spin of a left-handed hurl would send the ball toward the open right side; the Basque Government promotes jai alai as "the fastest sport in the world" because of the speed of the ball. The sport once held the world record for ball speed with a 125–140 g ball covered with goatskin that traveled at 302 km/h, performed by José Ramón Areitio at the Newport Rhode Island Jai Alai, until it was broken by Canadian 5-time long drive champion Jason Zuback on a 2007 episode of Sport Science with a golf ball speed of 328 km/h.
The sport can be dangerous. It has led to injuries that caused players to retire and fatalities have been recorded in some cases. Jai alai is a popular sport within the Latin American countries and the Philippines from its Hispanic influence, it was one of the two gambling sports from Europe, the other being horse racing, in the semi-colonial Chinese cities of Shanghai and Tianjin, was shut down after the communist victory there. The jai alai arena in Tianjin's former Italian Concession was confiscated and turned into a recreation center for the city's working class. Jai alai was played in Manila at the Manila Jai Alai Building, one of the most significant Art Deco buildings in Asia, torn down in 2000 by the Manila city government. In 1986, jai alai was banned in the Philippines because of problems with game fixing. However, jai alai returned to the Philippines in March 2010. In 2011, jai-alai was shut down in the province of Pangasinan because of its connection to illegal jueteng gambling but was reopened after a court order.
In the United States, jai alai enjoyed some popularity as a gambling alternative to horse racing, greyhound racing, harness racing, remains popular in Florida, where the game is used as a basis for Parimutuel betting at six frontons throughout the state: Dania Beach, Fort Pierce, Casselberry and Reddick. The first jai alai fronton in the United States was located in St. Louis, operating around the time of the 1904 World's Fair; the first fronton in Florida opened at the site of Hialeah Race Course near Miami. The fronton was relocated to its present site in Miami near Miami International Airport. Year-round jai alai operations include Dania Jai Alai. Seasonal facilities are Ocala Jai Alai and Hamilton Jai Alai; the Tampa Jai Alai operated for many years before closing in the late 1990s. Inactive jai alai permits are located in Tampa, Daytona B
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling-type techniques such as clinch fighting and takedowns, joint locks and other grappling holds. The sport can either be genuinely competitive. A wrestling bout is a physical competition, between two competitors or sparring partners, who attempt to gain and maintain a superior position. There are a wide range of styles with varying rules with both traditional historic and modern styles. Wrestling techniques have been incorporated into other martial arts as well as military hand-to-hand combat systems; the term wrestling is attested as wræstlunge. Wrestling represents one of the oldest forms of combat; the origins of wrestling go back 15,000 years through cave drawings. Babylonian and Egyptian reliefs show wrestlers using most of the holds known in the present-day sport. Literary references to it occur as early as the ancient Indian Vedas. In the Book of Genesis, the Patriarch Jacob is said to have wrestled with an angel; the Iliad, in which Homer recounts the Trojan War of the 13th or 12th century BC contains mentions of wrestling.
Indian epics Mahabharata contain references to martial arts including wrestling. In ancient Greece wrestling occupied a prominent place in literature; the ancient Romans borrowed from Greek wrestling, but eliminated much of its brutality. During the Middle Ages wrestling remained popular and enjoyed the patronage of many royal families, including those of France and England. Early British settlers in America brought a strong wrestling tradition with them; the settlers found wrestling to be popular among Native Americans. Amateur wrestling flourished throughout the early years of the North American colonies and served as a popular activity at country fairs, holiday celebrations, in military exercises; the first organized national wrestling tournament took place in New York City in 1888. Wrestling has been an event at every modern Olympic Games since the 1904 games in St. Louis, Missouri; the international governing body for the sport, United World Wrestling, was established in 1912 in Antwerp, Belgium as the International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles.
The 1st NCAA Wrestling Championships were held in 1912, in Ames, Iowa. USA Wrestling, located in Colorado Springs, became the national governing body of U. S. amateur wrestling in 1983. Some of the earliest references to wrestling can be found in wrestling mythology; the Epic of Gilgamesh: Gilgamesh established his credibility as a leader, after wrestling Enkidu. Greek mythology celebrates the rise of Zeus as ruler of the earth after a wrestling match with his father, Cronus. Both Heracles and Theseus were famous for their wrestling against beast; the Mahabharata describes a malla-dwandwa between the accomplished wrestlers Jarasandha. Rustam of the Shahnameh is regarded by Iranian pahlevans as the greatest wrestler. In Pharaonic Egypt, wrestling has been evidenced by documentation on Egyptian artwork. Greek wrestling was a popular form of martial art, at least in Ancient Greece. Oil wrestling is the national sport of Turkey and it can be traced back to Central Asia. After the Roman conquest of the Greeks, Greek wrestling was absorbed by the Roman culture and became Roman wrestling during the period of the Roman Empire.
Shuai jiao, a wrestling style originating in China, which according to legend, has a reported history of over 4,000 years. Arabic literature depicted Muhammad as a skilled wrestler, defeating a skeptic in a match at one point; the Byzantine emperor Basil I, according to court historians, won in wrestling against a boastful wrestler from Bulgaria in the eighth century. In 1520 at the Field of the Cloth of Gold pageant, Francis I of France threw fellow king Henry VIII of England in a wrestling match; the Lancashire style of folk wrestling may have formed the basis for Catch wrestling known as "catch as catch can." The Scots formed a variant of this style, the Irish developed the "collar-and-elbow" style which found its way into the United States. A Frenchman "is credited with reorganizing European loose wrestling into a professional sport", Greco-Roman wrestling; this style, finalized by the 19th century and by wrestling was featured in many fairs and festivals in Europe. Greco-Roman wrestling and contemporary freestyle wrestling were soon regulated in formal competitions, in part resulting from the rise of gymnasiums and athletic clubs.
On continental Europe, prize money was offered in large sums to the winners of Greco-Roman tournaments, freestyle wrestling spread in the United Kingdom and in the United States after the American Civil War. Wrestling professionals soon increased the popularity of Greco-Roman and freestyle wrestling, worldwide. Greco-Roman wrestling became an event at the first modern Olympic games, in Athens in 1896. Since 1908, the event has been in every Summer Olympics. Freestyle wrestling became an Olympic event, in 1904. Women's freestyle wrestling was added to the Summer Olympics in 2004. Since 1921, United World Wrestling has regulated amateur wrestling as an athletic discipline, while professional wrestling has become infused with theatrics but still requires athletic ability. Today, various countries send national wrestling teams to the Olympics, including Russi
Midtown Manhattan is the central portion of the borough of Manhattan in New York City. Midtown is home to some of the city's most iconic buildings, including the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, the Hudson Yards Redevelopment Project, the headquarters of the United Nations, Grand Central Terminal, Rockefeller Center, as well as Broadway and Times Square. Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the world and ranks among the most expensive pieces of real estate. However, due to the high price of retail spaces in Midtown, there are many vacant storefronts in the neighborhood. Midtown is the country's largest commercial and media center, a growing financial center; the majority of New York City's skyscrapers, including its tallest hotels and apartment towers, are in Midtown. The area hosts commuters and residents working in its offices and retail establishments and students. Times Square, the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, is a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
Sixth Avenue has the headquarters of three of the four major U. S. television networks. Midtown is part of Manhattan Community District 5, it is patrolled by the 18th Precincts of the New York City Police Department. Geographically, the northern bound of Midtown Manhattan is defined to be 59th Street. Midtown spans the entire island of Manhattan along an east-west axis, bounded by the East River on its east and the Hudson River to its west; the Encyclopedia of New York City defines Midtown as extending from 34th Street to 59th Street and from 3rd Avenue to 8th Avenue. In addition to its central business district, Midtown Manhattan encompasses many neighborhoods, including Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea on the West Side, Murray Hill, Kips Bay, Turtle Bay, Gramercy Park on the East Side, it is sometimes broken into "Midtown East" and "Midtown West", or north and south as in the New York City Police Department's Midtown North and Midtown South precincts. Neighborhoods in the Midtown area include the following: Between 59th Street to the north and 42nd Street to the south, from west to east: Hell's Kitchen from the Hudson River to Eighth Avenue, including Theatre Row on West 42nd Street between Eleventh Avenue and Ninth Avenue, where Hell's Kitchen meets Central Park and the Upper West Side at West 59th Street and Eighth Avenue, Columbus Circle Times Square and the Theater District from West 42nd Street to around West 53rd Street, from Eighth Avenue to Sixth Avenue The Diamond District on West 47th Street between Sixth Avenue and Fifth Avenue Midtown East from around Sixth Avenue to the East River, including: Sutton Place near the East River between East 53rd Street and East 59th Street Turtle Bay from 53rd Street to 42nd Street and from Lexington Avenue to the East River Tudor City from First Avenue to Second Avenue and East 40th Street to East 43rd Street Between 42nd Street north and around 34th Street, from west to east, north to south: Hell's Kitchen from the Hudson River to Eighth Avenue The Garment District from West 42nd Street to West 34th Street and from Ninth Avenue to Fifth Avenue Herald Square around the intersection of Broadway, Sixth Avenue, West 34th Street Murray Hill from East 42nd Street to East 34th Street and Fifth Avenue to Second Avenue Between 34th Street and 23rd Street, from west to east: Chelsea, between the Hudson River and Sixth Avenue Koreatown from 36th Street to 31st Street and Fifth and Sixth Avenues, centered on "Korea Way" on 32nd Street between Fifth Avenue and Broadway Rose Hill or Curry Hill between Madison Avenue and Third Avenue Kips Bay from Third Avenue to the East River Between 23rd Street and 14th Street, going west to east and north to south: Chelsea, between the Hudson River and Sixth Avenue The Meatpacking District in the southwesternmost corner of Midtown, to the south of West 15th Street Madison Square and the Flatiron District, the area surround the intersection of Broadway, Fifth Avenue and 23rd Street.
Union Square, to the northeast of the intersection of Broadway, East 14th Street and Park Avenue South Gramercy from East 23rd Street to East 14th Street and Lexington Avenue to First Avenue Peter Cooper Village from East 23rd Street to East 20th Street and 1st Avenue to Avenue C Stuyvesant Town from East 20th Street to East 14th Street and First Avenue to Avenue CMidtown is the original district in the United States to bear the name and included historical but now defunct neighborhoods such as the Ladies' Mile, along Fifth Avenue from 14th to 23rd Street. Important streets and thoroughfares Broadway 34th Street 42nd Street The border of Midtown Manhattan is nebulous and further confused by the fact that the term "Midtown Manhattan" can be used to refer either to a district or a group of neighborhoods and districts in Manhattan: The area between 14th and 86th Streets includes the center of Manhattan. Manhattan Community District 5 is located from 14th to 59th Streets between Lexington Avenue and Eighth Avenue.
Community District 5 is coterminous with Midtown but includes the Flatiron District, NoMad, Union Square, parts of Gramercy Park an
Jay Herbert Morgan was an American architect noted for his work on some of the first steel framed, racecourse and residential buildings. As an architect with the George A. Fuller Company Morgan is known for his work on the Hippodrome in New York and his design of buildings in Japan both prior to and in the wake of the Great Kantō earthquake, he was born on 10 December 1868 in New York. Morgan first arrived in Japan in 1920 as chief architect for the George A. Fuller Company of the Orient Ltd. In addition to advising on the use of new steel-framed building techniques in the design of new seven and eight story office structures in Marunouchi, Morgan was responsible for the design of Brunner, Mond & Company's landmark Crescent Building in the port of Kobe, he married Augusta G. Schossoret on 10 December 1895 in Wisconsin. Opening an independent architectural practice in 1922, Morgan contributed to the rebuilding of a number of buildings in the aftermath of the Great Kantō earthquake in 1923. A number of his works still survive including Christ Church, Berrick Hall, the ruins of the grandstand of the former Negishi Racecourse, all located in or close to the elevated Yamate neighbourhood in Yokohama.
Morgan constructed his own private residence at Fujisawa, Kanagawa in 1931. A community group has been formed to preserve this property but the historic structure suffered arson attacks by an unknown assailant in 2007 and 2008. Morgan died on 6 June 1937 at Karasawa Nake-uk, Yokohama, his grave is located in the Foreigners General Cemetery in Yokohama. Main campus building, Rahauser Memorial Chapel and entrance gate of Tohoku Gakuin University, Japan Christ Church, Yokohama Entrance gate and gatehouse of the Foreign General Cemetery, Yokohama. Grandstand of the former Negishi Racecourse, Yokohama