The New York State Capitol, the seat of the New York State government, is located in Albany, the capital city of the U. S. state of New York. The capitol building is part of the Empire State Plaza complex on State Street in Capitol Park. Housing the New York State Legislature, the building was completed in 1899 at a cost of US$25 million, making it the most expensive government building of its time, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971 included as a contributing property when the Lafayette Park Historic District was listed in 1978. The New York State Capitol was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1979. Legislative sessions had been held at different buildings in different places before Albany was declared the State capital in 1797. From that time until 1811, the State Legislature met at the Old Albany City Hall; the first State Capitol was designed by Albany native Philip Hooker, started in 1804, inaugurated in 1812 and remained in use until 1879 when the current building was inaugurated.
The present Capitol was built between 1867 and 1899. Three teams of architects worked on the design of the Capitol during the 32 years of its construction, managed by: Thomas Fuller, Leopold Eidlitz and Henry Hobson Richardson, Isaac G. Perry. Fuller, the initial architect, was an Englishman who designed the Canadian Parliament buildings of Parliament Hill, Ottawa; the state capitol's ground floor was built in the Classical/Romanesque style. Lieutenant Governor William Dorsheimer dismissed Fuller in favor of Eidlitz and Richardson who built the next two floors in a Renaissance Classical style, noticeable on the exterior two floors as light, open columnwork; the increasing construction costs became an ongoing source of conflict in the legislature, it was difficult to secure the necessary funding. Eidlitz and Richardson were dismissed by Grover Cleveland upon his election to governorship and his review of the increasing costs of construction, he hired Perry to complete the project. The legislative chambers, the fourth floor and roof work were all finished in Victorian-modified Romanesque, distinctively Richardson's design.
It "was Richardson who dominated the final outcome of the grand building, which evolved into his distinguished Romanesque style". It is claimed Richardson was imitating the Hôtel de Ville in France; the Chazy limestone for its construction was quarried at the Clark Quarry in New York. The central open court is dominated by a shaft intended to support a massive dome; the dome and tower were never completed, as it was found the building's weight was causing stress fractures and making the building shift downhill toward State Street. To stop this movement, a large, 166-foot long exterior Eastern Staircase was added to support the front facade; the Capitol exterior is made of white granite from Hallowell and the building incorporates Westchester marble cut by state prisoners at Sing Sing. The granite structure is 220 feet tall at its highest point, it is one of eleven U. S. state capitols. Tunnels connect it to Alfred E. Smith Building; the building's exterior underwent restoration from 2000 until fall 2014.
The Assembly Chamber was built with the world's largest open arched span. However, this produced inconvenient acoustic results. A more serious problem was the structure's shifting foundations. A lower false ceiling was introduced to prevent rock shards from the vaults from falling to the assembly floor; the Capitol featured two large murals by Boston artist William Morris Hunt painted directly on to the Assembly Chamber's sandstone walls. The two enormous works, named The Flight of Night and The Discoverer, each some 45-feet long, were covered when the Assembly's vaulted ceiling proved unstable and the ceiling was lowered four feet below the murals. Earlier, the murals had begun to flake. Plans for murals by Hunt were abandoned due to lack of funding, some people have speculated the resulting depression experienced by the artist may have contributed to his suicide. In front of the Capitol is an equestrian sculpture of Civil War General Philip Sheridan, designed by John Quincy Adams Ward and Daniel Chester French and completed in 1916.
The New York State Capitol is open Monday through Friday from 7AM until 7PM. The building is closed most Holidays. Official guided tours of the Capitol are Monday through Friday at 10AM, Noon, 2PM and 3PM. Tours begin at the Information Desk located in the State Street Lobby of the Capitol. There is a Visitor Center for the New York State Capitol and Empire State Plaza, located on Concourse Level of the Plaza near the underground entrance to the Capitol. *NEW*: Every second Saturday of the month, the Visitor Center will offer a tour of the Capitol at 11AM and 1PM. Reservations are required and can be made at EmpireStatePlaza.org Official tour guides offers a special Hauntings Tour during October. The best known alleged-ghost is that of Samuel Abbott, a night watchman who died during a severe fire on March 29, 1911. There is a "demon" carved into the elaborate stonework by an angry stoneworker. List of National Historic Landmarks in New York List of haunted locations in the United States List of tallest buildings in Albany, New York National Register of Historic Places listings in Albany, New York List of state and territorial capitols in the United States Capitol Story, Third Edition, SUNY Press, 2014 New York State Capitol Virtual Tour New York State Capitol at Emporis Buildings New York State Capitol at
Lie-Nielsen Toolworks, Inc. is a family-owned business, established in 1981 and based in Warren, Maine. It manufactures a range of high quality hand tools for woodworking, based on traditional designs, it is best known for its hand planes. Thomas Lie-Nielsen is the CEO of Lie-Nielsen Toolworks. In the late 1970s, Thomas Lie-Nielsen worked for Garrett Wade. In 1981, Garrett Wade's supplier of an adapted Stanley #95 edge trimming block plane, Ken Wisner, was ready to leave the business, so Lie-Nielsen acquired the tooling and components necessary for producing the #95. Lie-Nielsen moved from New York to a farm in West Rockport and began production of the plane in a tiny back-yard shed; the first of the new planes was delivered to Chinn in the autumn of 1981. A few years Lie-Nielsen moved into a 384-square-foot workshop on the farm, started production on his second plane, the skew-angle block plane. In 1988, as business grew, Lie-Nielsen bought an 8,000-square-foot building in the town of Warren, which the company still occupies.
In the mid-1990s, Lie-Nielsen moved the entire production to a 13,000-square-foot facility. Today, the Lie-Nielsen Toolworks products compete with mass-produced tools from companies such as Stanley and Record, with sales in the order of 20,000 tools a year; the acquisition of the Independence Tool Co. in 1998 added hand saws to the product line, which has further expanded over the years to include over 50 different models of planes, in addition to spokeshaves, socket chisels, screwdrivers and measuring devices and workbench hardware. Lie-Nielsen uses manganese bronze and ductile iron castings, cryogenically treated A-2 steel. Manganese bronze, a hard, strong alloy, is the material of choice for Lie-Nielsen tools because it is heavier than iron, doesn't rust, won't crack if dropped. Where the use of bronze would result in excessive weight in a tool, ductile iron is used instead. Lie-Nielsen products are expensive when compared to the mass-produced items from the likes of Stanley and Record, but these higher prices are defended by comparing them with the prices paid 100 years ago for such tools as Norris infill planes, which could cost up to "a couple of weeks' wages".
On many occasions spanning over a century, leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints have taught that adherents should not masturbate as part of obedience to the code of conduct known as the law of chastity. The LDS Church places great emphasis on the law of chastity. Commitment to live the law of chastity is required for baptism, adherence is required to receive a temple recommend, is part of the temple endowment ceremony covenants devout participants promise by oath to keep. While serving as church president, Spencer W. Kimball taught that the law of chastity includes "masturbation... and every hidden and secret sin and all unholy and impure thoughts and practices." Before serving full-time missions, young adults are required to abandon the practice as it is believed to be a gateway sin that dulls sensitivity to the guidance of the Holy Ghost. The first recorded public mention of masturbation by a general church leader to a broad audience was in 1952 by apostle J. Reuben Clark, recent notable mentions include ones in 2013, 2016, a 2019 update to the Missionary Handbook.
In their overview on the topic, Mark Mallan and Vern Bullough describe Mormon community attitudes and teachings on masturbation as having gone through four major stages while various official church publications and new opinions of leaders have emerged throughout the church's history: Silence, from 1830 to the first public statements Secular Conformity, characterized by following popular medical opinion ranging from viewing masturbation as unhealthy to harmless Counterrevolution, opposing modern medical views and scientific data Emerging Reform, indicated by Mormon literature suggesting that masturbation may be normal and not immoralAlthough rhetoric has softened and become less direct, the prohibition on masturbation remains in place, but its enforcement and the opinions of local leadership vary. Additionally, the majority of church adherents’ views are at odds with those of top church leaders on the subject. During regular worthiness interviews LDS adherents—including preteens and teenagers— are required to confess of any sexual sins like masturbation to church leaders in order to be deemed worthy to participate in the weekly sacrament or in temple rites like baptisms for the dead.
They are sometimes asked explicitly about masturbation. Below is a timeline of events and speeches on the topic of masturbation in the LDS community. 1871 – First Presidency member Daniel H. Wells told a group of Church leaders that many of their young men had a masturbation habit, a great sin and would prevent marriage and lead to insanity and an early death. 1883 – The First Presidency and Apostles spoke at length with stake presidents about the "self-pollution of both sexes" in the first Mormon reference to female masturbation. 1902 – In response to reports of many students at church schools masturbating, church president Joseph F. Smith stated that masturbation was a "damnable and pernicious practice" and that all top leaders should be against it, he stated that stake leaders should warn their congregations about it. 1920s and 1930s – During this time top leaders made lessons that warned parents against causing emotional distress in adolescents by overreacting to their children's masturbatory behaviors and referred them to secular books which taught that sexual interests in children and adolescents should be guided and directed and not inhibited.
1952 – Apostle J. Reuben Clark stated that those who teach that "self-pollution" is non-sinful are as bad as "the teachers who prostitute the sex urge". 1953 – Alarmed by the results found in the Kinsey reports Brigham Young University president Ernest Wilkinson appointed two faculty committees to tackle the "masturbation problem" on the church school's campus. 1954 – Kimball published a booklet for youth titled "Be Ye Clean" in which he stated that masturbation and a preoccupation about sex in one's thoughts was a reprehensible sin. 1958 – Apostle Bruce R. McConkie spoke against masturbation in his Mormon Doctrine saying it was "condemned by divine edict" and among the "chief means" the devil uses "leading souls to hell", he stated when psychiatrists tell their patients experiencing a serious "guilt complex" from masturbation that it is "not an evil" this keeps the patient from complying with the law of chastity and becoming clean, which would lead to "mental and spiritual peace" that helps one cope with or resolve mental disorders.
1964 – In an address at BYU to instructors of religion Kimball refuted the statements of physicians and others to young Mormon men that masturbation was normal, natural, or necessary. 1965 – Apostle Spencer W. Kimball gave a BYU address in which he called masturbation a "common indiscretion" 1966 – Apostle Delbert L. Stapley told BYU students to avoid "perversions" like masturbation, he further stated that before receiving temple endowments or serving an LDS mission that this "weakness" and "habit" should be abandoned. 1967 – Apostle Kimball gave an April general conference address in which he compared sexual sins like masturbation to the leaves and twigs of a spiritually parasitic mistletoe plant that grows with every indiscretion. 1967 – A proposed update to the BYU Honor Code banning "masturbation" was removed in committee. 1968 – Popular Mormon author and mission president Lindsay Curtis coauthored a book published by the church's Deseret Book which called masturbation an indication of emotional immaturity and an unhealthy coping mechanism which can cause psychological damage.