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New Zealand

New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country has two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands, it has a total land area of 268,000 square kilometres. New Zealand is about 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, its most populous city is Auckland. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand.

In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands. In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, New Zealand Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.

Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.

It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, mapmakers began to use "North" and "South" on their maps to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.

Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to

Constantin Cantemir

Constantin or Constantine Cantemir was a Moldavian nobleman and statesman who served as voivode between 25 June 1685 and 27 March 1693. He established the Cantemir dynasty which—with interruptions—ruled Moldavia prior to the imposition of phanariot rule. Constantin was born into a Moldavian family of Crimean Tatar origin in 1612, he was created voivode of Moldavia by its Ottoman overlords in 1685, being favored over his rival Dumitraşcu Cantacuzino. Constantin was a conscientious ruler, protecting his people from rapacious tax farmers, he brought peace to his realm, but served in campaigns of the Great Turkish War against Poland and Austria. Under his rule, Moldavia was invaded once by the Nogai Tatars and once by Poland. Nonetheless, he informed the Polish and Habsburgs of Turkish designs and his sons Antioch and Demetrius, who succeeded him, would be instrumental in allying Moldavia to Russia in its first wars against the Turks. In 1691, Cantemir ordered Miron Costin, a Moldavian chronicler and man of letters, to be put to death on charges of conspiracy.

According to Neculce, Constantin was illiterate to the point of only being able to write his own signature. Nonetheless, he ensured, his grandson Antioch would serve as Russia's ambassador to Britain and France at the height of the Enlightenment, penning satires after Juvenal, translating Horace, befriending Voltaire and Montesquieu. Constantin died in 1693 at the age of 80, his son Demetrius notionally succeeded him but was passed over by the Ottomans in favor of Constantin Duca, supported by his father-in-law, the Wallachian voivode Constantin Brâncoveanu. Khan Temir Chisholm, Hugh, ed. "Cantemir", Encyclopædia Britannica, 5, Cambridge University Press, p. 209 Marek, Miroslav. "Genealogy of the Cantemir family". Genealogy. EU

William Brymer (politician)

William Ernest Brymer was a Conservative politician who sat in the House of Commons in two stages between 1874 and 1906. Brymer was born at Fordingbridge, Hampshire the son of John Brymer of Burgate House and his wife Eliza Mary Tugwell, only daughter of George Tugwell of Crowe Hall, near Bath, he was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. He was a J. P. for Dorset, a captain in the Dorset Yeomanry Cavalry. He was patron of the rectories of Charlton Mackrell and Child Okeford and the vicarage of Puddletown, Dorset, he was a prominent Freemason, being a Deputy Provincial Grand Master, Grand Superintendent of the Province and Provincial Grand Mark Mason. In the 1874 general election Brymer was elected Member of Parliament for Dorchester and held the seat until it was replaced under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, he was High Sheriff of Dorset in 1887. In 1891, Brymer was elected Member of Parliament for South Dorset and held the seat until 1906. Brymer lived at Ilsington House in Puddletown.

He died at Jerez, Spain, at the age of 69, he had gone to Spain to recuperate after having health problems but died of bronchitis with complications. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by William Brymer