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New Zealand EF class locomotive

The New Zealand EF class locomotive is a class of 22 25 kV 50 Hz AC electric locomotives that operate on the North Island Main Trunk between Palmerston North and Te Rapa in New Zealand. They are the only class of electric locomotives in revenue service in New Zealand; the EF class was built by Brush Traction in Loughborough, United Kingdom between 1986 and 1988 to run on the new electrified central section of the NIMT. The locomotives, at 3,000 kilowatts, are the most powerful locomotives to operate in New Zealand, the design of the class has been used in designing other electric locomotives overseas, including the Le Shuttle Eurotunnel Class 9 electric locomotives that operate in the Channel Tunnel between the United Kingdom and France; the NIMT is a 681-kilometre long rail line that links New Zealand's capital Wellington and New Zealand's largest city Auckland, is one of the major backbones of the country's rail network. The line was completed in 1908 and opened the following year, included various engineering feats on the central section between Hamilton and Palmerston North, including the Raurimu Spiral and numerous viaducts – five of which are over 70 metres high.

Electrification of the NIMT was first proposed as early as 1918 due to coal shortages during World War I, was proposed in the 1950s when diesel locomotives started to replace steam. The section between Wellington and Paekakariki was electrified in 1938 at 1500 V DC to prevent steam build-up in the long Tawa tunnels under the Wellington hills and to provide banking on the steep seaside section from Paekakariki up to Pukerua Bay; this electrification has since been extended further north to Paraparaumu in 1983 and again to Waikanae in 2011. Following the oil shocks of the 1970s, the National government, led by Prime Minister Robert Muldoon, launched the "Think Big" energy development projects. One of the projects involved the electrification of the 411-kilometre central section of the NIMT between Palmerston North and Te Rapa; this section was chosen for the topography of the line between these two cities, the advantages electric locomotives had over diesel in this area. The 2,050-kilowatt DX class diesel-electric locomotives the mainstay of the NIMT and only introduced themselves, could handle 720-tonne freight trains on the section, but could only average 27 kilometres per hour when climbing the 1 in 52 gradient of the Raurimu Spiral.

A more powerful locomotive however, in this case an electric locomotive, could haul a 900-tonne freight train up the same section of track at a speed of 45 kilometres per hour. Electric trains had advantages during the 1970s oil shocks as New Zealand relied on imported oil to supply its diesel locomotives. Meanwhile, New Zealand's electricity supply is generated from renewable hydroelectricity, therefore electric trains do not have to rely on imported oil to operate; the electrification of the central section began in 1984, with the government setting aside NZ$40 million to purchase a fleet of 25 kV AC locomotives to operate the new electrified line. The contract to build 22 electric locomotives was let to Brush Traction of Loughborough, UK; the first two locomotives, numbered 30007 and 30013, arrived in 1986 and were used in the testing of the new electrification system, while the remaining 20 locomotives were introduced after the electrification of the NIMT was completed. The locomotives are able to generate a continuous power output of 3,000 kilowatts, making the class the most powerful to operate on the NZR network.

They feature the unusual wheel arrangement of Bo-Bo-Bo, used on the EW class and the DJ class. The advantage of using the Bo-Bo-Bo arrangement over the traditional Co-Co arrangement is that it provides greater flexibility for New Zealand's laid and curved tracks, resulting in less wear on the rails; the locomotives are supplied electricity from 25 kV AC overhead lines. These lines draw electricity from New Zealand's national grid at four locations along the electrified section: Bunnythorpe, Tangiwai and Hamilton; the locomotives are fitted with regenerative braking as well as regular air brakes, so the traction motors can be turned into generators when the locomotive is coasting downhill and feed electricity back into the overhead lines and the national grid. The EF class were nicknamed "Toasters" by New Zealand rail enthusiasts due to their boxy shape; the EF class were first used to haul freight trains along the central section of the NIMT. Freight trains travelling from Auckland would be diesel-hauled to Te Rapa, change there to an EF locomotive and be hauled to Palmerston North where they would be changed back to a diesel locomotive to continue to Wellington.

This remains the practice today, although trains that do not traverse the length of the central section are diesel-hauled to save switching the locomotives. Freight trains that are destined for or originate from the Marton - New Plymouth Line are diesel-hauled for 30 km section of the NIMT between Palmerston North and Marton. Prior to the Stratford–Okahukura Line being mothballed usual operating practice was for the services originating from Auckland/Hamilton and Stratford to meet at Taumarunui and exchange trains there, with an EF hauling the Hamilton-Taumarunui-Hamilton legs. With the mothballing of this line most services now run direct between Te Rapa. Electric-hauled passenger services originated due to the daylight NIMT service, the Silver Fern, utilising diesel-electric rail cars; when the locomotive-haul

Japanese embassy hostage crisis

The Japanese embassy hostage crisis began on 17 December 1996 in Lima, when 14 members of the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement took hostage hundreds of high-level diplomats and military officials and business executives who were attending a party at the official residence of the Japanese ambassador to Peru, Morihisa Aoki, in celebration of Emperor Akihito's 63rd birthday. Although speaking the crisis took place at the ambassadorial residence in the upscale district of San Isidro rather than at the embassy proper, the media and others referred to it as the "Japanese embassy" hostage crisis, and, how it is conventionally known. Foreign female hostages were released during the first night after surviving the initial shootout and hours on ground, most foreigners left after 5 days of constant death threats. After being held hostage for 126 days, the remaining dignitaries were freed on 22 April 1997, in a raid by Peruvian Armed Forces commandos, during which one hostage, two commandos, all the MRTA militants were killed.

The operation was perceived by most Peruvians to be a great success, it gained worldwide media attention. President Alberto Fujimori received much credit for saving the lives of the hostages. Reports emerged alleging that a number of the insurgents were summarily executed after surrendering. Japanese diplomat Hidetaka Ogura testified. Two of the commandos maintained that they saw Eduardo “Tito” Cruz alive and in custody before he was found with a bullet wound in his neck on the back patio; these findings prompted civil suits against military officers by the relatives of dead militants. In 2005, the Attorney General's office in Peru allowed the hearings were ordered. After public outcry in defense of the commandos and after military judicial review, all charges were dropped. However, further investigations were referred to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, which in 2015 ruled that Cruz had been the victim of an extrajudicial killing and that the Peruvian government violated international law by depriving Cruz of his life without due process.

The court named 25-year-old Victor Peceros and 17-year-old Herma Melendez as victims deprived of their human rights. The surprise ambush and seizure of the Japanese ambassador's residency was the highest profile operation of the MRTA in its 15-year history; the attack propelled Peru in general, the MRTA in particular, into the world spotlight for the duration of the crisis. Guests reported that the guerrillas blasted a hole in the garden wall of the ambassador's residence at around 8:20 pm the night of 17 December; the Japanese ambassador's residence had been fortified by the Japanese government. It was surrounded by a 12-foot wall, had grates on all windows, bullet-proof glass in many windows, doors built to withstand the impact of a grenade, it was, therefore. The news of the MRTA's daring assault on the ambassador's residence caused the Lima Stock Exchange to close three hours early, as domestic stocks plummeted. One newspaper political columnist commented, "It is a setback of at least four years.

We've returned to being a country subject to terror." The news came during a period of low popularity for President Fujimori, who had until been credited with restoring peace to the country after terrorist activity ceased through the country during his first presidential term. On 22 December, Fujimori made his first public announcement on the hostage-taking In a televised four-minute speech. In his speech, he condemned the assailants, calling the MRTA assault "repugnant" and rejecting the MRTA's demands in their totality, he did not rule out an armed rescue attempt, but said that he was willing to explore a peaceful solution to the situation. He publicly indicated that he did not need help from foreign security advisors, following speculation circulated that Peru was turning to foreign governments for assistance. Fujimori made his speech shortly after MRTA leader Néstor Cerpa Cartolini announced that he would release any hostages who were not connected to the Peruvian government. During the months that followed, the rebels released all but 72 of the men.

In the days following the takeover, the International Committee of the Red Cross acted as an intermediary between the government and members of the guerrilla group. Among the hostages were high officials of Peru's security forces, including Máximo Rivera, the chief of Peru's anti-terrorist police, DIRCOTE, former chief Carlos Domínguez. Other hostages included Alejandro Toledo, who became President of Peru, Javier Diez Canseco, a socialist Peruvian congressman; the 24 Japanese hostages included younger brother. The insurgents made a series of demands: The release of their members from prisons around Peru. A revision of the government's neoliberal free market reforms, they singled out Japan's foreign assistance program in Peru for criticism, arguing that this aid benefited only a narrow segment of society. They protested against what they claimed were cruel and inhumane conditions in Peru's jails. Leftist politician Javier Diez Canseco was among the 38 men who were released shortly after the hostages were taken.

He called for the government to negotiate a settlement. Diez Canseco said that the hostage-takers are "18 to 20 years old, maybe 21... They're a group of commandos. I think, they don't want to die."Upon being

Palamu Forts

The Palamu Kila are two ruined forts located around 20 kilometres south east of the city of Daltonganj in the Indian state of Jharkhand. The old fort in the plains, which existed before the Chero dynasty, was built by the King of Raksel dynasty; these are two large forts located deep in the forests of Palamu on Sher Shah Suri path near Daltonganj. The original fort in the plains and the other on an adjoining hill are attributed to the kings of the Chero dynasty; the fort in the plains had defences on three main gates. The New fort was constructed by Raja Medini Ray; the architecture is Islamic in style. The Palamu Kila are two ruined forts located around south east of the city of Daltonganj in the Indian state of Jharkhand; these are large forts located deep in the forests of Palamu near Daltonganj The first fort is in the plains and the second fort is in an adjoining hill, both overlook the meandering Auranga River in Palamu. The river looks like jagged teeth due to extensive rock exposures in the bed of the river which may be the source of the name'Palamau', meaning the "place of the fanged river."

The forts are in a densely forested area of the Betla National Park. The forts lie about 20 kilometres from Daltonganj; the old fort in the plains, which existed before the Chero dynasty, was built by the King of Raksel Rajput Dynasty. However, it was during the reign of King Medini Ray, who ruled for thirteen years from 1658 to 1674 in Palamau; the old fort was rebuilt into a defensive structure. Ray was a Chero tribal king, his rule extended to areas in South Hazaribagh. He attacked Doisa defeated the Nagvanshi Raja Raghunath Shah. With war bounty he constructed the lower fort close to Satbarwa, this fort became famous in the history of the district; the Mughals, during the reign of Emperor Akbar, under the command of Raja Man Singh, invaded in 1574, but subsequently his contingent at Palamau was defeated in 1605 following the death of Akbar. During the reign of jahangir, the Subedar of Patna and Palamau tried to impose a tribute on the Raksel rulers which they refused to pay; this resulted in three attacks in series by the Mughals.

The rulers of Raksel Rajput Dynasty in 1613 CE were invaded by the Chero under Bhagwant Rai with the aid of Rajput chiefs, the ancestors of The Thakurais of Ranka and Chainpur. When the Raksel Raja Man Singh ruling Palamu was out of capital Bhagwant Rai seized power. On hearing this news Raja Man Singh made no efforts to regain his kingdom of Palamu, retreated into Surguja and established the Raksel Rajput Dynasty of Surguja. Surguja State was one of the main princely states of Central India during the period of the British Raj. Daud Khan, who launched his invasion starting from Patna on 3 April 1660, attacked south of Gaya district and arrived at the Palamu Forts on 9 December 1660; the terms of surrender and payment of tribute were not acceptable to the Cheros. Following this, Khan mounted a series of attacks on the forts. Cheros defended the forts but both forts were occupied by Daud Khan, the Cheros fled to the jungles. Hindus were driven out, the temples were destroyed, Islamic rule imposed.

Following the death of Medini Ray there was rivalry within the royal family of the Chero dynasty which lead to its downfall. Chitrajeet Rai's nephew Gopal Rai betrayed him and facilitated the Patna Council of the British East India Company to attack the fort; when the new fort was attacked by Captain Camac on 28 January 1771, the Chero soldiers fought valiantly but had to retreat to the old fort on account of water shortage. This facilitated the British army to occupy the new fort located on a hill without any struggle; this location was strategic and enabled the British to mount canon supported attacks on the old fort. The Cheros fought valiantly with their own canons but the old fort was besieged by the British on 19 March 1771; the fort was occupied by the British in 1772. The Cheros and Kharwars again rebelled against the British in 1882 but the attack was repulsed; the old fort was built over an area of 3 square kilometres. It has three gates with rampart of 7 feet width; the fort has been constructed with surkhi mortar.

The external boundary walls of the fort, all along its length, is built with "lime-surki sun-baked bricks", which are flat and long bricks. The central gate is the largest of three gates and is known as "Singh Dwar"; the courtroom, located in the middle of the fort, is a two-storied edifice, used by the king to hold court. The fort had an aqueduct bringing water to meet the needs of people and animals within the fort but now seen in a ruined state. After entering from the second gate, the fort had three Hindu temples which were modified into mosques when Daud Khan occupied the fort after defeating Medini Ray. On the south-western part of the fort, surrounded by hills on three sides, there is a small stream called the Kamadah Jheel, used by the women of the royal family for their daily ablutions. Between this stream and the fort there are two watch towers located on the hilltop which were used to track any enemy intrusions. Of these two towers, one tower houses a small temple of a goddess called Devi Mandir.

The fort, situated on a hill to the west of the old fort was constructed by Medini Ray in 1673, two years before his demise. This fort

Agustín Sosa

Agustín Alejandro Sosa is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a defender for Talleres de Remedios de Escalada on loan from Temperley. Sosa's career started with Temperley, his first senior appearance arrived on 26 February 2018 during a goalless draw in the Primera División with Newell's Old Boys, the first of a further six appearances in the 2017–18 season as the club were relegated to Primera B Nacional. In March 2018, Sosa received a call-up from Sebastián Beccacece for training with the Argentina U19s. Sosa's brothers and Leandro, are fellow professional footballers; as of 29 March 2019. Agustín Sosa at Soccerway

Shiva's Headband

Shiva’s Headband, an early Texas psychedelic rock band, formed in Austin in 1967. Original members included fiddler Spencer Perskin and his wife Susan, keyboardist Shawn Siegel, guitarists Kenny Parker and Bob Tom Reed and drummer Jerry Barnett; the group was the house band at a late 1960s Austin nightclub. The band is credited with a significant role in the founding of the Armadillo World Headquarters; the band's first royalty check hired Eddie Wilson as manager. Shiva's Headband was the first band to perform there. Throughout the 1960s and early 1970s, the band played with touring acts such as Spirit, Steppenwolf, ZZ Top, Janis Joplin, Canned Heat and Steve Miller. Austin psychedelic bands contemporary to Shiva's Headband included The 13th Floor Elevators and The Conqueroo. Shiva's Headband's Capitol Records album, Take Me To The Mountains, produced by bandleader Spencer Perskin with Fred Catero, became the first record released nationally by an Austin-based rock band; the album cover featured artwork by Jim Franklin.

In 1973, the band had an onscreen performance in the film, The Thief Who Came to Dinner, a Houston-based production that starred Ryan O'Neal and Jacqueline Bisset. In 1999, long-time bandleader Spencer Perskin was voted " Austin's Old hippie” at Eeyore's Birthday Party, an annual Austin rite of spring. In 2005, Perkins released Magic Feather, again with artwork by Jim Franklin; the band still performs in Austin. Kaleidoscoptic/There's No Tears, Sonobeat Records, 1968 Kaleidescoptic /Song For Peace, Ignite Records, 1968 Take Me To The Mountains / Lose The Blues, Armadillo Records, 1970 Take Me to the Mountains, Capitol Records, 1969 Coming to a Head, Armadillo Records, 1971 Psychedelic Yesterday, Ape Records, 1977 In the Primo of Life, Moontower Sounds, 1983 The Thief Who Came to Dinner, Directed by Bud Yorkin, 1973 Music of Austin Official Shiva's Headband website Shiva's Headband fansite Photos of Shiva's Headband Margaret Moser, Austin Chronicle article "Psychedelic Blues Pioneer Spencer Perskin of Shivas Headband" by Thorne Dreyer, The Rag Blog, May 30, 2012.

Includes podcast of Dreyer's May 5, 2012, Rag Radio interview with Spencer Perskin, Susan Perskin, Shawn Siegel -- with performance

Chris Amini

Christopher Ralai Amini known as Chris Amini, is a Papua New Guinean cricketer. A right-handed batsman and right-arm medium pace bowler, he has played for the Papua New Guinea national cricket team since 2005. Born in Port Moresby to Charles and Kune Amini in 1984, Chris Amini first played for Papua New Guinea at Under-19 level in the 2002 Under-19 World Cup in New Zealand and the same tournament in Bangladesh in 2004. Whilst he had played for a combined East Asia Pacific team in the Australian National Country Cricket Championships in 2004 and 2005, his debut for the senior Papua New Guinea team came when he played in the repêchage tournament of the 2005 ICC Trophy. Papua New Guinea won the tournament after beating Fiji in the final; this qualified them for the 2005 ICC Trophy in Ireland in which Amini played, making his List A debut. He most represented his country at Division Three of the World Cricket League in Darwin in 2007 and has since played for an East Asia-Pacific Emerging Players team in Australia.

He made his One Day International debut for Papua New Guinea on 8 November 2014 against Hong Kong in Australia. Chris Amini comes from a cricketing family, his father and grandfather both captained Papua New Guinea whilst his mother and aunt have played for the Papua New Guinea women's team. Two of his brothers have played for the Papua New Guinea Under-19s team