Mecosta County, Michigan
Mecosta County is a county located in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 42,798; the county seat is Big Rapids. The county is named after Chief Mecosta, the leader of the Potawatomi Native American tribe who once traveled the local waterways in search of fish and game. Chief Mecosta was one of the signers the Treaty of Washington in 1836; the navigated waterways soon led to a boom in lumber industry growth. Workers settled the area in 1851, the county was settled and the government organized in 1859. Mecosta County is home to over 100 lakes and streams with the Muskegon River winding its way through the county seat and largest city Big Rapids. Mecosta County was set off on April 1, 1840, but remained attached for administrative purposes to Kent County until 1857, when it was attached to Newaygo County; the county government was organized on February 11, 1859. Mecosta County comprises the Big Rapids, MI, Micropolitan Statistical Area and is included in the Grand Rapids-Wyoming-Muskegon, MI, Combined Statistical Area.
The surveyor general approved the United States survey of Mecosta County on February 22, 1839, the state legislature established the county boundaries on April 1, 1840. In 1852, John Davis purchased 160 acres in Mecosta Township and John Parish purchased 57 acres in Big Rapids, they were the first two permanent county residents. On July 20, 1852, the first family to reside in the county and Margaret Brockway and their two children, moved into a logging shanty on Mitchell Creek. On February 12, 1853, Alice Victoria Brockway was born to the couple. Alice was the first white child born in the county. In the spring of 1853, the Brockways moved to a 200-acre farm in Aetna Township. In March 1854, Zerah and George French and nine members of their family moved to a shanty close to Mitchell Creek and the Muskegon River. Zerah and George French are considered the co-founders of Big Rapids. In the spring of 1855, James and Laura Montague and their children became the third family to settle in the county.
Their 160-acre farm in Green Township was located where 19 Mile Road intersects the west bank of the Muskegon River. The organization of Leonard Township and Green Township was authorized in February 1858. On April 5, 1858, the first township elections were held and Jesse Shaw was elected supervisor of Leonard Township and Jesse A. Barker was elected supervisor of Green Township. On February 11, 1859, the State Legislature authorized the organization of Mecosta County and established the Village of Leonard as the county seat; the first county elections were held on April 4 and these county officials were elected: Orrin Stevens and Register of Deeds. Mr. William T. Howell of Newaygo was appointed Prosecuting Attorney. On May 2, Luther Cobb and Jesse A. Barker convened the first meeting of the board of supervisors and Jesse A. Barker was chosen chairman; the population of Mecosta County was 671 inhabitants in 1860. The first issue of the Big Rapids Pioneer, a five-column folio, was printed on April 17, 1862.
Charlie Gay was the proprietor, co-editor with Ceylon C. Fuller; the paper was under the same management for nearly 22 years, 140 years the paper is still being published. The plat for the Village of Big Rapids was recorded on November 3, 1859, the plat for French's addition was recorded on May 9, 1860; the state legislature authorized the incorporation of the City of Big Rapids in April 1869. The first city elections were held on April 19, 1869, when these officials were elected: George F. Stearns, Mayor. Mecosta County had 5,642 residents in 1870; the Grand Rapids and Indiana was the first railroad to enter Mecosta County. In June 1869, the GR&I railroad crossed the Little Muskegon River and the Village of Morley was created. Construction of the next section of track to the Village of Paris started in late July 1869 and the Village of Stanwood came into existence; the GR&I reached the city limits of Big Rapids on June 20, 1870, the Village of Paris on July 1, 1870. Construction of the GR&I continued for several years until the line reached Petoskey in December 1873.
Early county prisoners were housed in the county sheriff's private house, a local hotel, the Kent County jail, or the Newaygo County jail. In 1862, county residents decided not to erect a county jail; the first county jail was erected in the summer of 1868, situated where the Old Historic Jail built in 1893 is presently located on Stewart Street. Construction for the present county jail was completed in 1965; this jail was renovated in 1986. The Mecosta County Board of Commissioners approved another jail renovation and expansion in 2000 with scheduled completion in 2001; the 1880 census reported Mecosta County to have a population of 13,973. In the early 1880s, rented county offices were located in two downtown buildings near the corner of Elm and Michigan. In 1883, the Board of Supervisors submitted to the voters the proposition to authorize a two-year tax for the purpose of erecting a county courthouse. County voters passed the courthouse tax issue in April 1884. Construction on the first courthouse began in 1885 and was completed in 1886.
A ground-breaking ceremony for the present Mecosta County Building occurred on April 8, 1969. Construction of the Mecosta County Building was completed in late August 1970 and a dedication ceremony was held on November 7, 1970. In the early 1900s, water power harnessed by hydroelectric dams became the energy base for the manufacturing of f
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Muskegon County, Michigan
Muskegon County is a county in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of 2014, the population was 172,344; the county seat is Muskegon. Muskegon County comprises the Muskegon, MI Metropolitan Statistical Area, part of the larger Grand Rapids-Wyoming-Muskegon, MI Combined Statistical Area; the White River flows through the county to its mouth at Lake Michigan. Around 1812, Jean Baptiste Recollect and Pierre Constant set up trading posts in the area. By the Treaty of Washington, Native Americans ceded parts of Michigan, including future Muskegon County, to the United States; this opened up the area to greater settlement by European Americans. Muskegon County was organized in 1859, its name is from the Muskegon River, which runs through it and empties into Muskegon Lake and subsequently flows into Lake Michigan. The word "Muskegon" comes from the Ojibwa/Chippewa word mashkig, meaning "marsh" or "swamp". See List of Michigan county name etymologies. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,460 square miles, of which 499 square miles is land and 961 square miles is water.
White Lake White River Muskegon Lake Muskegon River Mona Lake Little Black Lake Wolf Lake Fox Lake Big Blue Lake Bear Lake Duck Lake Manistee National Forest Oceana County, Michigan - north Newaygo County, Michigan - northeast Kent County, Michigan - east Ottawa County, Michigan - east Ottawa County, Michigan - south Milwaukee County, Wisconsin - southwest Ozaukee County, Wisconsin - west As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 172,188 people residing in the county. 77.4% were non-Hispanic White, 14.6% Black or African American, 0.6% Asian, 0.9% Native American, 2.5% of two or more races. 4.8 % were Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 170,200 people, 63,330 households, 44,267 families residing in the county; the population density was 334 people per square mile. There were 68,556 housing units at an average density of 135 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 81.25% White, 14.20% Black or African American, 0.82% Native American, 0.42% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.28% from other races, 2.01% from two or more races.
3.53% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 17.2% were of German, 9.8% Dutch, 7.3% American, 7.2% English, 6.8% Irish and 5.5% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. 95.9 % spoke 2.6 % Spanish as their first language. There were 63,330 households, of which 34.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.60% were married couples living together, 13.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.10% were non-families. 25.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.10. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.50% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 12.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.40 males. The county's median household income was $38,008, the median family income was $45,710.
Males had a median income of $35,952 versus $25,430 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,967. About 8.80% of families and 11.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.00% of those under age 18 and 8.20% of those age 65 or over. The county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, keeps files of deeds and mortgages, maintains vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of welfare and other social services; the county board of commissioners controls the budget but has only limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions — police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc. — are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. Prosecuting Attorney: D. J. Hilson Sheriff: Michael J. Poulin County Clerk: Nancy A. Waters County Treasurer: Tony Moulatsiotis Register of Deeds: Mark F. Fairchild Drain Commissioner: Brenda M Moore County Surveyor: Stephen Vallier The Michigan Department of Corrections operates the Muskegon Correctional Facility in southeastern Muskegon.
The prison first opened in 1974. Public School Districts in Muskegon County: Fruitport Community Schools Holton Public Schools Mona Shores Public Schools Montague Area Public Schools Muskegon Public Schools Muskegon Heights Public Schools North Muskegon Public Schools Orchard View Schools Oakridge Public Schools Ravenna Public Schools Reeths-Puffer School District White Lake Area Community Ed. Whitehall District SchoolsPrivate School Districts in Muskegon County: Broadway Baptist School Fruitport Calvary Christian Muskegon Catholic Central West Michigan ChristianColleges and Universities: Baker College Muskegon Community College Ross Medical Education Center - Muskegon There are twenty-three recognized historical markers in the county: They are: Bluffton Actors' Colony / Buster Keaton Central United Methodist Church Evergreen Cemetery Fruitland District No.6 School Hackley House Hackley Public Library Hackley-Holt House Hume House Jean Baptiste Recollect Trading Post Lakeside Lebanon Lutheran Church Lumbering on White Lake / Staples & Covell Mill Marsh Field Mouth Cemetery Muskegon Business College Muskegon Log Booming Company Muskegon Woman's Club Old Indian Cemetery Pinchtown Ruth Thompson Torrent House Union Depot White Lake Yacht Club Montague Muskegon Heights Muskegon North Muskegon
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census