Staten Island is one of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U. S. state of New York. Located in the southwest portion of the city, the borough is separated from New Jersey by the Arthur Kill and the Kill Van Kull and from the rest of New York by New York Bay. With an estimated population of 479,458 in 2017, Staten Island is the least populated of the boroughs but is the third-largest in land area at 58.5 sq mi. The borough contains the southern-most point in the state, South Point; the borough is coextensive with Richmond County and until 1975 was referred to as the Borough of Richmond. Staten Island has sometimes been called "the forgotten borough" by inhabitants who feel neglected by the city government; the North Shore—especially the neighborhoods of St. George, Tompkinsville and Stapleton—is the most urban part of the island; the East Shore is home to the 2.5-mile F. D. R. Boardwalk, the fourth-longest boardwalk in the world; the South Shore, site of the 17th-century Dutch and French Huguenot settlement, developed beginning in the 1960s and 1970s and is now suburban in character.
The West Shore is the most industrial part of the island. Motor traffic can reach the borough from Brooklyn via the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge and from New Jersey via the Outerbridge Crossing, Goethals Bridge and Bayonne Bridge. Staten Island has Metropolitan Transportation Authority bus lines and an MTA rapid transit line, the Staten Island Railway, which runs from the ferry terminal at St. George to Tottenville. Staten Island is the only borough, not connected to the New York City Subway system; the free Staten Island Ferry connects the borough across New York Harbor to Manhattan and is a popular tourist attraction, providing views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island and Lower Manhattan. Staten Island had the Fresh Kills Landfill, the world's largest landfill before closing in 2001, although it was temporarily reopened that year to receive debris from the September 11 attacks; the landfill is being redeveloped as an area devoted to restoring habitat. As in much of North America, human habitation appeared in the island rapidly after the Wisconsin glaciation.
Archaeologists have recovered tool evidence of Clovis culture activity dating from about 14,000 years ago. This evidence was first discovered in 1917 in the Charleston section of the island. Various Clovis artifacts have been discovered since on property owned by Mobil Oil; the island was abandoned possibly because of the extirpation of large mammals on the island. Evidence of the first permanent Native American settlements and agriculture are thought to date from about 5,000 years ago, although early archaic habitation evidence has been found in multiple locations on the island. Rossville points are distinct arrowheads that define a Native American cultural period that runs from the Archaic period to the Early Woodland period, dating from about 1500 to 100 BC, they are named for the Rossville section of Staten Island, where they were first found near the old Rossville Post Office building. At the time of European contact, the island was inhabited by the Raritan band of the Unami division of the Lenape.
In Lenape, one of the Algonquian languages, Staten Island was called Aquehonga Manacknong, meaning "as far as the place of the bad woods", or Eghquhous, meaning "the bad woods". The area was part of the Lenape homeland known as Lenapehoking; the Lenape were called the "Delaware" by the English colonists because they inhabited both shores of what the English named the Delaware River. The island was laced with Native American foot trails, one of which followed the south side of the ridge near the course of present-day Richmond Road and Amboy Road; the Lenape moved seasonally, using slash and burn agriculture. Shellfish was a staple of their diet, including the Eastern oyster abundant in the waterways throughout the present-day New York City region. Evidence of their habitation can still be seen in shell middens along the shore in the Tottenville section, where oyster shells larger than 12 inches are sometimes found. Burial Ridge, a Lenape burial ground on a bluff overlooking Raritan Bay in Tottenville, is the largest pre-European burial ground in New York City.
Bodies have been reported unearthed at Burial Ridge from 1858 onward. After conducting independent research, which included unearthing bodies interred at the site and archaeologist George H. Pepper was contracted in 1895 to conduct paid archaeological research at Burial Ridge by the American Museum of Natural History; the burial ground today lies within Conference House Park. The first recorded European contact on the island was in 1520 by Italian explorer Giovanni de Verrazzano who sailed through The Narrows on the ship La Dauphine and anchored for one night. In 1609, English explorer Henry Hudson sailed into Upper New York Bay on his ship the Half Moon; the Dutch named the island Staaten Eylandt in honor of the Dutch parliament, still known as the Staten-Generaal. The first permanent Dutch settlement of the New Netherland colony was made on Governor's Island in 1624, which they had used as a trading camp for more than a decade before. In 1626, the colony transferred to the island of Manhattan, designated as the capital of New Netherland.
The Dutch did not establish a permanent settlement on Staaten Eylandt for many decades. From 1639 to 1655, Cornelis Melyn
United States Merchant Marine
The United States Merchant Marine refers to either United States civilian mariners, or to U. S. civilian and federally owned merchant vessels. Both the civilian mariners and the merchant vessels are managed by a combination of the government and private sectors, engage in commerce or transportation of goods and services in and out of the navigable waters of the United States; the Merchant Marine transports cargo and passengers during peacetime. Merchant Marine officers may be commissioned as military officers by the Department of Defense; this is achieved by commissioning unlimited tonnage Merchant Marine officers as Strategic Sealift Officers in the Naval Reserves. Merchant mariners move cargo and passengers between nations and within the United States, operate and maintain deep-sea merchant ships, towboats, dredges, excursion vessels, charter boats and other waterborne craft on the oceans, the Great Lakes, canals and other waterways; as of October 1, 2018, the United States merchant fleet had 181 owned, self-propelled vessels of 1,000 gross register tons and above that carry cargo from port to port.
Nearly 800 American-owned ships are flagged in other nations. The federal government maintains fleets of merchant ships via organizations such as Military Sealift Command and the National Defense Reserve Fleet, managed by the United States Maritime Administration. In 2004, the federal government employed 5% of all American water transportation workers. In the 19th and 20th centuries, various laws fundamentally changed the course of American merchant shipping; these laws put an end to common practices such as flogging and shanghaiing, increased shipboard safety and living standards. The United States Merchant Marine is governed by more than 25 international conventions to promote safety and prevent pollution. P. L. 95–202, approved November 23, 1977, granted veteran status to Women Airforce Service Pilots and "any person in any other situated group" with jurisdiction for determination given to the Secretary of Defense who delegated that determination to the Secretary of the Air Force. Although the Merchant Marine suffered a per capita casualty rate greater than those of the US Armed Forces, merchant mariners who served in World War II were denied such veterans recognition until 1988 when a federal court ordered it.
The Court held that "the Secretary of the Air Force abused its discretion in denying active military service recognition to American merchant seamen who participated in World War II." Captains and pilots supervise ship operations on domestic waterways and the high seas. A captain is in overall command of a vessel, supervises the work of other officers and crew. A captain has the ability to take the conn from a pilot at any time he feels the need. On smaller vessels the captain may be a regular watch-stander, similar to a mate, directly controlling the vessel's position. Captains and department heads ensure that proper procedures and safety practices are followed, ensure that machinery is in good working order, oversee the loading and discharging of cargo and passengers. Captains directly communicate with the company or command, are overall responsible for cargo, various logs, ship's documents, efforts at controlling pollution and passengers carried. Mates direct a ship's routine operation for the captain during work shifts, which are called watches.
Mates stand watch for specified periods in three duty sections, with four hours on watch and eight hours off. When on a navigational watch, mates direct a bridge team by conning, directing courses through the helmsman and speed through the lee helmsman; when more than one mate is necessary aboard a ship, they are designated chief mate or first mate, second mate and third mate. In addition to watch standers, mates directly supervise the ship's crew, are assigned other tasks; the chief mate is in charge of cargo and the deck crew, the second mate in charge of navigation plans and updates and the third mate as the safety officer. They monitor and direct deck crew operations, such as directing line handlers during moorings, anchorings, monitor cargo operations and supervise crew members engaged in maintenance and the vessel's upkeep. Harbor pilots guide ships in and out of confined waterways, such as harbors, where a familiarity with local conditions is of prime importance. Harbor pilots are independent contractors who accompany vessels while they enter or leave port, may pilot many ships in a single day.
Engine officers, or engineers, operate and repair engines, generators and other machinery. Merchant marine vessels have four engine officers: a chief engineer and a first and third assistant engineer. On many ships, Assistant Engineers stand periodic watches, overseeing the safe operation of engines and other machinery. However, most modern ships sailing today utilize Unmanned Machinery Space automation technology, Assistant Engineers are Dayworkers. At night and during meals and breaks, the engine room is unmanned and machinery alarms are answered by the Duty Engineer. Able seamen and ordinary seamen operate the vessel and its deck equipment under officer supervision and keep their assigned areas in good order, they watch for other vessels and obstructions in the ship's path, as well as for navigational aids such as buoys and lighthouses. They steer the ship, measure water depth in shallow
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is the coastal defense and maritime law enforcement branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, multi-mission service unique among the U. S. military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency mission as part of its mission set. It operates under the U. S. Department of Homeland Security during peacetime, can be transferred to the U. S. Department of the Navy by the U. S. President at any time, or by the U. S. Congress during times of war; this has happened twice: in 1917, during World War I, in 1941, during World War II. Created by Congress on 4 August 1790 at the request of Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue-Marine, it is the oldest continuous seagoing service of the United States; as Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton headed the Revenue-Marine, whose original purpose was collecting customs duties in the nation's seaports. By the 1860s, the service was known as the U.
S. Revenue Cutter Service and the term Revenue-Marine fell into disuse; the modern Coast Guard was formed by a merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the U. S. Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915, under the U. S. Department of the Treasury; as one of the country's five armed services, the Coast Guard has been involved in every U. S. war from 1790 to the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan. The Coast Guard has 40,992 men and women on active duty, 7,000 reservists, 31,000 auxiliarists, 8,577 full-time civilian employees, for a total workforce of 87,569; the Coast Guard maintains an extensive fleet of 243 coastal and ocean-going patrol ships, tenders and icebreakers called "cutters", 1650 smaller boats, as well as an extensive aviation division consisting of 201 helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. While the U. S. Coast Guard is the smallest of the U. S. military service branches in terms of membership, the U. S. Coast Guard by itself is the world's 12th largest naval force; the Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are further subdivided into eleven statutory missions.
The three roles are: Maritime safety Maritime security Maritime stewardshipWith a decentralized organization and much responsibility placed on the most junior personnel, the Coast Guard is lauded for its quick responsiveness and adaptability in a broad range of emergencies. In a 2005 article in Time magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, "the Coast Guard's most valuable contribution to may be as a model of flexibility, most of all, spirit." Wil Milam, a rescue swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, "In the Navy, it was all about the mission. Practicing for war, training for war. In the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself." The eleven statutory missions as defined by law are divided into homeland security missions and non-homeland security missions: Ice operations, including the International Ice Patrol Living marine resources Marine environmental protection Marine safety Aids to navigation Search and rescue Defense readiness Maritime law enforcement Migrant interdiction Ports and coastal security Drug interdiction See National Search and Rescue Committee See Joint Rescue Coordination CentersWhile the U.
S. Coast Guard Search and Rescue is not the oldest search and rescue organization in the world, it is one of the Coast Guard's best-known operations; the National Search and Rescue Plan designates the Coast Guard as the federal agency responsible for maritime SAR operations, the United States Air Force as the federal agency responsible for inland SAR. Both agencies maintain rescue coordination centers to coordinate this effort, have responsibility for both military and civilian search and rescue; the two services jointly provide instructor staff for the National Search and Rescue School that trains SAR mission planners and coordinators. Located on Governors Island, New York, the school is now located at Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown at Yorktown, Virginia. Operated by the Coast Guard, the National Response Center is the sole U. S. Government point of contact for reporting all oil, radiological and etiological spills and discharges into the environment, anywhere in the United States and its territories.
In addition to gathering and distributing spill/incident information for Federal On Scene Coordinators and serving as the communications and operations center for the National Response Team, the NRC maintains agreements with a variety of federal entities to make additional notifications regarding incidents meeting established trigger criteria. The NRC takes Maritime Suspicious Activity and Security Breach Reports. Details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; the Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement database system is managed and used by the Coast Guard for tracking pollution and safety incidents in the nation's ports. The National Maritime Center is the merchant mariner credentialing authority for the USCG under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security. To ensure a safe and environmentally sound marine transportation system, the mission of the NMC is to issue credentials to qualified mariners in the United States maritime jurisdiction.
The five uniformed services that make up the U. S. Armed Forces are defined in Title 10 of the U. S. Code: The term "armed forces" means the Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard; the Coast Guard is further defined by Title 14 of the United States Code: The Coast Guar
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
USS Indianapolis (CA-35)
USS Indianapolis was a Portland-class heavy cruiser of the United States Navy, named for the city of Indianapolis, Indiana. Launched in 1931, the vessel served as the flagship for the commander of Scouting Force 1 for eight years as flagship for Admiral Raymond Spruance in 1943 and 1944 while he commanded the Fifth Fleet in battles across the Central Pacific during World War II. In July 1945, Indianapolis completed a top-secret high-speed trip to deliver parts of Little Boy, the first nuclear weapon used in combat, to the United States Army Air Force Base on the island of Tinian, subsequently departed for the Philippines on training duty. At 0015 on 30 July, the ship was torpedoed by the Imperial Japanese Navy submarine I-58, sank in 12 minutes. Of 1,195 crewmen aboard 300 went down with the ship; the remaining 890 faced exposure, saltwater poisoning, shark attacks while stranded in the open ocean with few lifeboats and no food or water. The Navy only learned of the sinking four days when survivors were spotted by the crew of a PV-1 Ventura on routine patrol.
Only 316 survived. The sinking of Indianapolis resulted in the greatest single loss of life at sea, from a single ship, in the history of the US Navy. On 19 August 2017, a search team financed by Paul Allen located the wreckage of the sunken cruiser in the Philippine Sea lying at a depth of 18,000 ft. On December 20, 2018, the crew of the Indianapolis was collectively awarded a Congressional Gold Medal. Indianapolis was the second of two ships in the Portland class, the third class of "treaty cruisers" constructed by the United States Navy following the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922, after the two vessels of the Pensacola class, ordered in 1926, the six of the Northampton class, ordered in 1927. Ordered for the US Navy in fiscal year 1930, Indianapolis was designated as a light cruiser because of her thin armor and given the hull classification symbol CL-35, she was reclassified a heavy cruiser, because of her 8-inch guns, with the symbol CA-35 on 1 July 1931, in accordance with the London Naval Treaty.
As built, the Portland-class cruisers were designed for a standard displacement of 10,258 long tons, a full-load displacement of 12,755 long tons. However, when completed, Indianapolis did not reach displacing 9,950 long tons; the ship had two distinctive raked funnels, a tripod foremast, a small tower and pole mast aft. In 1943, light tripods were added forward of the second funnel on each ship, a prominent Naval director was installed aft; the ship had four propeller shafts and four Parsons GT geared turbines and eight White-Forster boilers. The 107,000 shp gave a design speed of 32.7 kn. She was designed for a range of 10,000 nmi at 15 kn, she rolled badly until fitted with a bilge keel. The cruiser had nine 8-inch/55 caliber Mark 9 guns in three triple mounts, a superfiring pair fore and one aft. For anti-aircraft defense, she had two QF 3 pounder Hotchkiss guns. In 1945, she received 24 40 mm Bofors guns, arrayed in six quad mounts. Both ships were upgraded with 19 20 mm Oerlikon cannons. No torpedo tubes were fitted on her.
The Portland-class cruisers had 1-inch armor for deck and side protection, but in construction they were given belt armor between 5 in and 3.25 in in thickness. Armor on the bulkheads 5.75 in. Portland-class cruisers were outfitted as fleet flagships, with space for a flag officer and his staff; the class had two aircraft catapults amidships. They could carry four aircraft; the total crew varied, with a regular designed complement of 807 and a wartime complement of 952, which could increase to 1,229 when the cruiser was a fleet flagship. Indianapolis was laid down by New York Shipbuilding Corporation on 31 March 1930; the hull and machinery were provided by the builder. Indianapolis was launched on 7 November 1931, commissioned on 15 November 1932, she was the second ship named for the city of Indianapolis, following the cargo ship of the same name in 1918. She was sponsored by daughter of former Mayor of Indianapolis Thomas Taggart. Under Captain John M. Smeallie, Indianapolis undertook her shakedown cruise through the Atlantic and into Guantánamo Bay, until 23 February 1932.
Indianapolis transited the Panama Canal for training off the Chilean coast. After overhaul at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, she sailed to Maine to embark President Franklin Delano Roosevelt at Campobello Island, New Brunswick, on 1 July 1933. Getting underway the same day, Indianapolis arrived at Maryland, on 3 July, she hosted six members of the Cabinet, along with Roosevelt, during her stay there. After disembarking Roosevelt, she departed Annapolis on 4 July, steamed for Philadelphia Navy Yard. On 6 September, she embarked Secretary of the Navy Claude A. Swanson, for an inspection of the Navy in the Pacific. Indianapolis toured the Canal Zone and installations in San Pedro and San Diego. Swanson disembarked on 27 October. On 1 November 1933, she became flagship of Scouting Force 1, maneuvered with the force off Long Beach, California, she departed on 9 April 1934, arrived at New York City, embarking Roosevelt, a second time, for a naval review. She returned to Long Beach on 9 November 1934 for more training with the Scouting Force.
She remained flagship of Scouting Force 1 until 1941. On 18 November 1936, she embarked Roosevelt a third time at Charlesto
A railroad car float or rail barge is an unpowered barge with rail tracks mounted on its deck. It is used to move railroad cars across water obstacles, or to locations they could not otherwise go, is towed by a tugboat or pushed by a towboat; as such, the car float is a specialised form of the lighter, as opposed to a train ferry, self-powered. During the Civil War Herman Haupt used huge barges fitted with tracks to enable military trains to cross the Rappahannock River in support of the Army of the Potomac. Beginning in the 1870s, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad operated a car float across the Potomac River, just south of Washington, D. C. between Shepherds Landing on the east shore, Alexandria, Virginia on the west. The ferry operation ended in 1906; the B&O operated a car float across the Baltimore Inner Harbor until the mid-1890s. It connected trains from Philadelphia to Washington, D. C. and points to the west. The operation ended after the opening of the Baltimore Belt Line in 1895; the Port of New York and New Jersey had many car float operations, which lost ground to the post-World War II expansion of trucking, but held out until and the rise of containerization in the 1970s.
These car floats operated between the Class 1 railroads termini on the west bank of Hudson River in Hudson County, New Jersey and the numerous online and offline terminals located in Brooklyn, Staten Island, Bronx & Manhattan. Class 1 railroads in the New York Harbor area providing car float services were: Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Central Railroad of New Jersey Delaware and Western Railroad Erie Railroad and Erie Lackawanna Railroad Lehigh Valley Railroad Long Island Rail Road New York Central Railroad New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad Pennsylvania Railroad Reading Railroadas well as the offline terminal railroads Brooklyn Eastern District Terminal Bush Terminal/Industry City Brooklyn Army Terminal Hoboken Manufacturers Railroad Jay Street Connecting Railroad New York Dock Railway Pouch Terminal East Jersey Railroad and Terminal Co. Car float service was provided to many pier stations and waterfront warehouse facilities by the above-mentioned railroads. At their peak, the railroads had 3,400 employees operating small fleets totalling 323 car floats, plus 1,094 other barges, towed by 150 tugboats between New Jersey and New York City.
Abandoned float bridges are preserved as part of this history at: Gantry Plaza State Park in Long Island City, Queens. A complete list is available at Surviving Float Bridges of New York Harbor Freight cars do not run in the East River Tunnels nor the North River Tunnels, in part due to inadequate tunnel clearances of the New York Tunnel Extension; the Bay Coast Railroad operated a 2-barge car float connecting Virginia's Eastern Shore with the city of Norfolk, Virginia across the Chesapeake Bay. Between 1912–1936, the Erie Railroad operated a car float service on the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois. Santa Fe Railroad: San Francisco Southern Pacific Railroad Union Pacific Railroad Western Pacific Railroad: San Francisco Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad: Seattle, Tacoma, Bellingham, Port Townsend, Washington Seattle and North Coast Railroad: Seattle, Port Townsend, Washington Various inland lakes of British Columbia Port Maitland, Ontario – Erie, Pennsylvania Port Burwell, Ontario – Ashtabula, Ohio Cobourg, Ontario – Rochester, New York Sarnia, Ontario – Port Huron, Michigan – rail-barge –.
The rail ferries Pere Marquette 12 and Pere Marquette 10 were converted to barges and used until 1995 to carry dangerous cargoes and oversize cars. Windsor, Ontario – Detroit, Michigan BC Rail. until 1955 railcars were barged from North Vancouver to Squamish. A large number of isolated BC pulp mills had chemicals and freight moved by car floats; the Alaska Railroad provides the Alaska Rail Marine rail barge service from downtown Seattle, Washington to Whittier on the central Alaskan mainland. Additionally, CN Rail provides the Aqua Train rail barge service from Prince Rupert, British Columbia to Whittier; the only remaining car float service in operation in the Port of New York and New Jersey is operated by New York New Jersey Rail. This company, operated by the bi-state government agency Port Authority of New York & New Jersey is the successor to the New York Cross Harbor Railroad. Car float service operates between 65th Street / Bay Ridge Yard in Brooklyn, New York and Greenville Yard in Jersey City, New Jersey.
Prince Rupert – Whittier Delta – Nanaimo, British Columbia Matane, Quebec – Baie-Comeau, Quebec Bay Ridge Branch Cross-Harbor Rail Tunnel Ferry slip New York tugboats Santa Fe Dock and Channel Company Railroad ferry, Hudson River, New York, Andreas Feininger, 1940. Still Photograph Archive, George Eastman House, Rochester, NY. NYNJ Rail – official site Industrial & Offline Terminal Railroads of Brooklyn, Staten Island, Bronx & Manhattan