New York University is a private research university based in New York City. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in Lower Manhattan. NYU is a global university with degree-granting campuses in Abu Dhabi and Shanghai, academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. Alumni include heads of state, aristocrats, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of October 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all." A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university.
These New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, the institution that would become NYU was established with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as its first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature; the university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time.
American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU. Soon after its founding it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken; the University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island."
This extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973. In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10.
In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources. Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of labor values for Abu Dhabi campus workers. A 2014 follow-up article found that while some conditions had improved, contractors for the multibillion-endowment university were still subjecting their workers to third-world labor conditions; the article documented that these conditions included confiscation of worker passports, forced overtime, recruitment fees and cockroach-filled dorms where workers had to sleep under beds.
According to the article, workers who attempted to protest the NYU contractors' conditions were promptly arrested. Reports claimed that those arrested by
Ballada is the sixth compilation by Japanese recording artist Namie Amuro. It was released by Dimension Point on June 2, 2014 in three physical formats, for digital consumption, it works as a concept album that compiles ballads released during her time with Avex Trax, including three re-worked tracks. Additionally, the album features its only single "Tsuki". Upon its release, Ballada received positive reviews from music critics, most whom praised Amuro's maturity and vocals, alongside the re-worked tracks. Commercially, it was a success in Japan, reaching the top spot on the Oricon Albums Chart and Billboard Hot Albums Chart, it was certified double platinum by the Recording Industry Association of Japan, recognizing shipments of 500,000 units. In order to promote the album, Amuro conducted her annual Live Style tour in August 2014, finished it four months later. A live release—titled Namie Amuro Live Style 2014—was issued inside Asia, was a commercial success in Japan. In early 2013, Amuro had started her own record label titled Dimension Point, offering her 11th studio album Feel as its first commercial work.
She release a series of digital singles: "Neonlight Lipstick" and "Ballerina". These tracks were included on her January 2014 recording "Tsuki", a ballad written for the Japanese film Dakishimetai: Shinjitsu no Monogatari. A month the singer revealed a special website that included a voting poll with all her ballad songs on it. Not long after, Amuro announced the release of Ballada. Out of 38 ballads listed on voting poll, 15 were selected. All apart from four tracks were featured in their original form. Japanese composer, Taro Hakase, was credited as a featured artist on "Can You Celebrate?", performing the violin. Ballada was released by Dimension Point and Avex Trax on June 2, 2014 in three physical formats, for digital consumption; the three physical formats include a standard package that includes a 15-track compact disc, the other two are DVD and Blu-Ray bundles that include 17 music videos, respectively. Included in the DVD/Blu-Ray formats are re-created visuals of her singles "Sweet 19 Blues"—blending a mixture of the original video and new footage of Amuro in the same setting—and a re-done video of "Can You Celebrate?".
The cover art and photoshoot was photographed by Yasunari Kikuma, which has Amuro sitting in an empty room, wearing a red plaid dress and military-esque hat. First-press editions come with a digipak and a special lenticular photographic print, alongside a generic poster of the album's photoshoot. Upon its release, Ballada received positive reviews from music critics. Japanese magazine CDJournal praised Amuro's "subtle vocal techniques" and "rich emotional expression" displayed in the ballad collection. Kanako Hayakawa of EMTG felt that no matter which era of Amuro's music the songs were from, her ballads showcased the strength of women, where fragile parts of herself were sung with boldly real vocals, she felt that her ballads had similar lyrical matters to her up-tempo songs, such as the joy of feeling loved or someone starting again after a loss. Hayakawa felt that many of the songs on the compilation were not ballads, such as the mid-tempo R&B "Sweet 19 Blues", the 1990s UK club jazz "Dreaming I Was Dreaming", the slow R&B "White Light".
Hayakawa praised the album's re-recorded tracks, noting the "divine beauty" of the Taro Hakase pairing and the dignity in her voice. Commercially, the album was a success in Asia. Ballada debuted at number one on the daily and weekly Oricon Albums Chart in Japan, opening with a six-day sales of 254,944 copies, it only shifted 66,274 units. In total, Ballada lasted six weeks in the top ten, stay in the top 300 chart for 40 weeks. Additionally, it was ranked the fourth best-selling album of 2014 with 431,356 copies sold in Japan, making Amuro the highest-selling solo artist in terms of album sales that year. Ballada was certified double platinum by the Recording Industry Association of Japan for shipments of 500,000 units. Ballada reached number six on the Taiwanese G-Music chart, topped the East Asian category for a sole week. In September 2017, Amuro announced her retirement from the music industry; because of this, her music catalogue skyrocketed on several digital stores. In total, the compilation has achieved 3,541 recognized digital downloads.
In order to promote the album, Amuro announced her annual Live Style tour in early April 2014. The dates were confirmed via a flyer given out with the purchases of Ballada, enclosed in the album's booklet. Tickets were offered to the public that were subscribed to the singer's Fan Space fan club, which gave them early access and a unique code to submit to secure tickets. A total of 36 shows in thirteen different cities were scheduled in Japan, spanning from August 22 at the Shizuoka Eco-Pure Arena, finishing on December 23 at the Yoyogi National Gymnasium in Shibuya, Tokyo. One show in Kobe rescheduled two extra dates. In order to promote the material from Ballada, Amuro added a particular song from the album on the setlist of
Felix Clewett was a member of the Queensland Legislative Council. Clewett was born in Sydney, New South Wales to George Clewett and his wife Ann and educated at St. James's Grammar School, Sydney. In 1867, Clewett had married Isabella Jane Cox and together they had five children. Clewett was appointed to the Queensland Legislative Council in July 1890 and served for over twenty-two years till his death in February, 1913, he died in 1913, was buried in Toowong Cemetery. Photo of the late Hon. F. Clewett M. L. C. "FELIX CLEWETT". Morning Bulletin. Rockhampton, Qld.: National Library of Australia. 11 July 1925. P. 11. Retrieved 20 December 2015. — biography in the Rockhampton Morning Bulletin