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New York Public Library

The New York Public Library is a public library system in New York City. With nearly 53 million items and 92 locations, the New York Public Library is the second largest public library in the United States and the third largest in the world, it is a private, non-governmental, independently managed, nonprofit corporation operating with both private and public financing. The library has branches in the boroughs of the Bronx and Staten Island and affiliations with academic and professional libraries in the New York metropolitan area; the city's other two boroughs and Queens, are not served by the New York Public Library system, but rather by their respective borough library systems: the Brooklyn Public Library and the Queens Public Library. The branch libraries consist of circulating libraries; the New York Public Library has four research libraries, which are open to the general public. The library chartered as The New York Public Library, Astor and Tilden Foundations, was developed in the 19th century, founded from an amalgamation of grass-roots libraries and social libraries of bibliophiles and the wealthy, aided by the philanthropy of the wealthiest Americans of their age.

The "New York Public Library" name may refer to its Main Branch, recognizable by its lion statues named Patience and Fortitude that sit either side of the entrance. The branch was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1965, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1966, designated a New York City Landmark in 1967. At the behest of Joseph Cogswell, John Jacob Astor placed a codicil in his will to bequeath $400,000 for the creation of a public library. After Astor's death in 1848, the resulting board of trustees executed the will's conditions and constructed the Astor Library in 1854 in the East Village; the library created was a free reference library. By 1872, the Astor Library was described in a New York Times editorial as a "major reference and research resource", but, "Popular it is not, and, so is it lacking in the essentials of a public library, that its stores might as well be under lock and key, for any access the masses of the people can get thereto". An act of the New York State Legislature incorporated the Lenox Library in 1870.

The library was built on Fifth Avenue, between 70th and 71st Streets, in 1877. Bibliophile and philanthropist James Lenox donated a vast collection of his Americana, art works and rare books, including the first Gutenberg Bible in the New World. At its inception, the library charged admission and did not permit physical access to any literary items. Former Governor of New York and presidential candidate Samuel J. Tilden believed that a library with citywide reach was required, upon his death in 1886, he bequeathed the bulk of his fortune—about $2.4 million —to "establish and maintain a free library and reading room in the city of New York". This money would sit untouched in a trust for several years, until John Bigelow, a New York attorney, Andrew Haswell Green, both trustees of the Tilden fortune, came up with an idea to merge two of the city's largest libraries. Both the Astor and Lenox libraries were struggling financially. Although New York City had numerous libraries in the 19th century all of them were funded and many charged admission or usage fees.

Bigelow, the most prominent supporter of the plan to merge the libraries found support in Lewis Cass Ledyard, a member of the Tilden Board, as well as John Cadwalader, on the Astor board. John Stewart Kennedy, president of the Lenox board came to support the plan as well. On May 23, 1895, Bigelow and George L. Rives agreed to create "The New York Public Library, Astor and Tilden Foundations"; the plan was hailed as an example of private philanthropy for the public good. On December 11, John Shaw Billings was named as the library's first director; the newly established library consolidated with the grass-roots New York Free Circulating Library in February 1901. In March, Andrew Carnegie tentatively agreed to donate $5.2 million to construct sixty-five branch libraries in the city, with the requirement that they be operated and maintained by the City of New York. The Brooklyn and Queens public library systems, which predated the consolidation of New York City, eschewed the grants offered to them and did not join the NYPL system.

In 1901, Carnegie formally signed a contract with the City of New York to transfer his donation to the city in order to enable it to justify purchasing the land for building the branch libraries. The NYPL Board of trustees hired consultants for the planning, accepted their recommendation that a limited number of architectural firms be hired to build the Carnegie libraries: this would ensure uniformity of appearance and minimize cost; the trustees hired McKim, Mead & White, Carrère and Hastings, Walter Cook to design all the branch libraries. The notable New York author Washington Irving was a close friend of Astor for decades and had helped the philanthropist design the Astor Library. Irving served as President of the library's Board of Trustees from 1848 until his death in 1859, shaping the library's collecting policies with his strong sensibility regarding European intellectual life. Subsequently, the library hired nationally prominent experts to guide its collections policies.

Georg Haas (paleontologist)

Georg Haas was an Austrian-born Israeli herpetologist and paleontologist, one of the founders of zoological research in Israel. Haas studied zoology in the University of Vienna. In 1932 he joined the Hebrew University staff and during the next four decades Haas influenced several generations of young Israeli scientists. Georg Haas is commemorated in the scientific names of two species of lizards, Acanthodactylus haasi and Sphenomorphus haasi, the Cretaceous legged basal snake Haasiophis. Werner YL. "Georg Haas: On the occasion of his sixtieth birthday". Israel Journal of Zoology 14: 5–6. Werner YL. "Georg Haas, 1905-1981". Copeia 1982: 491–493. Gans, Carl. "Georg Haas, 1905-1981". American Zoologist 23: 343–346

Liars, Leakers, and Liberals

Liars and Liberals: The Case Against the Anti-Trump Conspiracy is a 2018 book authored by Jeanine Pirro, an American TV personality, former judge, district attorney and Republican politician in New York. Pirro is the host of Fox News Channel's Justice with Judge Jeanine. Liars and Liberals is Pirro's fifth book. Published by Center Street and released on July 17, 2018, the 288 page book is listed as non-fiction and is a look inside the Presidency of Donald Trump as well as the politics surrounding the anti-Trump movement; the book's content includes author-conducted interviews with high-ranking administration officials, Trump family members, those considered White House "insiders". Following the book's release, it was listed on the New York Times best-seller list as well as the number one sales slot at Amazon.com. Pirro embarked on a promotion tour for Liars and Liberals in July 2018; the tour comprised book signings as well as interviews, including The View. During her appearance and interview on the July 20, 2018 broadcast of The View and View host Whoopi Goldberg were involved in an on-air exchange characterized by media as a "heated debate" as well as an "explosive fight".

After Pirro jokingly told show host Goldberg that she "suffers from Trump Derangement Syndrome", Goldberg responded by saying, "What's horrible is when the president of the United States whips up people to beat the hell out of people". Goldberg telling Pirro "Say goodbye! Bye! I'm done." Appearing on Fox News's commentary show Hannity the following night, Pirro confirmed that she "got thrown off the set, thrown out of the building". Listing and review of Liars and Liberals at Conservative Book Club