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New York State Route 45

New York State Route 45 is a north–south state highway in central Rockland County, New York, in the United States. It spans 8.57 miles from the village of Chestnut Ridge at the New Jersey–New York border, where it becomes County Route 73 in Bergen County, New Jersey, to U. S. Route 202 in the town of Haverstraw. Though an interchange does exist between NY 45 and the Palisades Interstate Parkway, the route has no access to the New York State Thruway. NY 45 was designated as New York State Route 305 as part of the 1930 renumbering of state highways in New York, it was renumbered to New York State Route 94 in the early 1940s before becoming NY 45 on January 1, 1949. NY 45 begins at the New Jersey–New York border in Chestnut Ridge. Although the first NY 45 reassurance shield is a quarter-mile north of the state line, the reference marker below the "Welcome to New York" sign at the crossing indicates the beginning of NY 45. NY 45 runs parallel to the small portion of the Garden State Parkway; this portion is considered an extension of the New York State Thruway.

While NY 45 never intersects the GSP, it provides a link to the parkway. South of the New Jersey border in Bergen County, CR 73 intersects the GSP, in New York, NY 45 intersects CR 41, which intersects the parkway. Through Chestnut Ridge, it crosses the New York State Thruway. Once it enters Spring Valley, NY 45 continues northward through the downtown business district. Traffic here tends to pile up many times a day. After NY 45's intersection at Hillcrest with CR 74, traffic tends to ease up. North of there, NY 45 provides a link to the Hassidic Jewish community of New Square, although it never enters the village limits. At CR 80, NY 45 enters New Hempstead. Again the road becomes quiet, but it begins to parallel the Palisades Interstate Parkway, until its intersection at exit 12 in Pomona. NY 45 leaves Pomona and enters Mount Ivy; this is where NY 45 comes to its northern terminus at US 202. This area of US 202 is in downtown Mount Ivy, exit 13 of the Palisades is just 0.1 miles west of NY 45's northern terminus.

What is now NY 45 was designated NY 305 as part of the 1930 renumbering of state highways in New York. At the same time, the portion of modern NY 305 north of Portville in Cattaraugus and Allegany counties was assigned NY 94, while the current NY 94 in Orange County was designated NY 45; the NY 305 and NY 94 designations were swapped in the early 1940s, placing NY 305 on its current alignment and NY 94 on what is now NY 45. NY 94 was swapped again, this time for NY 45, on January 1, 1949, placing both routes on their modern routings. In 1958, Ramapo town engineer Edwin Wallace noticed an increase in the amount of traffic passing through the village of Spring Valley; this led Wallace to propose a 5-mile bypass of the village, starting at NY 59 in Monsey and ending at NY 45 in Hillcrest. Rockland County approved the proposed bypass two years and the plans were forwarded to the New York State Department of Transportation. In 1966, the Tri-State Transportation Commission released its long-term highway report for the area.

The new study replaced the Spring Valley Bypass with the NY 45 expressway, a north–south bypass of Spring Valley connecting the Garden State Parkway to the Palisades Interstate Parkway. The road would serve a growing area of commercial businesses along the NY 45 corridor. No action was taken on this proposal; the entire route is in Rockland County. U. S. roads portal New York State Route 45 at Alps' Roads • New York Routes

Pulmonary rehabilitation

Pulmonary rehabilitation known as respiratory rehabilitation, is an important part of the management and health maintenance of people with chronic respiratory disease who remain symptomatic or continue to have decreased function despite standard medical treatment. It is a broad therapeutic concept, it is defined by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society as an evidence-based, multidisciplinary, comprehensive intervention for patients with chronic respiratory diseases who are symptomatic and have decreased daily life activities. In general, pulmonary rehabilitation refers to a series of services that are administered to patients of respiratory disease and their families to attempt to improve the quality of life for the patient. Pulmonary rehabilitation may be carried out in a variety of settings, depending on the patient's needs, may or may not include pharmacologic intervention; the NICE clinical guideline on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease states that “pulmonary rehabilitation should be offered to all patients who consider themselves functionally disabled by COPD ”.

It is indicated not only in patients with COPD, but in: Cystic fibrosis Bronchitis Sarcoidosis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis Before and after lung surgeryIt appears not to be harmful and may be helpful for interstitial lung disease. To reduce symptoms To improve knowledge of lung condition and promote self-management To increase muscle strength and endurance To increase the exercise tolerance To reduce length of hospital stay To help to function better in day-to-day life To help in managing anxiety and depression Reduction in number of days spent in hospital one year following pulmonary rehabilitation. Reduction in the number of exacerbations in patients who performed daily exercise when compared to those who did not exercise. Reduced exacerbations post pulmonary rehabilitation. Ventilatory limitationIncreased dead space ventilation Impaired gas exchange Increased ventilatory demands due to peripheral muscle dysfunction Gas exchange limitationCompromised functional inspiratory muscle strength Compromised inspiratory muscle endurance Cardiac dysfunctionIncrease in right ventricular afterload due to increased peripheral vascular resistance.

Skeletal muscle dysfunctionAverage reduction in quadriceps strength decreased by 20-30% in moderate to severe COPD Reduction in the proportion of type I muscle fibres and an increase in the proportion of type II fibres compared to age matched normal subjects Reduction in capillary to fibre ratio and peak oxygen consumption Reduction in oxidative enzyme capacity and increased blood lactate levels at lower work rates compared to normal subjects Prolonged periods of under nutrition which results in a reduction in strength and endurance Respiratory muscle dysfunction Pulmonary rehabilitation is specific to the individual patient, with the objective of meeting the needs of the patient. It is a broad program and may benefit patients with lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and cystic fibrosis, among others. Although the process is focused on the rehabilitation of the patient him/herself, the family is involved; the process does not begin until a medical exam of the patient has been performed by a licensed physician.

The setting of pulmonary rehabilitation varies by patient. Although there are no universally accepted procedure codes for pulmonary rehabilitation, providers use codes for general therapeutic processes; the goal of pulmonary rehabilitation is to help improve the well-being and quality of life of the patient and their families. Accordingly, programs focus on several aspects of the patient's recovery and can include medication management, exercise training, breathing retraining, education about the patient's lung disease and how to manage it, nutrition counseling, emotional support. Medications may be used in the process of pulmonary rehabilitation including: anti-inflammatory agents, long-acting bronchodilators, beta-2 agonists, anticholinergic agents, oral steroids, mucolytic agents, oxygen therapy, or preventive healthcare. Exercise is the cornerstone of pulmonary rehabilitation programs. Although, exercise training does not directly improve lung function, it causes several physiological adaptations to exercise which can improve physical condition.

There are three basic types of exercises to be considered. Aerobic exercise tends to improve the body's ability to use oxygen by decreasing the heart rate and blood pressure. Strengthening or resistance exercises can help build strength in the respiratory muscles. Stretching and flexibility exercises like yoga and Pilates can enhance breathing coordination; as exercise can trigger shortness of breath, it is important to build up the level of exercise under the supervision of health care professionals. Additionally pursed lip breathing can be used to increase oxygen level in patient's body. Breathing games can be used to motivate patients to learn pursed lip breathing technique. Clinical practice guidelines have been issued by various regulatory authorities. American College of Chest Physicians and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation has provided evidence-based guidelines in 1997 and has updated it. British Thoracic Society Standards of Care Subcommittee on Pulmonary Rehabilitation has published its guidelines in 2001.

Canadian Thoracic Society 2010 Guideline

Franciscan Province of St. Jerome

The Franciscan Province of St. Jerome is a Croatian province of the Order of Friars Minor, based in Zadar and active in Istria and Dalmatia; the province was founded in the Croatian lands in the Middle Ages, its original seal dates from 1393. Notable members have included Sebastijan Slade. In 1925, they sent a friar to the United States to aid the Croatian immigrant community, he was stationed at Millvale, Pennsylvania at the St. Nicholas Croatian Church. In 1951, they purchased a property in Washington, D. C. and Ivan Meštrović donated the St. Jerome the Priest monument for the occasion, they run 24 monasteries, including the Monastery of St. Francis of Assisi in Zadar and that of Our Lady of Angels near Orebić. There are two eponymous but separate Provinces of the Order of Conventual Franciscans and of the friars of the Third Order Regular of St. Francis of Penance in the same territory. Official website

Thomas Scott-Ellis, 8th Baron Howard de Walden

Thomas Evelyn Scott-Ellis, 8th Baron Howard de Walden, 4th Baron Seaford was an English peer, landowner and patron of the arts. Lord Howard de Walden was a powerboat racer who competed for Great Britain in the 1908 Summer Olympics. Thomas Ellis was born in London on 9 May 1880, he was baptised with the name of Thomas Evelyn Ellis, was known within his family as "Tommy". Educated at Eton College and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, in 1917 he assumed the surname Scott-Ellis by Royal Licence. Commissioned into the 10th Hussars as a second-lieutenant on 19 April 1899, he saw active military service in the Second Boer War and was promoted to lieutenant on 1 April 1900. Following the end of that war, he retired from active service in August 1902, he was appointed a captain in the 2nd County of London Yeomanry on 13 September 1902. Scott-Ellis resumed active military service during World War I, being promoted Major in the Royal Tank Corps. After succeeding to his family titles in 1899 he inherited further estates in 1901, including property in Marylebone and earned the title of'Britain's wealthiest bachelor'.

His family's wealth was derived from slavery and sugar estates in Jamaica Montpelier, Jamaica. He took a lease on Audley End House, Essex which had once belonged to his ancestors, in 1904 but never felt settled there; the artist Auguste Rodin created a bust of Lord Howard de Walden in 1906, held in the collection kept at the Rodin Museum in Philadelphia. In 1911, in preparation for his marriage, he leased Chirk Castle, which became his main residence after WWI until 1946, where he learned the Welsh language. Lord Howard de Walden became a keen heraldist and genealogist, as well as amassing one of the most extensive collections of British armour, most of, now on display at Dean Castle, Kilmarnock; as a crew member of the Dylan he participated in the first and only motor boat competitions at the Olympics of 1908 in London. His steam yacht, Branwen, 135 feet length overall, launched 28 October 1905 was the first vessel built at the John I. Thornycroft & Company's Woolston yard. In 1914 he provided financial support for the creation of Crab Tree Club in London and in that year he was one of the people "blessed" in Wyndham Lewis's Blast magazine.

Lord Howard de Walden was an author, who produced several plays under the pseudonym of T. E. Ellis. John Lewis of the eponymous department store on Oxford Street engaged in a protracted legal dispute with de Walden, his ground landlord, over the Holles Street premises; the litigation went through the courts for twenty-three years and cost Lewis £40,000. At one point John Lewis was sent to Brixton Jail for contempt of court, de Walden sued him for libel following his erection of placards at his stores; the case was settled amicably. In 1912, Lord Howard de Walden married Margherita Dorothy van Raalte, their children were: John Osmael Scott-Ellis, 9th Baron Howard de Walden married firstly Irene Gräfin von Harrach, daughter of Hans-Albrecht Graf von Harrach and Helene Gräfin von und zu Arco-Zinneberg, on 21 August 1934. He married secondly, Gillian Margaret Buckley, daughter of Cyril Francis Stewart Buckley and Audrey Burmester, in 1978 Hon. Bronwen Mary Scott-Ellis married The Hon. James Louis Lindsay, son of the 27th Earl of Crawford and Constance Lilian Pelly, on 26 April 1933 Hon. Elisabeth Gwendolen Scott-Ellis married, firstly, Lt-Cdr Serge Orloff-Davidoff, son of Count Alexis Orloff-Davidoff, on 24 July 1935.

She married, Bernard Wheeler Robinson, son of Dr. Wheeler Robinson, on 31 October 1959 Hon. Priscilla Scott-Ellis married José Luis de Vilallonga y Cabeza de Vaca, marqués de Castellbell, on 27 September 1945, she married, Ian Hanson, a young opera singer from Manchester, in 1972 Hon. Gaenor Scott-Ellis, JP married Lieut. Richard Heathcoat-Amory, son of Lt.-Col. Harry Heathcoat-Amory JP DL and Evelyn Stanley, on 18 July 1938 Hon. Rosemary Nest Scott-Ellis married George Fitzroy Seymour JP DL, of Thrumpton, Nottinghamshire, on 1 June 1946 Lord Howard de Walden died, aged 66, on 5 November 1946 in London, being succeeded in the family titles by his son, John Osmael Scott-Ellis; some Feudal Lords and Their Seals Banners Standards and Badges from a Tudor Mansucript in the College of Arms The Children of Don: a drama in verse Pont Orewyn Lanval: a drama in four acts Dylan The Cauldron of Annwn Baron Howard de Walden Baron Seaford House of Lords Burke's Peerage & Baronetage


Vendel is a parish in the Swedish province of Uppland. The village overlooks a long inland stretch of water, Vendelsjön, near which the Vendel river has its confluence with the river Fyris; the church was established in 1310. Vendel is the site of an ancient royal estate, part of Uppsala öd, a network of royal estates meant to provide income for the medieval Swedish kings. In 1881 to 1883, several excavations by Hjalmar Stolpe revealed 14 graves in and just beyond the south-east corner of the churchyard. Several of the burials were contained in boats up to 9 m long, they were richly furnished with arrangements of weapons, helmets and chains, shields, tools etc; the helmets from Graves 1, 12 and 14 bear close comparison to the helmet from the early 7th century ship-burial at Sutton Hoo, England, with die-stamped plaques depicting scenes of warriors. The shield from Grave 12 at Vendel is very comparable to the Sutton Hoo shield, has a stamped metal strip mount, die-linked to an equivalent piece at Sutton Hoo.

The Vendel boats were identified by the presence of many ship-rivets, accompanied by many animal sacrifices within the burials. A grave contained an important set of bridle-mounts for a horse; these graves date between the 6th to 8th centuries. At Husby near Vendel there is a large mound which local tradition calls Ottarshögen from Ottar known as Ohthere and hög, meaning mound or barrow. Ohthere is associated with the person of that same name in the epic Beowulf. An excavation in 1917 revealed the remains of a powerful man, buried at the beginning of the 6th century, the time of Ohthere. Other graves of similar date, associated with Ohthere's family, are at Old Uppsala. Vendel has given its name to a period in the Scandinavian Iron Age, to the corresponding style in art, it has been suggested that the Germanic Vandals, or at least their kings or rulers, were connected to the site. In this it is coupled with the name of a companion site at Valsgärde in the same region; the close comparisons with the 27-metre ship burial at Sutton Hoo show a direct connection between the armourers producing work found at the two sites, a connection central to the understanding of both.

The Sutton Hoo burial is associated with King Raedwald of East Anglia, who in his reign was most powerful among the rulers of the English kingdoms. Hyenstrand Å. Lejonet, draken och korset. Sverige 500-1000. Lund, 2001. S. 92-102. H. Stolpe and T. J. Arne, La Necropole de Vendel, Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitetsakademien

National Amusements

National Amusements, Inc. is an American owned theater company and mass media holding company based in Dedham and incorporated in Maryland. It was the parent company of the first incarnation of Viacom, CBS Corporation and the second incarnation of Viacom that were split off in 2006; the company was founded by Michael Redstone in 1936 in the Boston suburb of Dedham as Northeastern Theater Corporation, operating a chain of movie theaters in the region. Fifty years in 1986, when the founder's son Sumner Redstone joined the company, it had been renamed National Amusements; that year, the company acquired Viacom, a former CBS subsidiary syndicating television programs to stations around the United States. NA retained the Viacom name and made a string of large acquisitions in the early 1990s, announcing plans to merge with Paramount Communications, parent of Paramount Pictures, in 1993, buying the Blockbuster Video chain in 1994; the acquisition of Paramount Communications in July 1994 made Viacom one of the world's largest entertainment companies.

At the end of 2008, due to financial troubles, owners Sumner Redstone and Shari Redstone sold $400 million of nonvoting shares in National Amusements. In October 2009, the company sold $1 billion of its interest in the stock of CBS and Viacom and sold 35 theaters to Rave Motion Pictures. Today these theatres have closed. National Amusements now exclusively operates theaters in the Northeastern United States; the following year, National Amusements planned to sell $390 million of notes to refinance a large part of the company's bank owed debt. As of December 2016, National Amusements and through subsidiaries, holds 79.8% of the Class A common stock of Viacom Inc. constituting 10% of the overall equity of the Company, holds 79.5% of the Class A common stock and 2.4% of the Class B common stock of CBS Corporation, constituting 9.1% of the overall equity of the Company. The company holds an unspecified stake in Entercom, as part of the reverse Morris trust that spun CBS's radio assets off to that company.

The company operates more than 1,500 movie screens across the Northeastern United States, the United Kingdom, Latin America, Russia under its Showcase Cinemas, Multiplex Cinemas, Cinema de Lux, KinoStar brands. It operates a nightclub in Foxborough, Massachusetts called Showcase Live, located next to a Showcase Cinema de Lux. In Canada, National Amusements owned Famous Players theatres through Viacom which today are now owned by Cineplex Entertainment and Landmark Cinemas. In 2019, it was announced that the multinational media conglomerates controlled by National Amusements, would re-merge to form a new company named ViacomCBS. On November 25, Viacom and CBS announced that the merger would close on December 4, it began trading NASDAQ on December 5; the merger closed on December 4, 2019. Showcase Cinemas website 2001 Box Office Magazine profile of the company Yahoo! - National Amusements Inc. Company Profile