March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, the March on Washington, or The Great March on Washington, was held in Washington, D. C. on Wednesday, August 28, 1963. The purpose of the march was to advocate for the economic rights of African Americans. At the march, Martin Luther King Jr. standing in front of the Lincoln Memorial, delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech in which he called for an end to racism. The march was organized by A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin, who built an alliance of civil rights and religious organizations that came together under the banner of "jobs and freedom." Estimates of the number of participants varied from 200,000 to 300,000. Observers estimated; the march was one of the largest political rallies for human rights in United States history. The march is credited with helping to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and preceded the Selma Voting Rights Movement which led to the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Although African Americans had been freed from slavery, elevated to the status of citizens and the men given full voting rights at the end of the American Civil War, many continued to face social and political repression over the years and into the 1960s.
In the early 1960s, a system of legal discrimination, known as Jim Crow laws, were pervasive in the American South, ensuring that Black Americans remained oppressed. They experienced discrimination from businesses and governments, in some places were prevented from voting through intimidation and violence. Twenty-one states prohibited interracial marriage; the impetus for a march on Washington developed over a long period of time, earlier efforts to organize such a demonstration included the March on Washington Movement of the 1940s. A. Philip Randolph—the president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, president of the Negro American Labor Council, vice president of the AFL-CIO—was a key instigator in 1941. With Bayard Rustin, Randolph called for 100,000 black workers to march on Washington, in protest of discriminatory hiring by U. S. military contractors and demanding an Executive Order. Faced with a mass march scheduled for July 1, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802 on June 25.
The order established the Committee on Fair Employment Practice and banned discriminatory hiring in the defense industry. Randolph called off the March. Randolph and Rustin continued to organize around the idea of a mass march on Washington, they envisioned several large marches during the 1940s. Their Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom, held at the Lincoln Memorial on May 17, 1957, featured key leaders including Adam Clayton Powell, Martin Luther King Jr. and Roy Wilkins. Mahalia Jackson performed; the 1963 march was an important part of the expanding Civil Rights Movement, which involved demonstrations and nonviolent direct action across the United States. 1963 marked the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation by Abraham Lincoln. Members of The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference put aside their differences and came together for the march. Many whites and blacks came together in the urgency for change in the nation.
Violent confrontations broke out in the South: in Maryland. Most of these incidents involved white people retaliating against nonviolent demonstrators. Many people disagreed over how the march should be conducted; some called for a complete shutdown of the city through civil disobedience. Others argued that the movement should remain nationwide in scope, rather than focus its energies on the nation's capital. There was a widespread perception that the Kennedy administration had not lived up to its promises in the 1960 election, King described Kennedy's race policy as "tokenism". On May 24, 1963, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy invited African-American novelist James Baldwin, along with a large group of cultural leaders, to a meeting in New York to discuss race relations. However, the meeting became antagonistic, as black delegates felt that Kennedy did not have an adequate understanding of the race problem in the nation; the public failure of the meeting, which came to be known as the Baldwin–Kennedy meeting, underscored the divide between the needs of Black America and the understanding of Washington politicians.
However, the meeting provoked the Kennedy administration to take action on the civil rights for African-Americans. On June 11, 1963, President John F. Kennedy gave his famous civil rights address on national television and radio, announcing that he would begin to push for civil rights legislation—the law which became the Civil Rights Act of 1964; that night, Mississippi activist Medgar Evers was murdered in his own driveway, further escalating national tension around the issue of racial inequality. A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin began planning the march in December 1961, they envisioned two days of protest, including sit-ins and lobbying followed by a mass rally at the Lincoln Memorial. They wanted to call for a public works program that would employ blacks. In early 1963 they called publicly for "a massive March on Washington for jobs", they received help from Amalgamated Clothing Workers unionist Stanley Aronowitz, who gathered support from radical organizers who could be trusted not to report their plans to the Kennedy administration.
The unionists offered tentative support for a march that would be focused on
A. J. Liebling
Abbott Joseph "A. J." Liebling was an American journalist, associated with The New Yorker from 1935 until his death. Liebling was born into a well-off family on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, where his father worked in New York's fur industry, his mother, Anna Adelson Slone, was from San Francisco. After early schooling in New York, Liebling was admitted to Dartmouth College in the fall of 1920, his primary activity during his undergraduate career was as a contributor to the Jack-O-Lantern, Dartmouth's nationally known humor magazine. He left Dartmouth without graduating claiming he was "thrown out for missing compulsory chapel attendance", he enrolled in the School of Journalism at Columbia University. After finishing there, he began his career as a journalist at the Evening Bulletin of Providence, Rhode Island, he worked in the sports department of The New York Times, from which he was fired for listing the name "Ignoto" as the referee in results of games. In 1926, Liebling's father asked if he would like to suspend his career as a journalist to study in Paris for a year.
I sensed my father's generous intention and, fearing that he might change his mind, I told him that I didn't feel I should go, since I was indeed thinking of getting married. "The girl is ten years older than I am," I said, "and Mother might think she is kind of fast, because she is being kept by a cotton broker from Memphis, who only comes North once in a while. But you are a man of the world, you understand that a woman can't always help herself..." Within the week, I had a letter of credit on the Irving Trust for two thousand dollars, a reservation on the old Caronia for late in the summer, when the off-season rates would be in effect. Liebling wrote that the unsuitable proposed marriage was a fiction intended less to swindle his father than to cover his own pride at being the recipient of such generosity, thus in summer 1926, Liebling sailed to Europe where he studied French medieval literature at the Sorbonne in Paris. By his own admission his devotion to his studies was purely nominal, he seeing the year as a chance to absorb French life and appreciate French food.
Although he stayed for little more than a year, this interval inspired a lifelong love for France and the French renewed in his war reporting. He returned to Providence in autumn 1927 to write for the Journal, he moved to New York, where he proceeded to campaign for a job on Joseph Pulitzer's New York World, which carried the work of James M. Cain and Walter Lippmann and was known at the time as "the writer's paper." In order to attract the attention of the city editor, James W. Barrett, Liebling hired an out-of-work Norwegian seaman to walk for three days outside the Pulitzer Building, on Park Row, wearing sandwich boards that read Hire Joe Liebling, it turned out that Barrett habitually used a different entrance on another street, never saw the sign. He wrote for the World-Telegram. Liebling joined The New Yorker in 1935, his best pieces from the late thirties are collected in Back Where I Came From and The Telephone Booth Indian. During World War II, Liebling was active as a war correspondent, filing many stories from Africa and France.
His war began when he flew to Europe in October 1939 to cover its early battles, lived in Paris until June 10, 1940, returned to the United States until July 1941, when he flew to Britain. He sailed to Algeria in November 1942 to cover the fighting on the Tunisian front, his articles from these days are collected in The Road Back to Paris. He participated in the Normandy landings on D Day, he wrote a memorable piece concerning his experiences under fire aboard a U. S. Coast Guard-manned landing craft off Omaha Beach, he afterwards spent two months in Normandy and Brittany, was with the Allied forces when they entered Paris. He wrote afterwards: "For the first time in my life and the last, I have lived for a week in a great city where everybody was happy." Liebling was awarded the Cross of the Légion d'honneur by the French government for his war reporting. Following the war he returned to regular magazine fare and for many years after he wrote a New Yorker monthly feature called "Wayward Press", in which he analyzed the US press.
Liebling was an avid fan of boxing, horse racing and food, wrote about these subjects. In 1947 he published The Wayward Pressman, a collection of his writings from The New Yorker and other publications. During the late forties, he vigorously criticized the House Un-American Activities Committee and became friends with Alger Hiss. In 1949, he published Of Mink and Red Herring, a "second book of critical articles on New York newspapers," which included his critique of the "scurrilous journalism" applied to victims of "Elizabeth Bentley and her ilk." On July 23, 1949, the New Yorker magazine published an article by Liebling entitled "Spotlight on the Jury" in which he opened by stating "The trial of Alger Hiss, which produced some of the best and some of the worst newspaper copy of our time" and concluded "This sort of thing and lessens the chance of a fair trial next time. The secrecy of the jury room, like that of the voting booth, should be protected by law." In 1961, Liebling published The Earl of Louisiana published as a series of articles in The New Yorker in which he covered the trials and tribulations of the governor of Louisiana, Earl K. Long, the younger brother of the Louisiana politician Huey Long.
He married Ann Beatrice McGinn, a former movie theater ticket taker he had met while she was working in Providence, Rhode Island, on July 28, 1934. McGinn suffere
Citizenship of the United States
Citizenship of the United States is a status that entails specific rights and benefits. Citizenship is understood as a "right to have rights" since it serves as a foundation of fundamental rights derived from and protected by the Constitution and laws of the United States, such as the right to freedom of expression, due process and work in the United States, to receive federal assistance; the implementation of citizenship requires attitudes including allegiance to the republic, an impulse to promote communities. Certain rights are so fundamental; these include those rights guaranteed by the first 8 Amendments. However, not all U. S. citizens, such as those living in Puerto Rico, have the right to vote in federal elections. There are two primary sources of citizenship: birthright citizenship, in which a person is presumed to be a citizen if he or she was born within the territorial limits of the United States, or—providing certain other requirements are met—born abroad to a U. S. citizen parent, naturalization, a process in which an eligible legal immigrant applies for citizenship and is accepted.
These two pathways to citizenship are specified in the Citizenship Clause of the Constitution's 1868 Fourteenth Amendment which reads: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. National citizenship signifies membership in the country as a whole. State citizenship may affect tax decisions and eligibility for some state-provided benefits such as higher education and eligibility for state political posts such as U. S. Senator. In Article One of the Constitution, the power to establish a "uniform rule of naturalization" is granted explicitly to Congress. U. S. law permits multiple citizenship. A citizen of another country naturalized as a U. S. citizen may retain their previous citizenship, though they must renounce allegiance to the other country. A U. S. citizen retains U. S. citizenship should that country's laws allow it. U. S. citizenship can be renounced by Americans who hold another citizenship via a formal procedure at a U.
S. Embassy, it can be restored. Freedom to work. United States citizens have the inalienable right to work in the United States. Certain non-citizens, such as permanent residents, have similar rights. For example, they may be deported. Freedom to leave the United States. United States citizens have the right to leave the United States freely. Certain non-citizens, such as permanent residents, have similar rights. Unlike permanent residents, U. S. citizens do not have an obligation to maintain residence in the U. S. – they can leave for any length of time and return at any time. Voting for federal office in all fifty states and the District of Columbia is restricted to citizens only. States are not required to extend the franchise to all citizens: for example, several states bar citizen felons from voting after they have completed any custodial sentence; the United States Constitution bars states from restricting citizens from voting on grounds of race, previous condition of servitude, failure to pay any tax, or age.
Many states and local jurisdictions have allowed non-citizens to vote. Citizens are not compelled to vote. Freedom to stand for public office; the United States Constitution requires that all members of the United States House of Representatives have been citizens for seven years, that all senators have been citizens for nine years, before taking office. Most states have similar requirements: for example California requires that legislators have been citizens for three years, the Governor have been a citizen for five years, upon taking office; the U. S. Constitution requires that one be "a natural born Citizen" and a U. S. resident for fourteen years in order to be President of the United States or Vice President of the United States. The Constitution stipulates that otherwise eligible citizens must meet certain age requirements for these offices. Right to apply for federal employment. Many federal government jobs require applicants to have U. S. citizenship. U. S. citizens can apply for federal employment within department.
Jury duty is only imposed upon citizens. Jury duty may be considered the "sole differential obligation" between citizens. Military participation is not required in the United States, but a policy of conscription of men has been in place at various times in American history, most during the Vietnam War; the United States Armed Forces are a professional all-volunteer force, although both male U. S. citizens and male non-citizen permanent residents are required to register with the Selective Service System and may be called up in the event of a future draft. Johns Hopkins University political scientist Benjamin Ginsberg writes, "The professional military has limited the need for citizen soldiers." Taxes. In the United States today, everyone except those whose income is derived from tax-exempt revenue (Sub
CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa
WRTV, virtual channel 6, is an ABC-affiliated television station licensed to Indianapolis, United States. Owned by the E. W. Scripps Company, WRTV maintains primary studio facilities on Meridian Street in northwestern Indianapolis, with a secondary studio located at Monument Circle in downtown Indianapolis. On cable, WRTV is carried on Comcast Xfinity channel 5, on Charter Spectrum channel 7 and on AT&T U-Verse channel 6; the station first signed on the air on May 30, 1949, as WFBM-TV. Founded by the Consolidated Television and Radio Broadcasters subsidiary of the Bitner Group, owners of radio station WFBM, it is the oldest television station in the state of Indiana; the first program broadcast on the station was a documentary titled Crucible of Speed, about the early history of the legendary Indianapolis 500 auto race. The station operated as a CBS affiliate, although it maintained secondary affiliations with ABC and the DuMont Television Network. WFBM-TV began to split ABC programming with Bloomington-based primary NBC affiliate WTTV when that station signed on in November 1949.
WFBM-TV aired programs from the short-lived Paramount Television Network, among them Time For Beany, Dixie Showboat, Hollywood Reel, Cowboy G-Men, Hollywood Wrestling. Channel 6 acquired an FM sister in 1955 with the sign-on of WFBM-FM. In 1956, WFBM-TV became the market's NBC affiliate, taking the affiliation from WTTV. During the late 1950s, the station was briefly affiliated with the NTA Film Network. Bitner merged its broadcasting interests with magazine publisher Time-Life in 1957. In the mid-1960s, WRTV became the first television station in Indiana to begin broadcasting its programming in color. In late October 1970, WFBM-AM-FM-TV were sold to McGraw-Hill in a group deal that involved Time-Life's other radio and television combinations in Denver, San Diego and Grand Rapids, Michigan. In order to comply with the Federal Communications Commission's new restrictions on concentration of media ownership that went into effect shortly afterward, McGraw-Hill was required to sell the radio stations in Indianapolis, San Diego and Grand Rapids to other companies.
Time-Life would take WOOD-TV in Grand Rapids out of the final deal and retain ownership of that station. By the time the sale was finalized in June 1972, the purchase price for the entire group was just over $57 million. KERO-TV, KLZ-TV in Denver and KOGO-TV in San Diego were retained by McGraw-Hill along with WFBM-TV, which subsequently changed its call letters to the present WRTV on June 2. By the late 1970s, NBC's national ratings crashed to third place, becoming the lowest-rated of the three major U. S. broadcast networks. The two networks swapped affiliations in Indianapolis on June 1, 1979, with WRTV becoming the market's new ABC affiliate, WTHR becoming an NBC affiliate; as a result, WRTV became the third television station in the Indianapolis market to affiliate with ABC. In the process, it became the first television station in the Indianapolis market, of the few television stations in the United States to have served as a primary affiliate of all three heritage broadcast networks. On January 31, 1995, WBAK-TV in Terre Haute ended its 22-year affiliation with ABC to become that market's original Fox affiliate, citing the low viewership it had suffered due to the then-overabundance of higher-rated ABC stations in adjacent markets that were receivable in the area.
This left viewers with only fringe access from WRTV, other out-of-market ABC stations from Evansville and Champaign, Illinois as Terre Haute did not have enough stations to support full-time affiliations from four networks. On September 1, 2011, WFXW voluntarily disaffiliated from Fox and rejoined ABC as part of a long-term affiliation renewal between ABC and the Nexstar Broadcasting Group involving the company's existing ABC stations in nine other markets. WRTV became the first television station in the Indianapolis market to launch its own website in the late 1990s. In 1998, the station changed its on-air branding to "RTV6," however its newscasts were instead branded as 6 News until 2001 and again from 2006 to 2012. On October 3, 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies announced that it would sell its seven-station broadcasting division, including WRTV, to the E. W. Scripps Company for $212 million; the sale received FCC approval on No
KGTV, virtual and VHF digital channel 10, is an ABC-affiliated television station licensed to San Diego, United States. The station is owned by the E. W. Scripps Company. KGTV's studios are located on Air Way in the Riverview-Webster section of San Diego, its transmitter is located on Mount Soledad in La Jolla. KGTV operates digital translator KZSD-LP, which allows homes with issues receiving KGTV's VHF signal or only a UHF antenna to receive KGTV in some form; the San Diego area's third-oldest television station first went on the air on September 13, 1953 as NBC affiliate KFSD-TV. The station's original owner was Airfan Radio Corporation, which owned NBC Radio Network affiliate KFSD. Under terms of the initial construction permit award, Airfan sold one-third ownership of the stations to two other firms who competed separately for channel 10. In 1954 the KFSD stations were purchased by investment firm, Wells & Rogers; the publishers of Newsweek magazine took a minority share of the stations in 1957, four years before the periodical was itself sold to the Washington Post Company.
In 1961, channel 10 changed its call letters to KOGO-TV. The broadcasting division of Time-Life purchased KOGO-TV and its sister radio stations in 1962; this deal was reached after failed attempts to sell the properties to Triangle Publications and United Artists among others. As part of a sale announced in late 1970, KOGO-AM-FM-TV was sold to McGraw-Hill along with Time-Life's other radio/television combinations in Denver and Grand Rapids, Michigan; when the sale was concluded in June 1972, the purchase price for the entire group was just over $57 million. However, in order to comply with the Federal Communications Commission's new restrictions on concentration of media ownership, McGraw-Hill was required to sell the radio stations in San Diego, Indianapolis and Grand Rapids. Time-Life would take WOOD-TV in Grand Rapids out of the final deal. KERO-TV, KLZ-TV in Denver, WFBM-TV in Indianapolis were retained by McGraw-Hill along with KOGO-TV, which changed to its current call letters KGTV as a result of the sale due to FCC regulations in place at the time that prohibited TV and radio stations in the same market, but different ownership from sharing the same callsigns.
The ABC affiliation in San Diego had belonged to XETV, a station licensed across the international border to Tijuana, since 1956 under special agreement between the FCC and Mexican authorities. In 1973 KCST-TV, San Diego's UHF independent station, prevailed in a years-long attempt to secure ABC programming in the market. S. borders. At the time of the switch ABC was still the third-ranked network, behind second-rated NBC and perennial leader CBS. Over the next several years, however, ABC began to experience ratings growth in their primetime programming and rose to first place during 1975–76, finishing the year with ten programs in Nielsen's top twenty. In San Diego, KCST-TV experienced a carryover effect and rose to first place locally, knocking KGTV down to third behind CBS station KFMB-TV, but ABC was never happy with having been forced onto the UHF dial in San Diego, the unprecedented success gave the network the impetus to upgrade its affiliate roster nationwide. Despite having more than a year remaining in its current agreement with NBC, KGTV announced it was joining ABC in June 1976.
After KCST-TV signed with NBC, the switch between the two stations took place on June 27, 1977. KGTV shut down its analog signal, over VHF channel 10, on February 17, 2009, the original target date in which full-power television stations in the United States were to transition from analog to digital broadcasts under federal mandate; the station's digital signal relocated from its pre-transition UHF channel 25 to VHF channel 10. Due to their current Scripps ownership, the station makes disclaimers especially in its medical reporting, that it has no ties to the local Scripps Health system, a separate organization created in 1923 from a bequest from Ellen Browning Scripps, a sister to Scripps founder E. W. Scripps, as Scripps Health personnel are asked to comment on medical stories in the San Diego area, including by KGTV; the station's digital channel is multiplexed: On October 3, 2011, McGraw-Hill announced it was selling its entire television station group, including KGTV and Azteca America affiliate KZSD-LP, to the Cincinnati-based E. W. Scripps Company for $212 million.
The deal was completed on December 30, 2011, resulting in McGraw-Hill's exit from broadcasting after 39 years. On May 1, 2017, Scripps took over the affiliation for the MeTV classic television network in San Diego, placed the subchannel on KGTV-DT2, along with an analog simulcast on KZSD-LP. During an interim period from mid-March to the end of April that year, KGTV-DT2 carried a continuous loop of the latest newscast produced by the station. Syndicated programming on KGTV includes Right This Live with Kelly and Ryan among others. In 1965, when NBC, which KGTV was affiliated with gained the rights to air American Football
KMGH-TV, virtual and VHF digital channel 7, is an ABC-affiliated television station licensed to Denver, United States. The station is owned by the E. W. Scripps Company. KMGH-TV's studios are located on East Speer Boulevard in Denver's Congress Park neighborhood, its transmitter is located atop Lookout Mountain, near Golden. On cable, the station is available on Comcast Xfinity in standard definition on channel 7, in high definition on digital channel 652, it is carried on CenturyLink Prism channels 7 and 1007. KMGH operates digital translator KZCO-LD, which allows homes with issues receiving KMGH's VHF signal or only a UHF antenna to receive KMGH in some form; the station's Azteca América-affiliated second digital subchannel is relayed on analog translators KZCS-LP in Colorado Springs and KZFC-LP in Windsor. The station first signed on the air on November 1, 1952 as KLZ-TV, it was founded by the Oklahoma City-based Oklahoma Publishing Company, which owned KLZ radio. KLZ-TV took the CBS affiliation from KBTV, owing to KLZ radio's longtime affiliation with the CBS Radio Network.
In 1954, Gaylord sold the KLZ radio stations to Time-Life. The station's original studio facilities were housed in a renovated former auto dealership on the east side of the block at East 6th Avenue and Sherman Street. Channel 7 moved to its present studio facilities, an eight-sided, five-story building called "The Communications Center," on the intersection of Speer Boulevard and Lincoln Street in 1969. Time-Life sold the station to McGraw-Hill in late October 1970, in a group deal that involved the company's other radio and television combinations in Indianapolis, San Diego and Grand Rapids, Michigan. In order to comply with the Federal Communications Commission's new restrictions on concentration of media ownership that went into effect shortly afterward, McGraw-Hill was required to sell the KLZ radio stations as well as their sister radio properties in Indianapolis, San Diego and Grand Rapids to other companies. Time-Life would purchase WOTV in Grand Rapids in the final deal. By the time the sale was finalized in June 1972, the purchase price for the entire group was just over $57 million.
WFBM-TV in Indianapolis, KERO-TV in Bakersfield and KOGO-TV in San Diego were retained by McGraw-Hill, along with KLZ-TV, which subsequently changed its call letters to KMGH-TV, in order to comply with a now-repealed FCC rule in place that forbade TV and radio stations in the same market, but with different ownership from sharing the same callsigns. The 1990s did not begin well for KMGH. A new management team introduced in 1991 turned things around at KMGH. Although KMGH had been one of CBS' stronger affiliates, the station would end up disaffiliating from the network due to a series of events that were set in motion as a result of CBS' partnership with the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in July 1994; as part of the deal, the network moved its programming from its owned-and-operated station in Philadelphia, WCAU-TV, to Westinghouse's KYW-TV. In a three-way trade, CBS traded WCAU to NBC in exchange for two of that network's O&Os —Denver's KCNC-TV and Salt Lake City's KUTV. CBS formed a joint venture with Westinghouse that assumed ownership of KYW-TV, KCNC and KUTV, with Westinghouse serving as majority owner.
Group W/CBS and NBC swapped the transmitter facilities—and by association, channel frequencies—of their respective stations in Miami, WCIX and WTVJ. At the same time, McGraw-Hill had struck an affiliation agreement with ABC, due to the fact that its stations in San Diego and Indianapolis had been aligned with the network. In keeping with all of this, each of the three major broadcast networks relocated their programming to different stations in the Denver market on September 10, 1995. On June 14, 2011, McGraw-Hill announced that it would exit from the broadcasting industry and put its entire television station group up for sale; the FCC approved the sale on November 29, 2011, the deal was completed on December 30, 2011. The deal marked a re-entry into the Denver market for Scripps; the station's digital signal is multiplexed: KMGH-TV shut down its analog signal, over VHF channel 7, on April 16, 2009. The station's digital signal relocated from its pre-transition UHF channel 17 to VHF channel 7 for post-transition operations.
KMGH-TV clears the entire ABC network schedule.