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New Youth

La Jeunesse was a Chinese magazine in the 1910s and 1920s that played an important role in initiating the New Culture Movement and spreading the influence of the May Fourth Movement. The Early Republic of China period from 1911 to late 1930s was a period of revolutionary changes at all levels and across all sectors in China. La Jeunesse was both a witness to them. Chen Duxiu founded the magazine on September 1915 in Shanghai, its headquarters moved to Beijing in January 1917 when Chen was appointed Chairman of the Chinese Literature Department at Peking University. Editors included Chen Duxiu, Qian Xuantong, Gao Yihan, Hu Shih, Li Dazhao, Shen Yinmo, Lu Xun, it initiated the New Culture Movement, promoting science and Vernacular Chinese literature. The magazine published all vernacular beginning with the May 1918 issue, Volume 4, Number 5, it was a first. Influenced by the 1917 Russian October Revolution, La Jeunesse began to promote Marxism; the trend accelerated after the departure of Hu Shih who became the Republic of China's Education Minister.

Beginning with the issue of September 1, 1920, La Jeunesse began to support the communism movement in Shanghai, with the June 1923 issue, it became the official Chinese Communist Party theoretical journal. It was shut down in 1926 by the Nationalist government. La Jeunesse influenced thousands of Chinese young people, including many leaders of the Chinese Communist Party. A Japanese magazine under the same name was first published in 1920 and ran through 1950; the organ became a sort of unofficial propaganda for the Japanese Imperial forces during WWII. It is known for both its detective fiction and war stories. Chen Duxiu founded La Jeunesse and edited it in the early years; the editorial policies reflected his personal values by supporting the new and growing vernacular literature movement and the revolution against established societal norms, Confucian values, the use of Classical Chinese. Chen was the leader of the May Fourth Movement student demonstrations, he was a founding member of the Chinese Communist Party and provided their theoretical platform.

Chen published "A Letter to Youth" in the first issue of September 15, 1915. The letter issued six challenges: Be independent and not enslaved Be progressive and not conservative Be in the forefront and not lagging behind Be internationalist and not isolationist Be practical and not rhetorical Be scientific and not superstitious The letter further emphasized the urgency of pursuing science and liberty in order to remove the twin chains of feudalism and ignorance from the general population. Chen Hengzhe published her short story “Raindrops" in September 1920, she was the first female writer to use the new vernacular style. It was the first Chinese children's story, she published a collection of her works entitled, Raindrops, in 1928. Chen was among the first ten women to study overseas on government scholarships, she graduated from the University of Chicago. The first vernacular Chinese fiction was her short story "One Day", published 1917 in an overseas student quarterly, a year before Lu Xun's "A Madman's Diary".

Hu Shih was one of the early editors. He published a landmark article "Essay on Creating a Revolutionary `New Literature" in the April 18, 1918 issue, he wrote that the mission of this language revolution is "a literature of the national language, a national language of literature". Hu goes on to reason that for thousands of years, the written language was bound by scholars using Classical Chinese, a dead language of past generations. On the other hand, the vernacular adapts to the age, he urged authors to write in the vernacular. He further reasoned that Chinese literature had a limited range of subject matter because it used a dead language. Using a living language would open up a wealth of material for writers, he argued that massive translations of western literature would both increase the range of literature as well as serve as examples to emulate. This was a prescient essay about the modern Chinese language. Hu Shih was an important figure in the transformation of the modern Chinese written and printed language.

In the July 15 issue, Hu published an essay entitled, "Chastity". In the traditional Chinese context, this refers not only to virginity before marriage, but to women remaining chaste before they marry and after their husband's death, he wrote that this is an unequal and illogical view of life, that there is no natural or moral law upholding such a practice, that chastity is a mutual value for both men and women, that he vigorously opposes any legislation favoring traditional practices on chastity. Hu Shih wrote a short play on the subject; these are examples of Hu Shih's progressive views. They were quite radical at that time, only a short six years after the overthrow of the Chinese imperial system; that epic event, the Xinhai Revolution, developed two branches in the 1920s, the Nationalist and Chinese communist parties. He tried to focus the editorial policy on literature. Chen Duxiu and others insisted on addressing political issues. Hu was a lifelong establ

West Essex Trail

The West Essex Trail is an Essex County park, situated on the former right-of-way of the Caldwell Branch of the old Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, in Verona, New Jersey, Cedar Grove, New Jersey. Distinguishing features of this rail trail include a trestle bridge 20 feet above the Peckman River, the abandoned Essex County Hospital Center. Acquired in 1985 through Green Acre funding, the 2.84 mile trail runs from the Passaic County line near the Lenape Trail, southwest through the Cedar Grove Community Park by the Peckman River, across Route 23, across Durrell Street next to the former Bahr Lumber, across Fairview Avenue, past Verona High School, ending at Arnold Way. Public debate delayed the County acquisition long enough for the railroad company to sell off some intervening parcels preventing the county from extending the trail as far as Grover Cleveland Park in Caldwell, as planned; the Lenape Indian Trail crosses the West Essex Trail near the Passaic/Essex County line. Essex County Parks, West Essex Trail

Will Hooley

William John E. Hooley is a rugby union player who plays fly-half for Bedford Blues and the United States men's national team. Hooley played for the Exeter Chiefs, Birmingham Moseley, the Northampton Saints. Hooley previously represented England at the international level with two age-grade sides. Will Hooley was born in Cambridge, grew up playing for Cambridge Rugby Club mini and youth level teams. Hooley attended St John's College School and The Leys School, began playing at the academy level with the Northampton Saints. Hooley plays for Bedford Blues having signed for them from Exeter Chiefs for the 2017-18 season. In March 2018, it was announced that Hooley had signed a one-year contract extension with the Blues, through the 2018–19 season. Hooley joined the Exeter Chiefs from fellow Premiership team Northampton Saints in 2015, making his debut against Clermont Auvergne in the European Rugby Champions Cup. Hooley first represented England at the international level playing for the England national under-18 rugby union team.

In 2013, he represented England in the World Rugby Under 20 Championship and was part of the winning team in the 2013 IRB Junior World Championship. In 2018, Hooley was named to the United States national rugby union team, with whom he qualifies through his American grandmother, for the 2018 Americas Rugby Championship. Hooley made his debut for the Eagles on 3 February 2018, appearing as a substitute, in an uncapped 17–10 victory over Argentina XV. Hooley earned his first cap for the Eagles on 10 February 2018, again appearing as a substitute, in a 29–10 victory over Canada


Freespire is a community-driven Linux distribution owned by PC/Open Systems LLC. It is derived from Linspire and is composed of free, open source software, while providing users the choice of including proprietary software including multimedia codecs, device drivers and application software. Freespire 1.0 was based on Debian. Linspire was bought by Xandros, who planned to switch back to Debian for future Freespire releases. On January 1, 2018, PC/Open Systems announced it had purchased Linspire from Xandros and released Freespire 3.0. While Linspire 7 is available for $79.99, Freespire 3.0 is free. In August 2005, a distribution Live CD based on Linspire's source pools named Freespire hit the web by accident; this distribution was not produced or released by Linspire Inc.. Freespire was confused by some users to be an actual product from Linspire, at the request of Linspire the distribution adopted a development codename Squiggle and began looking for a new name. Linspire on the back of the generated publicity, offered users a "free Linspire" by using the coupon code "Freespire" until September 9, 2005.

Squiggle OS is no longer in active development. On April 24, 2006, Linspire announced its own project named "Freespire"; the new Freespire distribution was announced by Linspire President and former CEO Kevin Carmony. This follows to the model of Fedora being supported by Red Hat and the community since 2003. Novell had started a similar community project by the name of openSUSE for its SUSE Linux product line in the second half of 2005. Xandros acquired Linspire/Freespire in the Summer of 2008. Xandros had plans to keep Freespire as a community developed distribution similar to that of openSUSE and Fedora for their respective commercial distributions. Freespire 2.0.8, released on 30 November 2007, based on Ubuntu 7.04, was the final release until the distribution was revived with 3.0 in January 2018. The distribution is a Debian-based, community-driven and -supported project tied to the commercial Linspire distribution. Freespire includes proprietary elements from Linspire, such as the Click N' Run client, while other elements, which Linspire itself licenses but does not own, like the Windows Media Audio compatibility libraries, remain proprietary, closed source.

There are two versions of Freespire, one with the proprietary, closed source libraries, one, called Freespire OSS Edition, that includes open-source components. Freespire has a number of in-house programs written in Haskell and OCaml, such as its ISO image builder, its hardware detection and autoconfiguration, its package autobuilder and "Debian library", the programs managing the CGI. Linspire KDE Commercial use of copyleft works Microsoft Windows Official website Freespire at DistroWatch


The Drina is a 346 km long international river, which forms a large portion of the border between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. It is the longest tributary of the Sava River and the longest karst river in the Dinaric Alps which belongs to the Danube river watershed, its name is derived from the Roman name of the river. The Drina is formed by the confluence of the Tara and the Piva rivers, both of which flow from Montenegro and converge on the border of Bosnia and Herzegovina, at Hum and Šćepan Polje villages; the total length of the Tara river is 144 km, of which 104 km are in Montenegro, while the final 40 km are in Bosnia and Herzegovina along which form the border between the two countries in several places. The Drina flows through Bosnia and Herzegovina northward for 346 km, of which 206 km is along the border of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia, spills out into the Sava river near Bosanska Rača village in northeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina. Measured from the source of the Tara, its longer headwater, the Drina is 487 kilometers long.

The river is not navigable today, but together with the Tara it represents the main kayaking and rafting attraction in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro. However, during history, the small boats' traffic on the Drina was quite developed. Earliest written sources of the Drina boats date from the early 17th century. Traversing through this area in the second half of the 17th century, Ottoman traveler Evliya Çelebi noted that people in the Drina valley cut 40 m tall oak trees and use their trunks to make boats, by hollowing them with primitive tools and controlled fire; this type of boat is called dugout canoe. He writes that there were thousands of such boats at Zvornik, which navigated all the way to Belgrade, downstream the Drina and the Sava. Upstream from Zvornik, the boats didn't navigate. In September 2011, after local floods, an ancient boat was discovered, buried under the gravel in the Drina river, near Jelav, some 10 km north of Loznica, it is the first one in the Drina valley, discovered in one piece and in such a good shape.

The boat is 7.1 m long, 1.3 m wide and with the circumference of the back section of 4 m. When dug out, it weighted 2 tons, but after drying out for two years in natural conditions, it was reduced to 1.3 tons. After being dried, it went through the conservation process in 2013; as the local museum in Loznica had no space to exhibit such a big item, a special annex was built for the monoxyl. It is estimated that it was made between 1740 and 1760 from the trunk of an oak, 230 to 300 years old when cut. Based on the marks on it, this particular boat was most used for the transportation of the bulk cargo from one side of the river to another, as it seems to be too massive to be operated by the oars. Cuts and marks on it indicate that it was pulled over the river by the horses, it is possible that when it went out of service, it was used as the foundation of a watermill. The Drina originates between the slopes of the Maglić and Pivska planina mountains, between the villages of Šćepan Polje and Hum.

At its origin, it flows west makes a large curve to the northeast, around the Maluša mountains. Next, it flows through the villages of Kosman, Prijedjel, Dučeli, Čelikovo Polje, Trbušće, Brod and the town of Foča, it receives the Sutjeska and Bistrica rivers from the left and the Ćehotina at Foča from the right. Here the Drina carved the longest one of the several gorges on its course, the 45 km -long Suhi Dol-Biserovina gorge between the southernmost slopes of the Jahorina mountains from the north and the Kovač mountains from the south; the villages of Zlatari, Jošanica, Cvilin, Zebina Šuma, Kolovarice, Vranići, Biljin, Vitkovići and Zupčići are located in the gorge, as well as the town of Goražde. The river receives the Osanica as tributaries from the left; the Drina continues to the northeast, flowing close to the villages of Žuželo, Odžak, Kopači and Ustiprača, entering the 26 km long Međeđa gorge carved between the Vučevica mountains from the south and the southern slopes of the Devetak mountains from the north.

The narrowest part of the Međeđa gorge is Tijesno, the 8 km -long section of the gorge where the river is at its narrowest, but at its deepest. Here it receives the Prača river from the Janjina and Lim rivers from the right; the villages of Trbosilje, Međeđa and Orahovci are located in the gorge, for the most part flooded by the artificial Višegrad lake, created by the Višegrad hydroelectric power plant. At the town of Višegrad, the Drina receives the Rzav River from the right and turns northwest at the Suva Gora mountain into the Klotijevac gorge; the gorge is 38 km up to 1 km deep, carved between the mountains of Bokšanica and Zvijezda. The villages of Sase, Resnik, Đurevići and Gornje Štitarevo lie in the gorge and the Kukal river flows into the Drina from the right. At the Slap village, the Drina receives the Žepa river from the right and turns to the west, becoming a border river between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia near the village of Jagoštica; the Drina flows between the mountains of Zvijezda and Sušica and it is flooded by the artificial Lake Perućac on the northern slopes of the Tara mountain, created by the Bajina Bašta power plant.

The villages of Prohići and Osatica are located on the lake, as well

Robert van Scoyk

Robert van Scoyk was a television writer and story editor active during the Golden Age of Television from the late 1940s until the late 1990s. Beginning in New York and moving to Los Angeles in the 1960s, his credits included The Virginian, Young Maverick, Flying High, Ellery Queen and Murder, She Wrote. In 1979 Robert van Scoyk received an Edgar Allan Poe Award for the Columbo episode Murder Under Glass. Born in Dayton, Ohio, to Robert Van Scoyk and Gertrude Wardlow, he wrote for local radio before joining the United States Army Air Corps during the last months of World War II. After the war he attended Columbia and New York Universities and began his career in television by working as a pageboy at NBC studios, he married Patricia Schauder and they had two sons. She died in 1971 at age 42 and he married Leona Plotkin. At that time he was writing a column for the Dayton Daily News about life as a struggling radio and TV writer in Manhattan. New York gossip columnist Earl Wilson helped his career by recounting van Scoyk's adventures in his own column.

Van Scoyk’s first writing credit, together with partner Allan Manings, was for The Imogene Coca Show. His break came when he wrote a script for NBC's The New Faces, a revue show produced by the NBC pages in the late 1940s, he went on to write for The Ann Sothern Show, The Imogene Coca Show, U. S. Steel Hour, Philco Theatre, Armstrong Circle Theater and Kraft Theatre, as well as Ivanhoe and The Betty Hutton Show. In the late 1960s van Scoyk moved to Los Angeles where he wrote, adapted and story edited a wide range of TV series and made-for-television movies at home with comedy, musical comedy, medical drama and detective genres. In 1979 van Scoyk received an Edgar Allan Poe Award from the Mystery Writers of America for the Columbo episode Murder Under Glass, starring Peter Falk and Louis Jourdan, he is best remembered for his involvement as writer, executive producer and/or story editor for such shows as The Virginian, Young Maverick, Flying High, Ellery Queen and, for the 12 years of its 1984-96 run and after, She Wrote.

In fact for his work on this show he was profiled for the book Successful Scriptwriting, by Jurgen Wolff and Kerry Cox. Robert van Scoyk died in California on August 23, 2002 of complication from diabetes, he was 74. He was survived by his wife of 30 years, Leona Plotkin Van Scoyk, sons Robert and Matt Tyrnauer, his father Robert, sister Lois; the Robert Van Scoyk Papers are listed at the Online Archive of California. In addition to produced television scripts and ideas for produced and unproduced TV shows, the collection contains personal and professional scrapbooks, correspondence and song lyrics. Online Archive of California TV adaptation of Kiss Me, Kate starring Robert Goulet and Carol Lawrence for ABC Love, Sidney starring Tony Randall All's Fair starring Richard Crenna and Bernadette Peters His other writings were represented in anthologies including Best Short Stories of 1958, in sketches for a 1956 Broadway show called The Littlest Revue, in contributions to periodicals including Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine and The Humanist