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New Zealand House of Representatives

The New Zealand House of Representatives is a component of the New Zealand Parliament, along with the Sovereign. The House passes all laws, provides ministers to form a Cabinet, supervises the work of the Government, it is responsible for adopting the state's budgets and approving the state's accounts. The House of Representatives is a democratically elected body whose members are known as members of Parliament. There are 120 members, though this number can be higher if there is an overhang. MPs are elected every three years in a mixed system of district voting and party list voting. A government is formed from the coalition with the majority of MPs. If no majority is possible a minority government can be formed with a confidence and supply arrangement. If a government is unable to maintain the confidence of the House an early general election can be called; the House of Representatives was created by the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852, an Act of the British Parliament, which established a bicameral legislature.

Parliament received full control over all New Zealand affairs in 1947 with the passage of the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act. The debating chamber of the House of Representatives is located inside Parliament House in Wellington, the capital city. Sittings of the House are open to the public, but the House may at any time vote to sit in private. Proceedings are broadcast through Parliament TV, AM Network and Parliament Today; the New Zealand House of Representatives takes the British House of Commons as its model. The New Zealand Parliament is based, on the Westminster system; as a democratic institution, the primary role of the House of Representatives is to provide representation for the people and to pass legislation on behalf of the people. The House of Representatives plays an important role in responsible government; the Government of New Zealand, directed by the Cabinet, draws its membership from the House. A government is formed when a party or coalition can show that it has the "confidence" of the House, meaning the support of a majority of members of parliament.

This can involve making agreements among several parties. Some may join a coalition government, while others may stay outside the government but agree to support it on confidence votes; the prime minister is answerable to, must maintain the support of, the House of Representatives. In the event that the House of Representatives loses confidence in the Cabinet, therefore the government, it can dissolve the government if a vote of no-confidence is passed; the current government is a minority coalition government consisting of the Labour Party and New Zealand First, with confidence and supply provided by the Green Party. These parties collectively have 63 members in the House, thus Labour leader Jacinda Ardern commands the support of the House; the House of Representatives consists of 120 members, who bear the title "Member of Parliament". They were known as "Members of the House of Representatives" until the passing of the Parliamentary and Executive Titles Act 1907 when New Zealand became a Dominion, earlier as "Members of the General Assembly".

All members are democratically elected, enter the House following a general election. Once sworn in, members continue to serve until the next dissolution of Parliament and subsequent general election, which must take place at least every three years—although early general elections are possible at the discretion of the prime minister in the event that a minority government is unable to retain the confidence of the House. If a member dies or resigns, his or her seat falls vacant, it is possible for the House to expel a member, but this power is exercised only in cases of criminal activity or other serious misconduct. Electorate vacancies arising between general elections are filled through by-elections. If a list member's seat becomes vacant, the next available person on their party's list fills the position. List members are free to stand in electorate by-elections and in the case of successful contest their own seat will be filled'in turn'. To be a member of Parliament a person must be a New Zealand citizen at the time of the election and not be disqualified from enrolling to vote.

Party list candidates are always nominated by political parties. The 52nd New Zealand Parliament is the current sitting of the House, meeting since 7 November 2017, it consists of five parliamentary parties represented by 120 members. Of these current members, 46 are women—the highest number since women were first allowed to stand for Parliament in 1919. Based on British tradition, the longest continuously serving member in the House holds the unofficial title "Father of the House"; the current Father of the House is Nick Smith, first elected in 1990. Smith inherited the title on 14 March 2018, following the departure of former Prime Minister Bill English, who had entered the House in 1990; the House started with 37 members in 1854, with numbers progressively increasing to 95 by 1882, before being reduced to 74 in

The Afghan

The Afghan is a 2006 thriller novel by Frederick Forsyth. A joint operation by MI6, the CIA, Pakistan's ISI against al Qaeda operatives in Pakistan uncovers documents concerning a planned terrorist attack codenamed "al-Isra"; the cryptic nature of the codename triggers further investigations authorised at the most senior level. Now eager to learn more about al Qaeda's plans for al-Isra, the three agencies scramble to find out information through their various contacts, including inserting an operative close enough into the terror network's confidence. Middle Eastern scholar Dr. Terry Martin, part of a special committee studying the Koran for references to al-Isra, accidentally mentions that his elder brother Mike, a retired Paras and SAS officer, can pass for an Afghan native; the elder Martin has a near-perfect command of Arabic and Pashto, based from his tour of duty in Afghanistan supporting the Mujahideen. Interested with Mike's appearance, the CIA and MI6 recall him to infiltrate al-Qaeda by assuming the identity of Izmat Khan, a Taliban commander now detained at Guantanamo Bay.

It is revealed that Khan and Mike share a common past – he saved the wounded Khan from an attack by Soviet helicopters and brought him to a clinic run by Ayman al Zawahiri, where he meets "the sheikh", Osama Bin Laden. A wayward US missile, launched as part of a strike in retaliation for the 1998 East Africa bombings hits a slope in the Tora Bora, resulting in a landslide that buries Khan's village and his entire family, he is caught after the Battle of Qala-i-Jangi. Mike is trained to assume Khan's identity while the real Khan is slated for repatriation to Afghanistan. CIA operatives kidnap Khan and bring him to a secret safehouse in Washington State, with Mike in his place; the ISI engineer Mike's escape after his arrival in Afghanistan and he makes his way back to al Qaeda safe houses in Pakistan and the UAE, where he is accepted as a compatriot after extensive verification by al-Qaeda representatives. The interrogation delves into every chapter of Khan's life, which includes showing his old wound in Afghanistan.

Now accepted into al-Qaeda's fold as Izmat Khan, Mike volunteers to join the operating team for al-Isra. Part of the plan calls for an al-Qaeda agent posing as a businessman to charter a freighter and a tanker carrying liquid petroleum gas; the freighter is captured by pirates and sank with all hands killed while the tanker is brought to a secret place in Borneo and refitted as the freighter. Another group hijacks a cargo ship in the Caribbean. Martin alerts his handlers to the general nature of the threat, but is left incommunicado for several weeks as the ship steams to the US East Coast through the Indian Ocean. Meanwhile, an aircraft on approach to McChord Air Force Base develops engine trouble and accidentally crashes into the CIA safehouse, blasting open Khan's cell and giving him an opportunity to escape his captors. A Special Forces team chases Khan across the Cascades and kills him as he uses a public phone in Canada to call his allies; the tanker reaches the mid-Atlantic, where a G8 summit is being held on the Queen Mary 2.

Martin learns that the terrorists intend to release and ignite the gas on board the tanker, which could incinerate the liner as it passed within range. Martin's last-minute heroism, quick reflexes and self-sacrifice prevent a tragedy; the Afghan can be seen as a sequel with the appearance of the Martin brothers. However, due to unexplained reasons, Forsyth rewrote the brothers' backstory. In the original book, their parents got married in Iraq in 1952 with Mike being born in 1953 and Terry in 1955. In The Afghan, the couple waited ten years before deciding to have children; as a result, Mike's military record is adjusted ten years forward, with his career now including stints in Northern Ireland and Afghanistan. The story relationship with Fist ends when Mike escapes Iraq and is killed by Foreign Legionnaires patrolling the border. A CIA official involved with planning Mike's mission drops hints about the al-Isra attack a repeat of the 1917 explosion in Halifax, Nova Scotia; the book reaped mixed reviews.

Kirkus Reviews labelled the book as a "post 9/11 apocalyptic western."

Trnava

Trnava is a city in western Slovakia, 47 km to the north-east of Bratislava, on the Trnávka river. It is the capital of a kraj and of an okres, it is the seat of a Roman Catholic archbishopric. The city has a historic center; because of the many churches within its city walls, Trnava has been called "parva Roma", i.e. "Little Rome", or more the "Slovak Rome". The name of the city is derived from the name of the creek Trnava, it comes from the Old Slavic/Slovak word tŕň. Many towns in Central Europe have a similar etymology including Trnovo in Slovakia as well as Tarnów, Veliko Tarnovo and Tyrnavos among others. In the Hungarian language, the original name had evolved into Tyrna which influenced later German and Latin forms; when it developed into an important market town, it received the Hungarian name of Szombathely referring to the weekly market fairs held on Saturdays. However, this name was only used by the royal chamber, as is indicated by the adoption of the Slovak name rather than the Hungarian name by German newcomers after the Mongol invasion.

The varieties of the name in different languages include German: Tyrnau. Permanent settlements on the city's territory are known from the Neolithic period onwards. During the Middle Ages, an important market settlement arose here at the junction of two important roads – from Bohemia to Hungary and from the Mediterranean to Poland; the first written reference to Trnava dates from 1211. In 1238, Trnava was the first town in Slovakia to be granted a town charter by the king; the former agricultural center became a center of manufacture and crafts. By the early 13th century, the king of Hungary had invited numerous Germans to settle in Trnava. At the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries, a part of Trnava was enclosed by long city walls; the original Slovak market settlement and the Germans stayed behind this wall. Trnava was the place of many important negotiations: Charles I, the king of Hungary, signed here a currency agreement with the Czech King John of Luxemburg in 1327, King Louis I signed a friendship agreement with Emperor Charles IV there in 1360.

The temporary German majority in Trnava's population yielded in favour of the Slovaks during the campaigns undertaken by the Czech Hussites in the 15th century. In April 1430, the Hussites penetrated close to the town and defeated the Hungarian army in the Battle of Trnava. However, they withdrew to Moravia. On 24 Jun 1432 a small group of Hussites masked as tradesmen entered the town, overcame the guards in the night and captured the town without a fight, they made Trnava the center of their campaigns in northwestern Kingdom of Hungary from 1432 to 1435. The town, along with the rest of the territory of present-day Slovakia, gained importance after the conquest of most of what is today Hungary by the Ottoman Empire in 1541, when Trnava became the see of the Archbishopric of Esztergom; the cathedrals of the archbishopric were the Saint John the Baptist Cathedral and the Saint Nicholas Cathedral in the town. Many ethnic Hungarians fleeing from the Turks moved to the town after 1541 from present-day Hungary.

In the 16th and the 17th century, Trnava was an important center of the Counter-Reformation in the Kingdom of Hungary. The Archbishop Nicolas Oláh invited the Jesuits to Trnava in 1561 in order to develop the municipal school system. Subsequently, he had a seminary opened in 1566 and in 1577 Trnava's priest Nicolas Telegdi founded a book-printing house in the town; the first Catholic Bible translation into Hungarian was completed in the town by the Jesuit György Káldi, born there in 1573. The 17th century was characterized by many anti-Habsburg uprisings in the country – these revolts of Stephen Bocskay, Gabriel Bethlen, George I Rákóczi, Imre Thököly negatively affected Trnava's life. On 26 December 1704 Francis II Rákóczi's army suffered a decisive defeat against the Imperial Army, led by Sigbert Heister, near Trnava; the Jesuit Trnava University, the only university of the Kingdom of Hungary at that time, was founded by Archbishop Péter Pázmány. Founded to support the Counter-Reformation, Trnava University soon became a center of Slovak education and literature, since most of the teachers, one half of the students and the majority of the town's inhabitants were Slovaks.

Pázmány himself was instrumental in promoting the usage of the Slovak language instead of the Czech language and had his work "Isteni igazságra vezető kalauz" and several of his sermons translated into Slovak. From the late 18th century Trnava became a center of the literary and artistic Slovak National Revival; the first standard codification of the Slovak language was based on the Slovak dialect used in the region of Trnava. During the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 Richard Guyon's army fought here with an Austrian army on 14 December, in 1848; the importance of the town decreased in the early 19th century, when the university was moved to