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New Zealand Warriors

The New Zealand Warriors are a professional rugby league football club based in Auckland, New Zealand that competes in the National Rugby League premiership and is the League's only team from outside Australia. They were formed in 1995 as the Auckland Warriors, are known as the Vodafone Warriors for sponsorship reasons; the Warriors are captained by Roger Tuivasa-Sheck. They are based at Mt Smart Stadium in the Auckland suburb of Penrose. For the 1995 season the newly-formed Auckland Warriors became the first club from outside Australia to be admitted to the Australian Rugby League's premiership when it expanded from 16 to 20 teams; as a result of the Super League war in the mid-1990s, Auckland left the ARL to compete in the Super League competition of 1997, before joining the re-unified NRL the following year. They re-branded themselves the New Zealand Warriors in 2001; the club has yet to win a premiership as of 2019, but has won one minor premiership, reached two grand finals, reached the play-offs eight times, have never won the wooden spoon, provided the majority of the New Zealand national team's players.

Rugby league was centred around Auckland since the New Zealand Rugby League was founded in 1909. Auckland produced the bulk of the international squad for many years, most of these players headed to either Australia or Great Britain to play; the Auckland representative side was providing top opposition to touring teams. An Auckland team was admitted into the mid-week ARL Amco Cup competition in 1978. In their first year they made the semi-finals, were defeated by the overall competition winners, Eastern Suburbs, they remained into the competition until the early 1980s. In 1987, an Auckland side toured Great Britain and claimed wins over powerhouse clubs Leeds and Wigan. In 1988, serious investigation into an Auckland team entering the New South Wales Rugby League premiership commenced, encouraged by the Mt Albert club. On 17 May 1992, the announcement stating an Auckland-based team's entry into the Australian Rugby League competition, the Winfield Cup in 1995, was made; this followed good turnouts to a number of NSWRL club games played in Auckland.

The new team was to be called the Auckland Warriors and run by the Auckland Rugby League organisation. The original colours selected were blue, white and green. Blue and white are recognised as the colours of Auckland, while red and green were the colours of the Warriors' original sponsor, DB Bitter; the original logo was designed by Francis Allan, of Colenso. The coach of the new team would be Wigan coach John Monie. A number of senior players were signed, such as Andy Platt. Captain Dean Bell was a high-performing signing. Former Rugby union players such as John Kirwan and Marc Ellis were brought in, in years; the Warriors' first year in the Australian Rugby League was 1995. Their debut match was against the Brisbane Broncos on 10 March 1995 in front of 30,000 people at a newly refurbished Mt Smart Stadium; the Warriors led 22–10 at one point in the second half of the match, however the Broncos defeated the new club 25–22. A home crowd attendance record of 32,174 was set at Ericsson Stadium in Round 6 of the 1995 ARL season, a record, not topped until Round 1 of the 2011 NRL season.

The Warriors were deducted two competition points for an interchange error. In a match against Western Suburbs, the Warriors used five interchange players instead of the allowed four; the Warriors won the match comfortably, 46–12. This error had disastrous consequences for the club, as they missed the finals by two competition points; the season saw the debut of future star, Stacey Jones, who scored a try on debut in a 40–4 rout of Parramatta in Sydney. The biggest issue with the season was the lack of consistency, evident with the Warriors today, despite a six match winning streak late in the season, it was observed. The Australian Rugby League season 1996 could have been regarded as a better one for the Warriors; the Warriors found themselves siding with the Super League during the Super League War when the New Zealand Rugby League signed up to the rebel competition. They claimed their first'victory' over the Broncos in round one of the competition that year, after all Super League clubs agreed to boycott the first round of the competition in protest.

The Warriors won the two points when they travelled to Brisbane with a squad of players that were unsigned to Super League, forcing the Broncos to forfeit the match. With four rounds remaining the Warriors were in sixth place in the competition headed for a finals berth, they proceeded to lose. The only positives were that young New Zealand talents Stacey Jones and Joe Vagana had superb seasons; the Warriors spent 1997 in the breakaway Super League Telstra Cup competition. Despite the reduced number of teams, they failed to make an impression on the competition. Monie was replaced by Frank Endacott as coach midway through the 1997 season; the only positive was the team's performance in the World Club Challenge. The Warriors hammered United Kingdom powerhouses Wigan and St Helens, comfortably handled Warrington; the Warriors were knocked out in the semi-finals by eventual winners Brisbane, going down 16–22. The first season of the reformed competition was a year, it was apparent that the club needed a new approach and attitude.

For them, they were in a better position than the other two clubs that joined the competition in 1995. Former Kiwi Mark Graham took over as coach in 1999; the club was sold off to

Filling station

A filling station is a facility that sells fuel and engine lubricants for motor vehicles. The most common fuels sold in the 2010s are diesel fuel. A filling station that sells only electric energy is known as a charging station, while a typical filling station can be known as a fueling or gas station, gasoline stand or SS, petrol pump or petrol bunk, petrol station, service station, servo, or fuel station. Fuel dispensers are used to pump gasoline, compressed natural gas, CGH2, HCNG, LPG, liquid hydrogen, alcohol fuel, biofuels, or other types of fuel into the tanks within vehicles and calculate the financial cost of the fuel transferred to the vehicle. Fuel dispensers are known as bowsers, petrol pumps or gas pumps. Besides fuel dispensers, one other significant device, found in filling stations and can refuel certain vehicles is an air compressor, although these are just used to inflate car tires. Many filling stations incorporate a convenience store, which like most other buildings have electricity sockets.

The convenience stores found in filling stations sell candy, soft drinks, snacks and, in some cases, a small selection of grocery items, such as milk. Some sell propane or butane and have added shops to their primary business. Conversely, some chain stores, such as supermarkets, discount stores, warehouse clubs, or traditional convenience stores, have provided filling stations on the premises; the term "gas station" is used in the United States and the Anglophone Caribbean, where the fuel is known as "gasoline" or "gas" as in "gas pump". In some regions of Canada, the term gas bar is used. Elsewhere in the English-speaking world in the Commonwealth, the fuel is known as "petrol", the term "petrol station" or "petrol pump" is used. In the United Kingdom and South Africa "garage" is still used. In Australia, the term "service station" describes any petrol station. In Japanese English, a used term is gasoline stand, although the abbreviation SS is used. In Indian English, it is called a petrol bunk.

In some regions of America and Australia, many filling stations have a mechanic on duty, but this is uncommon in other parts of the world. The UK has 8,385 petrol stations as of 2019, down from about 18,000 in 1992 and a peak of around 40,000 in the mid-1960s; the US had 114,474 gas stations in 2012, according to the US Census Bureau, down from 118,756 in 2007 and 121,446 in 2002. In Canada, the number is on the decline; as of December 2008, 12,684 were in operation down from about 20,000 stations recorded in 1989. In Japan, the number dropped from a peak of 60,421 in 1994 to 40,357 at the end of 2009. In Germany, the number dropped down to 14,300 in 2011. In China, according to different reports, the number is about 95,000 to 97,000. India—60,799 Russia—there were about 25,000 gas stations in the Russian Federation In Argentina, as of 2014, there are 3,916 gas stations after a 2% decrease from the previous year. Total—8,200 stations Shell—7,800 stations BP—7,000 stations Esso—6,100 stations Eni—5,500 stations Repsol—4,700 stations Q8—4,600 stations Avia—3,000 stations PKN Orlen—2,800 stations Circle K—2,700 stations The first filling station was the city pharmacy in Wiesloch, where Bertha Benz refilled the tank of the first automobile on its maiden trip from Mannheim to Pforzheim back in 1888.

Shortly thereafter other pharmacies sold gasoline as a side business. Since 2008 the Bertha Benz Memorial Route commemorates this event; the first "posto de gasolina" of South America was opened in Santos, Brazil, in 1920. It was located on Ana Costa Avenue, in front of the beach, in a corner, located by the Hotel Atlantico, it was an Esso Gas Station, brought by a taxi entrepreneur. The increase in automobile ownership after Henry Ford started to sell automobiles that the middle class could afford resulted in an increased demand for filling stations; the world's first purpose-built gas station was constructed in St. Louis, Missouri in 1905 at 420 South Theresa Avenue; the second gas station was constructed in 1907 by Standard Oil of California in Seattle, Washington, at what is now Pier 32. Reighard's Gas Station in Altoona, claims that it dates from 1909 and is the oldest existing gas station in the United States. Early on, they were known to motorists as "filling stations"; the first "drive-in" filling station, Gulf Refining Company, opened to the motoring public in Pittsburgh on December 1, 1913, at Baum Boulevard and St Clair's Street.

Prior to this, automobile drivers pulled into any general or hardware store, or blacksmith shops in order to fill up their tanks. On its first day, the station sold 30 gallons of gasoline at 27 cents per gallon; this was the first architect-designed station and the first to distribute free road maps. The first alternative fuel station was opened in San Diego, California, by Pearson Fuels in 2003. Maryland officials said that on September 26, 2019, RS Automotive in Takoma Park, Maryland

Arabic language influence on the Spanish language

Arabic influence on the Spanish language overwhelmingly dates from the Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula between 711 and 1492. The influence results from the large number of Arabic loanwords and derivations in Spanish, plus a few other less obvious effects; the Spanish language called Castilian, is a Romance language that evolved from the dialects of Roman Vulgar Latin spoken in the Iberian peninsula. The first documents written in a language with some features specific of modern Spanish are ascribed to a number of documents from different monasteries in the area of Burgos and La Rioja in what is now northern Spain. However, Toledo in central Spain, which became the capital of the early Kingdom of Castile during its southward expansion, is where Spanish began to appear in a written form recognizable today; the pre-existing Mozarabic dialect of this region is therefore to have had an important formative influence on modern Spanish. The lexical influence of Arabic reached its greatest level during the Christian Reconquista, when the emerging Kingdom of Castile conquered large territories from Moorish rulers in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries.

These territories, which included the former Taifa of Toledo, had large numbers of Arabic speakers, as well as many who spoke local Romance dialects that were influenced by Arabic, both influencing Castilian. It is possible that Arabic words and their derivatives had been priorly brought into Castilian by Mozarab Christians who emigrated northwards from Al Andalus in times of sectarian violence during the times of Almohad and Almoravid rule in the 12th and 13th centuries; as such, Arabic can be considered to have had a formative influence on the Spanish language. The degree to which the Arabic language percolated through the Iberian Peninsula varied enormously from one area to another and is the subject of academic debate. However, it is agreed that Arabic was used among the local elites and Christians, that the prevalent vernacular in many areas was Mozarabic, a continuum of Arabic-influenced local Romance dialects. Only the southern Emirate of Granada in the time of the Nasrid dynasty, which had had a large influx of Arabic speakers as the Reconquista advanced, became Arabized, or at least no evidence of a local Romance in the late Middle Ages has been found.

Much of the Arabic influence upon Spanish came through the various Arabized Romance dialects that were spoken in areas under Moorish rule, known today by scholars as Mozarabic. This resulted in Spanish having both Arabic and Latin derived words with the same meaning. For example and oliva, alacrán and escorpión, jaqueca and migraña, alcancía and hucha; the influence of the Arabized Mozarabic and of Arabic itself is more noticeable in the Spanish dialects from regions with a longer history of Moorish domination than those where it was shorter-lived. For this reason, the dialects of the southern half of the country, known collectively as castellano meridional or Southern Castilian, seem collectively to show a higher degree of preference for Arabisms. Northern Spanish dialects tend to prefer Romance synonyms to terms of Arabic origin, such as the Romance calendario vs. Arabic almanaque, hucha vs. alcancía, espliego vs. alhucema, etc. Because Canarian and all Latin American dialects are derived from Southern Castilian, Spanish words of Arabic origin are common in most varieties of Modern Spanish.

A number of words were borrowed from Moroccan Arabic principally as a result of Spain's protectorate over Spanish Morocco in the 19th and 20th centuries, although these are of minor significance. The Spanish spoken in the Canary Islands has adopted a small number of words from Hassaniya Arabic, principally from Canarian sailors who fish in proximity to the Saharan coast as well as by those Canarians who returned from Western Sahara after the Green March of 1975; the influence of Arabic on the Spanish language is fundamentally lexical but its other influences are briefly examined in this article. It is estimated that there are about one thousand Arabic roots, three thousand derived words, for a total of around four thousand words or 8% of the Spanish dictionary - the second largest lexical influence on Spanish after Latin. See Influences on the Spanish language for more on how the number of Arabisms in Spanish has been estimated; the exact number of words of Arabic origin and their derivatives in Spanish is not known, many words not included on this list are regionalisms: words which are used in certain parts of Spain and/or Latin America but are unknown elsewhere.

The high point of Arabic word use in Spanish was in late medieval times and has declined since but hundreds are still used in normal conversation. A larger majority of these words are nouns, with a number of verbs and adjectives derived directly from these nouns, e.g. alquilar and alquilado from alquiler, most of which are excluded from this list. There is one preposition: hasta, one adverb: he. There has been little influence on the basic grammatical structure of the language; this is an open list of Spanish words acquired directly from Classical and Andalusi Arabic, listed in alphabetical order. This list includes the Spanish meaning of the word as well as the Arabic etymology. No fixed standard of Arabic transliteration is used. Rationale for inclusion Due to the large influence of Arabic on Spanish vocabulary, this list is restrictive: This list has been edited to include only words which are considered to appertain to the Spanish language and the Hispanic culture and society. Arabic words which may be un

√Čric Piolle

Éric Piolle is a French engineer and politician. He was Regional Councillor of Rhône-Alpes from March 2010 to April 2014, he has served as mayor of Grenoble since 2014. Piolle was born in France, he attended a local high school in that area. After graduating, he went to the Grenoble Institute of Technology to study engineering, he joined the Hewlett-Packard Company in 2001, became a senior manager at the Grenoble site. In February 2011, he was fired for refusing to set up a relocation plan, he co-founded the company a company specializing in financial risk management. In 1997, at 24, Piolle was a parliamentary candidate for the eighth district of Isère as a Miscellaneous left, he won 1.35% of the votes. In 2002 he was a substitute candidate during the legislative elections for the first district of Isère. In March 2010, he was elected as a regional councilor of Isère, a department in the Rhône-Alpes region, as a member of Europe Ecology. In June 2012, he was a parliamentary candidate for the first district of Isère as a member of EELV, he won 7.7% of votes.

In 2014, Piolle became a candidate for mayor of Grenoble during the municipal elections, his motto being "Grenoble, Une Ville pour Tous". He was the leading candidate throughout the race, gathering support from environmentalists, EELV, the Left Party, The Alternatives, the Anticapitalist Left, two local associations, ADES and the Citizen Network, he was elected during a city council session on April 4, 2014, succeeding Michel Destot as mayor of Grenoble. He received 50 votes out of the 59 councilors. After winning the election, he declined to run for president of Grenoble-Alpes Métropole, resigned from his position as a regional councilor of Rhône-Alpes. In the French presidential election of 2017, he called on voters to support Jean-Luc Mélenchon

Karl William Kapp

Karl William Kapp was a German-American economist and Professor of Economics at the City University of New York and the University of Basel. Kapp's main contribution was the development of a theory of social costs that captures urgent socio-ecological problems and proposes preventative policies based on the precautionary principle, his theory is in the tradition of various heterodox economic paradigms, such as ecological economics, Marxian economics, social economics, institutional economics. As such, Kapp's theory of social costs was directed against neoclassical economics and the rise of neoliberalism, he was an opponent of the compartmentalization of knowledge and championed, the integration and humanization of the social sciences. Kapp was born in Königsberg in 1910 as son of August Wilhelm Kapp, a teacher of physics. In secondary school at the Hufengymnasium one of his teachers was the poet Ernst Wiechert End 1920s he started studying law and economics at the universities in Berlin and Königsberg.

He continued his studies in London and at the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva, where in 1936 he received a Ph. D in economics with his dissertation „Planwirtschaft und Aussenhandel“. In Geneva Kapp had met the people of the Frankfurt School, who emigrated to the US and settled as Institute for Social Research at the Columbia University, New York City. In 1937 they granted Kapp a scholarship. From 1938 to 1945 he was an instructor in Economics at the New York University and Columbia University in New York. From 1945 to 1950 he was Assistant Professor of Economics at the Wesleyan University in Middleton, Connecticut. From 1950 to 1965 he was Professor of economics at the University of the City of New York, he was among the first members of the Association for Evolutionary Economics. In 1965 he returned to Switzerland and was Professor of economics at the University of Basel until 1976. In that time he was a Visiting Professor at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Paris. In 1976 Kapp suffered a fatal heart attack during a conference in Croatia.

Kapp's research interests ranged from economics, policy making and environmental science to the theory of knowledge, the history of economic thought, many related topics. In his 1936 dissertation Planwirtschaft und Aussenhandel contributed to the debate around the economic calculation problem, a criticism of central economic planning; this problem was first proposed by Ludwig von Mises in 1920, expounded by Friedrich Hayek and further debated in the 1920s and 1930s. Kapp argued that a planned economy is "not doomed to autarky because there are ways to deal with the valuation problem so that trade and exchange with market economies can be organized". 1936, Planwirtschaft und Außenhandel, Genève: Georg & Cie. 1950, The Social Costs of Private Enterprise, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press 1963, The Social Costs of Business Enterprise 1961, Towards a Science of Man in Society – A Positive Approach towards the Integration of Social Knowledge 1958, Volkswirtschaftliche Kosten der Privatwirtschaft. Tübingen: Mohr.

1975, Neue Wege für Bangladesh. Hamburg: Inst. f. Asienkunde 1976, Staatliche Förderung "umweltfreundlicher" Technologien. Göttingen: Schwartz. 2011, The Foundations of Institutional Economics – by K. William Kapp, edited by Sebastian Berger and Rolf Steppacher. Routledge. European Association for Evolutionary and Political Economy Non-equilibrium economics Vereinigung für Ökologische Ökonomie, that grants a research prize in remembrance of Kapp 2017, Sebastian Berger, The Social Costs of Neoliberalism: Essays on the Economics of K. William Kapp. Nottingham: Spokesman. 2015, Sebastian Berger The Heterodox Theory of Social Costs - by K. William Kapp. London: Routledge. 2011, Julien-Francois Gerber/Rolf Steppacher "Towards an Integrated Paradigm in Heterodox Economics". Palgrave-Macmillan. 2007, Eyup Ozveren"Where disciplinary boundaries blur" K. William Kapp Research Center

Ichiyo Shimizu

Ichiyo Shimizu is a Japanese women's professional shogi player ranked 6-dan. In May 2017, Shimizu became the first woman to be elected as an executive director to the Japan Shogi Association's board of directors. Shimizu was born on January 1969, in Higashimurayama, Tokyo. In 1983, she won the 15th Amateur Women's Meijin Tournament while she was a junior high school student; that same year, she entered the Japan Shogi Association's Women's Professional Apprentice League under the guidance of shogi professional Toshio Takayanagi. She achieved the rank of women's professional 2-kyū in April 1985, thus becoming the first apprentice to graduate from the Women's Professional Apprentice League system. In October 2000, Shimizu became the first women's professional to be promoted to the rank of women's 6-dan. In November 2016, Shimizu defeated Tomomi Kai in a women's meijin league game to become the second women's professional to win 600 official games; as of January 2018, Shimizu's career record versus male professionals in official games is 29 wins and 156 losses.

In May 2017, Shimizu became the first women to be elected as an executive director to the Japan Shogi Association's board of directors. She was re-elected to a second two-year term in June 2019. Shimizu has been promoted as follows: 1985, April 1: 2-kyū 1986, January 17: 1-dan 1987, September 21: 2-dan 1988, February 8: 3-dan 1992, April 1: 4-dan 1995, April 1: 5-dan 2000, October 1: 6-danNote: All ranks are women's professional ranks. Shimizu has appeared in major title has won a total of 43 titles, she has won the Women's Meijin title ten times, the Women's Ōshō title nine times, the Women's Ōi title fourteen times and the Kurashiki Tōka Cup ten times. She has been awarded the lifetime titles of Queen Meijin, Queen Ōshō, Queen Ōi and Queen Kurashiki Tōka. In addition to major titles, Shimizu has won 11 other shogi championships. Note: Tournaments marked with an asterisk are no longer held or suspended. Shimizu has received a number of Japan Shogi Association Annual Shogi Awards and other awards in recognition of her accomplishments in shogi and contributions made to Japanese society.

15th Annual Awards: Women's Professional Award 19th Annual Awards: Women's Professional Award 21st Annual Awards: Women's Professional Award 22nd Annual Awards: Women's Professional Award 23rd Annual Awards: Women's Professional Award 24th Annual Awards: Women's Professional Award, Special Award 25th Annual Awards: Women's Professional Award 26th Annual Awards: Women's Professional Award 28th Annual Awards: Women's Professional of the Year 29th Annual Awards: Women's Professional Award 31st Annual Awards: Women's Professional of the Year 32nd Annual Awards: Women's Professional of the Year 35th Annual Awards: Women's Professional of the Year 36th Annual Awards: Women's Professional of the Year 37th Annual Awards: Women's Professional of the Year 38th Annual Awards: Women's Professional Most Games Played 39th Annual Awards: Women's Professional Award, Women's Professional Most Games Played 42nd Annual Awards: Women's Professional Most Games Played 1996, June: Minister of Education Award 1997, February: Tokyo Resident Culture Honor Award 2000, November: Higashimurayama, Tokyo Resident Honor Award 2008, August: Kurashiki Shogi Culture Honor Award 2009: 25 Years Service Award Japan Shogi Association official profile page ShogiHub: Professional Player Info · Shimizu, Ichiyo