William Ferguson Massey known as Bill Massey, was an Irish-born politician in New Zealand who served as the 19th Prime Minister of New Zealand from May 1912 to May 1925. He was the founding leader of the Reform Party, New Zealand's second organised political party, from 1909 until his death. Massey was born in County Londonderry in Ireland. After migrating to New Zealand in 1870, Massey farmed near Auckland and assumed leadership in farmers' organisations, he entered parliament in 1894 as a conservative, from 1894 to 1912 was a leader of the conservative opposition to the Liberal ministries of Richard Seddon and Joseph Ward. Massey became the first Reform Party Prime Minister after he led a successful motion of no confidence against the Liberal government. Throughout his political career Massey was known for the particular support he showed for agrarian interests, as well as his opposition to organised labour, he pledged New Zealand's support for Britain during the First World War. Massey led his Reform Party through four elections, although only the 1919 election was a decisive victory over all other parties.
Following poor health in his fourth term, Massey died in office. After Richard Seddon, he is the second-longest-serving Prime Minister of New Zealand. Massey was born in 1856 into a Protestant farming family, grew up in Limavady, County Londonderry in Ireland, his father John Massey and his mother Marianne née Ferguson were tenant farmers, who owned a small property. His family arrived in New Zealand on 21 October 1862 on board the Indian Empire as Nonconformist settlers, although Massey remained in Ireland for a further eight years to complete his education. After arriving on 10 December 1870 on the City of Auckland, Massey worked as a farmhand for some years before acquiring his own farm in Mangere, south Auckland, in 1876. In 1882 Massey married Christina Allan Paul, they had seven children. Massey became more prominent in his community; this was due to his civic involvement in the school board, the debating society,and farming associations. Because of his prominence in these circles, he became involved in political debate, working on behalf of rural conservatives against the Liberal Party government of John Ballance.
William Massey was a member of the Orange Order and freemasons, espoused British Israelite ideas. In 1893 Massey stood as a candidate in the general election in the Franklin electorate, losing to the Liberal candidate, Benjamin Harris. In early 1894 he was invited to contest a by-election in the neighbouring electorate of Waitemata, was victorious. In the 1896 election he stood for the Franklin electorate, which he represented until he died in 1925. Massey joined the ranks of the independent MPs opposing the Liberal Party, led by Richard Seddon, they were poorly organised and dispirited, had little chance of unseating the Liberals. William Russell, the Leader of the Opposition, was able to command only 15 votes. Massey became opposition whip. By June 1900, following a heavy defeat at the 1899 general election, the opposition strength fell considerably; the conservative MPs could not agree on a new leader after holding their first caucus of the session. For over two years the conservatives were leaderless and many despaired of toppling the Liberal Party.
Massey, as chief whip, informally filled the role as leader and succeeded Russell as Leader of the Opposition formally in September 1903. As leader, the conservatives rallied for a time, though support for the Liberals increased markedly during the Second Boer War, leaving the conservatives devastated at the 1902 general election. Massey's political career survived the period: despite a challenge by William Herries, he remained the most prominent opponent to the Liberal Party. After Seddon's death the Liberals were led by Joseph Ward, who proved more vulnerable to Massey's attacks. In particular, Massey made gains by claiming that alleged corruption and cronyism within the civil service was ignored or abetted by the Liberal government, his conservative politics benefited him when voters grew concerned about militant unionism and the supposed threat of socialism. In February 1909, Massey announced the creation of the Reform Party from his New Zealand Political Reform League; the party was to be backed by his conservative colleagues.
In the 1911 election the Reform Party won more seats than the Liberal Party but did not gain an absolute majority. The Liberals, relying on support from independents who had not joined Reform, were able to stay in power until the following year, when they lost a vote of confidence. Massey was sworn in as Prime Minister on 10 July 1912. Two days it was reported in the press on 12 July that he had accepted the appointment of Honorary Commandant of the Auckland District of the Legion of Frontiersmen; some members of the Reform Party grew frustrated at Massey's dominance of the party. He earned the enmity of many workers with his harsh response to miners' and waterfront workers' strikes in 1912 and 1913; the use of force to deal with the strikers made Massey an object of hatred for the emerging left-wing, but conservatives supported him, saying that his methods were necessary. His association with the Legion of Frontiersmen assisted him during this period as a number of mounted units, including Levin Troop, rode to Wellington in mufti and assisted as Special Constables.
In the Levin Troop was a young Bernard Freyberg, who would shortly earn the Victoria Cross near Beaumont Ha
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style principally derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles, the work of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio. In form, neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro and maintains separate identities to each of its parts; the style is manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, in its architectural formulae as an outgrowth of some classicising features of the Late Baroque architectural tradition. Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings. In Central and Eastern Europe, the style is referred to as Classicism, while the newer revival styles of the 19th century until today are called neoclassical. Intellectually, neoclassicism was symptomatic of a desire to return to the perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome, to the more vague perception of Ancient Greek arts and, to a lesser extent, 16th-century Renaissance Classicism, a source for academic Late Baroque architecture.
Many early 19th-century neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée and Claude Nicolas Ledoux. The many graphite drawings of Boullée and his students depict spare geometrical architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe. There are Edmund Burke's conception of the sublime. Ledoux addressed the concept of architectural character, maintaining that a building should communicate its function to the viewer: taken such ideas give rise to "architecture parlante". A return to more classical architectural forms as a reaction to the Rococo style can be detected in some European architecture of the earlier 18th century, most vividly represented in the Palladian architecture of Georgian Britain and Ireland; the baroque style had never been to the English taste. Four influential books were published in the first quarter of the 18th century which highlighted the simplicity and purity of classical architecture: Vitruvius Britannicus, Palladio's Four Books of Architecture, De Re Aedificatoria and The Designs of Inigo Jones... with Some Additional Designs.
The most popular was the four-volume Vitruvius Britannicus by Colen Campbell. The book contained architectural prints of famous British buildings, inspired by the great architects from Vitruvius to Palladio. At first the book featured the work of Inigo Jones, but the tomes contained drawings and plans by Campbell and other 18th-century architects. Palladian architecture became well established in 18th-century Britain. At the forefront of the new school of design was the aristocratic "architect earl", Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington; this House was a reinterpretation of Palladio's Villa Capra, but purified of 16th century elements and ornament. This severe lack of ornamentation was to be a feature of the Palladianism. In 1734 William Kent and Lord Burlington designed one of England's finest examples of Palladian architecture with Holkham Hall in Norfolk; the main block of this house followed Palladio's dictates quite but Palladio's low detached, wings of farm buildings were elevated in significance.
This classicising vein was detectable, to a lesser degree, in the Late Baroque architecture in Paris, such as in Perrault's east range of the Louvre. This shift was visible in Rome at the redesigned façade for S. Giovanni in Laterano. By the mid 18th century, the movement broadened to incorporate a greater range of Classical influences, including those from Ancient Greece. An early centre of neoclassicism was Italy Naples, where by the 1730s, court architects such as Luigi Vanvitelli and Ferdinando Fuga were recovering classical and Mannierist forms in their Baroque architecture. Following their lead, Giovanni Antonio Medrano began to build the first neoclassical structures in Italy in the 1730s. In the same period, Alessandro Pompei introduced neoclassicism to the Venetian Republic, building one of the first lapidariums in Europe in Verona, in the Doric style. During the same period, neoclassical elements were introduced to Tuscany by architect Jean Nicolas Jadot de Ville-Issey, the court architect of Francis Stephen of Lorraine.
On Jadot's lead, an original neoclassical style was developed by Gaspare Paoletti, transforming Florence into the most important centre of neoclassicism in the peninsula. In the second half of the century, Neoclassicism flourished in Turin and Trieste. In the latter two cities, just as in Tuscany, the sober neoclassical style was linked to the reformism of the ruling Habsburg enlightened monarchs; the Rococo style remained much popular in Italy until the Napoleonic regimes, which brought a new archaeological classicism, embraced as a political statement by young, urban Italians with republican leanings. The shift to neoclassical architecture is conventionally dated to the 1750s, it first gained influence in France. In France, the movement was propelled by a generation of French art students trained in Rome, was influenced by the writings of
Monarchy of New Zealand
The monarchy of New Zealand is the constitutional system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of New Zealand. The current monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, ascended the throne on the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952. All executive authority is vested in the monarch and her assent is required for parliament to enact laws and for letters patent and Orders in Council to have legal effect. However, the monarch's authority is subject to the conventional stipulations of constitutional monarchy, her direct participation in these areas of governance is limited. Most of the related powers are instead exercised by the elected members of parliament, the ministers of the Crown drawn from amongst them, the judges and justices of the peace. Other powers vested in the monarch, such as the appointment of a prime minister, are significant, but are treated only as reserve powers and as an important security part of the role of the monarchy; the New Zealand monarchy has its roots in the British Crown, from which it has evolved to become a distinctly New Zealand institution, represented by unique symbols.
New Zealand's monarch is today a personal union where the Sovereign is head of state concurrently with 15 other countries within the Commonwealth of Nations, all being independent and the monarchy of each distinct. As a result, the current monarch is titled Queen of New Zealand and, in this capacity, her consort, other members of the royal family undertake various public and private functions across New Zealand and on behalf of the country abroad. However, the Queen is the only member of the royal family with any constitutional role. While several powers are the sovereign's alone, because she lives predominantly in the United Kingdom, most of the royal constitutional and ceremonial duties in the Realm of New Zealand are carried out by the Queen's viceregal representative, the governor-general; the role of the monarchy in New Zealand is a recurring topic of public discussion. The person, the New Zealand sovereign is shared with 15 other monarchies in the 52-member Commonwealth of Nations; the emergence of this arrangement paralleled the evolution of New Zealand nationalism following the end of the First World War and culminated in the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, since when the pan-national Crown has had both a shared and separate character, the sovereign's role as monarch of New Zealand has been distinct to his or her position as monarch of the United Kingdom.
As a result of this development, the monarchy has ceased to be an British institution, in New Zealand has become a New Zealand establishment. However, the monarchy is still inaccurately described as "British" in both legal and common language, for reasons historical, political and of convenience. Effective with the Constitution Act 1986, no British or other realm government can advise the sovereign on any matters pertinent to New Zealand, meaning that on all matters of the New Zealand state, the monarch is advised by New Zealand ministers of the Crown; as the monarch resides in the United Kingdom, one of the most important of these state duties carried out on the advice of the prime minister is the appointment of a governor-general, who performs most of the Queen's domestic duties in her absence. All royal powers in New Zealand may be carried out by both the monarch and governor-general and, in New Zealand law, the offices of monarch and governor-general are interchangeable, mention of one always including the other.
One of the first post-Second World War examples of New Zealand's status as an independent monarchy was the alteration of the monarch's title by the Royal Titles Act 1953. For the first time, the official New Zealand title mentioned New Zealand separately from the United Kingdom and the other realms, to highlight the monarch's role as Queen of New Zealand, as well as the shared aspect of the Crown throughout the realms. Since the passage of the Royal Titles Act 1974, the monarch's title in New Zealand has been Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God Queen of New Zealand and Her Other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith. Although the Queen's New Zealand title includes the phrase Defender of the Faith, neither the Queen nor the governor-general has any religious role in New Zealand; this is one of the key differences from the Queen's role in England, where she is Supreme Governor of the Church of England. Succession is, for persons born before 28 October 2011, governed by male-preference cognatic primogeniture and, for those born after 28 October 2011, by absolute primogeniture—wherein succession passes to an individual's children according to birth order, regardless of gender.
The succession is governed by the Act of Settlement 1701, Bill of Rights 1689, Royal Succession Act 2013, legislation that limits the succession to the biological, legitimate descendants of Sophia of Hanover, stipulates that the monarch cannot be a Roman Catholic and must be in communion with the Church of England upon ascending the throne. Though, via adopting the Statute of Westminster and the Imperial Laws Application Act 1988, these constitutional documents as
John Campbell (architect)
John Campbell was a Scottish architect, responsible for many government buildings in New Zealand. Born in Scotland, he travelled to New Zealand in 1882 after training in Glasgow under John Gordon. From 1883 to his retirement in 1922 he worked for the government, holding the title of Government Architect from 1909 onwards, he is most known for post offices, including those of Auckland and Wellington and two other designs reproduced across the country. In New Zealand he first worked in Dunedin. While there he was responsible for the 1896 prison also a Police Station, in the Queen Anne manner and reminiscent of Norman Shaw's New Scotland Yard, for the Dunedin Law Courts building, an adaptation of an earlier design for a railway station whose plan is a precursor of Campbell's design for the New Zealand parliament building in Wellington, he died in Wellington in 1942. Media related to John Campbell at Wikimedia Commons An architecture of empire: The government buildings of John Campbell in New Zealand
Heritage New Zealand
Heritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga is a Crown entity with a membership of around 20,000 people that advocates for the protection of ancestral sites and heritage buildings in New Zealand. It was set up through the Historic Places Act 1954 with a mission to "...promote the identification, protection and conservation of the historical and cultural heritage of New Zealand" and is an autonomous Crown entity. Its current enabling legislation is the Heritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga Act 2014, it is governed by a Board of Trustees chaired by Shonagh Kenderdine, a Māori Heritage Council chaired by Sir Tumu Te Heuheu. Past chairs include Dame Anne Salmond; the head office is in Antrim House, while regional and area offices are in Kerikeri, Tauranga, Wellington and Dunedin. It publishes the quarterly magazine New Zealand Heritage. Buildings owned by Heritage New Zealand include the Mission House, the Stone Store, the Te Waimate mission house; the New Zealand Heritage List/Rārangi Kōrero is divided into four main areas: Historic Places Historic Areas Wahi Tapu Wahi Tapu AreasThe historic places are organised in two categories: Category I - "...places of'special or outstanding historical or cultural heritage significance or value'" Category II - "...places of'historical or cultural heritage significance or value'"As of 2013, the register contains over 5,600 entries.
The Canterbury earthquakes of September 2010 and February 2011 resulted in damage to a number of historic buildings in Christchurch. Post-earthquake redevelopment has caused a significant loss of heritage buildings in Christchurch; the Māori Heritage Council sits within the New Zealand Historic Places Trust and was established by the Historic Places Act 1993. The functions of the Council include: the protection and registration of wahi tapu and wahi tapu areas assisting the Trust to develop and reflect a bicultural view in the exercise of its powers and functions providing assistance to whanau and iwi in the preservation and management of their heritage resources consideration of recommendations in relation to archaeological sites advocacy of the interests of the Trust and Council so far as they relate to Māori heritage at any public or Māori forum; as of 2013 Sir Tumu Te Heuheu is the Chair of the MHC. France - Monument historique Germany - Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz and National Heritage Sites Hong Kong - Historic building, see List of Grade I historic buildings in Hong Kong, List of Grade II historic buildings in Hong Kong and List of Grade III historic buildings in Hong Kong Netherlands - Rijksmonument United Kingdom - Listed building or Scheduled Ancient Monument United States - National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmark SAHANZ Category:New Zealand Historic Places Trust Heritage New Zealand
The Press is a daily newspaper published in Christchurch, New Zealand. It is owned by Fairfax Media. First published in 1861, the paper format for the weekday editions changed from broadsheet to compact in 2018, with only the Saturday edition retaining the larger format. James FitzGerald came to Lyttelton on the Charlotte Jane in December 1850, was from January 1851 the first editor of the Lyttelton Times, Canterbury's first newspaper. From 1853, he withdrew from the Lyttelton Times. After several years in England, he returned to Canterbury concerned about the proposed capital works programme of the provincial government, with his chief concern the proposed rail tunnel connecting Christchurch and Lyttelton, which he thought of as fiscally irresponsible, but supported by his old newspaper, the Lyttelton Times; the newspaper's editor, Crosbie Ward, made an imputation of unknown content, this spurred FitzGerald to set up The Press as a rival newspaper. FitzGerald had dinner with John Charles Watts-Russell, who put up £500 on the condition that FitzGerald would be in charge of the new newspaper.
Next, he enlisted the support of the Rev. John Raven, who organised many of the practical aspects, like organising a printer and a printing press. Other members of the early committee that organised The Press were H. P. Lance, Henry Tancred, Richard J. S. Harman; the Press was first published on 25 May 1861 from a small cottage, making it the oldest surviving newspaper in the South Island of New Zealand. The cottage belonged to Raven on land known as Raven's paddock on the west side of Montreal Street, between Worcester and Gloucester Streets, opposite the present-day Christchurch Art Gallery; the first edition was sold for sixpence. The paper continued as a weekly; the public saw FitzGerald as the proprietor of The Press, but the newspaper saw reason to publicly state that "it is not a fact that Mr FitzGerald has either pecuniary or official connexion" with it. In February 1862, an attempt was made to formalise the ownership of the paper. A deed of association for "The Proprietors of The Press" was drafted, it lists the five members of the previous committee, plus five new members: Alfred Richard Creyke, John Hall, Joseph Brittan, Isaac Cookson, James Somerville Turnbull.
The deed was not executed, but four-month FitzGerald, who had no funds, was the sole owner "through the liberality of the proprietors", as he called it later. On 13 June 1863, the first part of Samuel Butler's Erewhon appeared in The Press in an article signed with the pseudonym Cellarius and headed "Darwin among the Machines."In 1905, The Press purchased a block of the Cathedral Square site for £4,000. The Board purchased the right of way and what was going to be the original Theatre Royal site from the Theatre Royal Syndicate for £5000; the Gothic part of the Press building was built starting in 1907 and the Press staff shifted into it in February 1909 from their Cashel Street premises. In the 1930s, The Press began to seek solutions to the slow delivery times of the newspaper to the West Coast. Roads at the time were difficult, the New Zealand Railways Department was unwilling to reschedule any of its ordinary passenger trains to operate at the early morning times desired by The Press as patronage would have been uneconomic, freight trains did not provide a desirable measure of swiftness.
Accordingly, The Press was willing to subsidise the construction and operation of two small Leyland diesel railbuses to carry the newspapers by rail at a desirable time. These little railbuses began service on 3 August 1936 and left Christchurch at 2:20 am, travelling down the Midland Line to reach Greymouth at 6:40 am and continue along the Ross Branch as far as Hokitika, arriving just before 8:00 am; this provided quicker delivery of the newspaper than was possible. However, these railbuses were intended to only be a temporary measure and they were replaced by the much larger Vulcan railcars as soon as they arrived in New Zealand in the early 1940s. In February 2011, The Press main building in central Christchurch was badly damaged in the 2011 Christchurch earthquake. All production was operated from their printing plant near Christchurch Airport until June 2012, when the central Christchurch building was rebuilt and upgraded, it was one of the first buildings in the Christchurch CBD to be operational.
The newspaper publishes Monday to Saturday. The community newspapers—Mid Canterbury Herald, The Christchurch Mail, Northern Outlook and Central Canterbury News—are published by The Press and are free. Today, the newspaper is a member of the four main daily newspapers, circulating over 80,000 papers per day through the South Island; the Press won the Best New Zealand Newspaper award and picked up Best Daily Newspaper with a circulation over 25,000 at the 2006 Qantas Media Awards and won the same award again in 2007. It is the first time since 1991, it won several other awards including best-in-field awards for its "Zest" and "Drive" sections. In 2011, The Press won Best Design at the Canon Media Awards, Best Breaking News Coverage for thepress.co.nz for the coverage on 22 February earthquake in Christchurch. The Press claimed Newspaper of the Year at the PANPA awards for the 25,000 – 90,000 circulation category. Along with other Fairfax Media publications, The Press changed the format of its weekday editions from broadsheet to com
Cabinet of New Zealand
The Cabinet of New Zealand is the New Zealand Government's body of senior ministers, responsible to the New Zealand Parliament. Cabinet meetings, chaired by the prime minister, occur once a week. Though not established by any statute, Cabinet has significant power in the New Zealand political system and nearly all bills proposed by Cabinet in Parliament are enacted; the New Zealand Cabinet follows the traditions of the British cabinet system. It operates as a collegial body with collective responsibility. While Cabinet is responsible to Parliament for making policy decisions, Cabinet discussions are confidential and are not disclosed to the public apart from the announcement of decisions. All ministers in Cabinet serve as members of the Executive Council, the body tasked with advising the governor-general in the exercise of his or her formal constitutional functions. Outside Cabinet, there are a number of non-Cabinet ministers, responsible for a specific policy area and reporting directly to a senior Cabinet minister.
Ministers outside Cabinet are part of Cabinet committees and will attend Cabinet meetings which concern their portfolios. Therefore, although operating outside of Cabinet directly, these ministers do not lack power and influence as they are still much part of the decision making process. Cabinet is not established by any statute or constitutional document but exists purely by long-established constitutional convention; this convention carries sufficient weight for many official declarations and regulations to refer to Cabinet, a government department—the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet—is responsible for supporting it. Although Cabinet lacks any direct legislative framework for its existence, the Cabinet Manual has become the official document which governs its functions, on which its convention rests; the structure of Cabinet has as its basis the formal institution known as the Executive Council, the body tasked with advising the governor-general in the exercise of his or her formal constitutional functions.
Most ministers hold membership of both bodies, but some executive councillors—known as "ministers outside Cabinet"—do not attend Cabinet. The convention of members of the Executive Council meeting separately from the Governor began during Edward Stafford's first tenure as Premier. Stafford, a long-time advocate of responsible government in New Zealand, believed the colonial government should have full control over all its affairs, without the intervention of the Governor; because the Governor chaired the Executive Council, Stafford intentionally met with his ministers without the Governor present. The lack of formal legislation establishing Cabinet leaves the powers of its members only loosely defined. Cabinet directs and controls policy and is responsible to Parliament, it has significant influence over lawmaking. Convention regarding Cabinet's authority has considerable force, proves strong enough to bind its participants. Theoretically, each minister operates independently, having received a ministerial warrant over a certain field from the Crown.
But the governor-general can dismiss a minister at any time, conventionally on the advice of the prime minister, so ministers are obliged to work within a certain framework. The classic view of Cabinet Government was laid out by Walter Bagehot in The English Constitution, in which he described the prime minister as the primus‐inter‐pares within Cabinet. Cabinet itself acts as the accepted forum for establishing this framework. Ministers will jointly discuss the policy which the government as a whole will pursue, ministers who do not exercise their respective powers in a manner compatible with Cabinet's decision risk losing those powers; this has become known as the doctrine of collective responsibility. Collective responsibility is a constitutional convention; the first principle is unanimity, where members of Cabinet must publicly support decisions and defend them in public, regardless on any personal views on the matter. Secondly, the confidentiality limb means; this allows for open and explicit conversation and debate on the issues Cabinet chooses to look at.
The final principle is confidence, where Cabinet and executive government must have the confidence of the House of Representatives. If there is no government, the Governor General has the ability to intervene, exercising prerogative powers, to find a government which does have confidence. Problems arise. Since ministerial appointments and dismissals are in practice in the hands of the prime minister, Cabinet can not directly initiate any action against a prime minister who disagrees with their government's policy. On the other hand, a prime minister who tries to act against concerted opposition from their Cabinet risks losing the confidence of their party colleagues. An example is former Prime Minister David Lange, who publicly spoke against a tax reform package, sponsored by then-Finance Minister Roger Douglas and supported by Cabinet. Lange dismissed Douglas, but when the Cabinet supported Douglas against Lange, Lange himself resigned as prime minister; the doctrine of collective responsibility has changed since the introduction of the mixed-member proportional system in 1993.
The change allowed for minority parties part of a coalition the ability to'agree to disagree' with the majority on certain issues. Following