Newcastle United F.C.
Newcastle United Football Club is an English professional association football club based in Newcastle upon Tyne, that plays in the Premier League, the top tier of English football. Newcastle United was founded in 1892 by the merger of Newcastle East End and Newcastle West End, has played at its current home ground, St James' Park since; the ground was developed into an all-seater stadium in the mid-1990s and has a capacity of 52,354. The club has been a member of the Premier League for all but three years of the competition's history, spending 85 seasons in the top tier as of May 2016, has never dropped below English football's second tier since joining the Football League in 1893, they have won four League Championship titles, six FA Cups and a Charity Shield, as well as the 1969 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup and the 2006 UEFA Intertoto Cup. Newcastle United has the ninth highest total of trophies won by an English club; the club's most successful period was between 1904 and 1910, when they won an FA Cup and three of their First Division titles.
The club were successful in the Premier League in the 1990s and early 2000s without winning any trophies, but have been struggling since the 2006–07 season, were relegated in 2009 and 2016. They returned to the Premier League for the 2017–18 season after winning the Championship title the preceding year. Newcastle has a fierce local rivalry with Sunderland, the two clubs have engaged in the Tyne–Wear derby since 1898; the club's traditional kit colours are black shorts and black socks. Their traditional crest takes elements of the city coat of arms. Prior to each home game the team enters the field to "Local Hero", written by Newcastle native Mark Knopfler, while "Blaydon Races" is invariably sung during games; the club has been owned by Mike Ashley since 2007, succeeding long term chairman and owner Sir John Hall. The club is the 17th-highest revenue producing club in the world in terms of annual revenue, generating €169.3 million in 2015. Newcastle's highest placing was in 1999, when they were the fifth-highest revenue producing football club in the world, second in England only behind Manchester United.
The first record of football being played on Tyneside dates from 3 March 1877 at Elswick Rugby Club. That year, Newcastle's first football club, Tyne Association, was formed; the origins of Newcastle United Football Club itself can be traced back to the formation of a football club by the Stanley Cricket Club of Byker in November 1881. This team was renamed Newcastle East End F. C. in October 1882, to avoid confusion with the cricket club in Stanley, County Durham. Rosewood F. C. of Byker merged with Newcastle East End a short time later. In 1886, Newcastle East End moved from Byker to Heaton. In August 1882, Newcastle West End F. C. formed from West End Cricket Club, in May 1886, the club moved into St James' Park. The two clubs became rivals in the Northern League. In 1889, Newcastle East End became a professional team, before becoming a limited company the following March. However, on the other hand, Newcastle West End were in serious financial trouble and approached East End with a view to a take over.
Newcastle West End were dissolved, a number of their players and backroom staff joined Newcastle East End merging the two clubs, with Newcastle East End taking over the lease on St James' Park in May 1892. With only one senior club in the city for fans to support, development of the club was much more rapid. Despite being refused entry to the Football League's First Division at the start of the 1892–93 season, they were invited to play in their new Second Division. However, with no big names playing in the Second Division, they turned down the offer and remained in the Northern League, stating "gates would not meet the heavy expenses incurred for travelling". In a bid to start drawing larger crowds, Newcastle East End decided to adopt a new name in recognition of the merger. Suggested names included Newcastle F. C. Newcastle Rangers, Newcastle City and City of Newcastle, but Newcastle United was decided upon on 9 December 1892, to signify the unification of the two teams; the name change was accepted by the Football Association on 22 December, but the club was not constituted as Newcastle United Football Club Co. Ltd. until 6 September 1895.
At the start of the 1893–94 season, Newcastle United were once again refused entry to the First Division and so joined the Second Division, along with Liverpool and Woolwich Arsenal. They played their first competitive match in the division that September against Woolwich Arsenal, with a score of 2–2. Turnstile numbers were still low, the incensed club published a statement stating, "The Newcastle public do not deserve to be catered for as far as professional football is concerned"; however figures picked up by 1895–96, when 14,000 fans watched the team play Bury. That season Frank Watt became secretary of the club, he was instrumental in promotion to the First Division for the 1898–99 season. However, they lost their first game 4–2 at home to Wolverhampton Wanderers and finished their first season in thirteenth place. In 1903–04, the club built up a promising squad of players, went on to dominate English football for a decade, the team known for their "artistic play, combining team-work and quick, short passing".
Long after his retirement, Peter McWilliam, the team's defender at the time, said, "The Newcastle team of the 1900s would give any modern side a two goal start and beat them, further more, beat them at a trot." Newcastle United went on to win the League on three occasions during the 1900s. In 1904 -- 05, they nearly did the double. The
McEwan's is a brand of beer owned by Marston's Brewery. It was brewed by William McEwan's Fountain Brewery in Edinburgh, Scotland; the McEwan's brand passed to Heineken in 2008 after their purchase of Scottish & Newcastle's British operations. Heineken sold the brand to Wells & Young's in 2011, who sold their brewing operation, including the McEwan brand to Marston's in 2017. William McEwan opened the Fountain Brewery in Fountainbridge, Edinburgh, in 1856; the firm underwent several mergers in the following century, including with local rival William Younger's, with Newcastle Breweries to form Scottish & Newcastle. Its popular brands included 80/-, a Heavy beer, Export, an India Pale Ale. All of the draught beers were brewed at the Caledonian Brewery in Edinburgh, whilst the canned and bottled beers were produced at the Eagle Brewery in Bedford, England; the beers are sold predominantly in the North East of England. Despite being the dominant presence in Scottish brewing for around a century, the McEwan's brands were neglected by Scottish & Newcastle, who concentrated on their global brands.
The McEwan's ales were eclipsed by John Smith's Bitter and Belhaven Best and cask-conditioned beers such as Deuchars IPA, whilst the lager fell behind Tennent's. McEwan's was well known for its cavalier mascot, broadly based on the Frans Hals painting, the Laughing Cavalier portrait, used since the 1930s; the company was a well known sponsor of numerous football teams throughout the 1980s and 1990s, most notably Blackburn Rovers' Premier League title winning side. The McEwan's brand passed to Heineken in 2008 after their purchase of Scottish & Newcastle's British operations. Heineken sold the brand to Wells & Young's in 2011. In May 2017, Charles Wells Ltd sold its brewing business to Marston's. William McEwan opened the Fountain Brewery in Fountainbridge a suburb on the outskirts of Edinburgh, in 1856, using £2,000 loaned by his mother and his uncle; the area and the brewery are named after the spring waters from the vicinity, which, in addition to its proximity to the Caledonian railway line and the Union Canal, determined the location of the brewery.
McEwan had employed geologists to identify the prime location for a supply of well water. Beforehand, McEwan had engaged in industrial espionage at Bass and Allsopp's breweries in order to learn techniques and assay costs. After establishing a market share in the industrial regions of the Scottish lowlands, from the early 1860s McEwan built up a successful colonial export trade by exploiting his family's shipowning connections, it was during this time that McEwan's India Pale Ale, the beer, the foundation for much of the company's reputation, was first labelled Export. By the 1870s McEwan's brewery employed 170 men and boys, its beers were available in England. By 1880, the brewery site covered 12 acres. McEwan's 80/-, a Heavy beer, was first brewed in the late nineteenth century. In 1886, as he prepared to enter Parliament, William McEwan appointed his nephew, William Younger, as managing director of the brewery; when the company was registered in 1889 it was worth £408,000 and had capital of £1 million, was the largest brewery in the United Kingdom under a single owner.
By the turn of the twentieth century the company had a large share of the market throughout Scotland, a 90 per cent share of the Tyneside market, was exporting to Scottish expatriates across the British Empire. At its peak the brewery was producing two million barrels of much of it for export. In 1907, McEwan's acquired the goodwill of Alexander Melvin & Co of central Edinburgh. By 1914, McEwan's bottled beers were distributed across the United Kingdom. In December 1930, McEwan's merged with Edinburgh rival William Younger's Brewery to form Scottish Brewers in a defensive move after the Great Depression diminished revenues; each entity was run separately, only certain financial and technological resources were amalgamated. During this period the company became an early pioneer of container beer due to its dependence on exports to the Royal Navy, where beer might be stored on board ships for up to a year; the NAAFI continued to be an important McEwan's customer throughout the century. In the early 1930s, Jardine Matheson approached the company regarding a potential brewing venture in China, but McEwan's did not welcome the threat to their export business.
The company's export trade declined during and after the Second World War, as a result, the Abbey Brewery in Edinburgh the Younger's brewery, was closed down in 1956 and converted into offices. By the 1950s, McEwan's had become the dominant party in the McEwan Younger venture, a full merger was undertaken in 1959. Scottish Brewers continued to increase its market share in the brewing sector, doubling its output after a costly five-year programme of expansion and modernisation undertaken between 1958 and 1963; the company merged with Newcastle Breweries in 1960, forming Scottish & Newcastle, a group with market value of £50 million. William McEwan Younger, the son of William Younger, was the managing director; the company dedicated itself to the free trade, promoted its brands to an extent not witnessed in the British brewing industry. McEwan's Export became one of the three core brands of the new company, alongside Newcastle Brown Ale and Younger's Tartan Special. Scottish & Newcastle became the dominant force in brewing across the North of England.
From the 1960s, the company began to style itself MacEwan's in export markets, in order to make pronunciation easier. The company's McEwan's Strong Ale was the
Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union
Three European Union schemes of geographical indications and traditional specialties, known as protected designation of origin, protected geographical indication, traditional specialities guaranteed and protect names of quality agricultural products and foodstuffs. Products registered under one of the three schemes may be marked with the logo for that scheme to help identify those products; the schemes are based on the legal framework provided by the EU Regulation No 1151/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 November 2012 on quality schemes for agricultural products and foodstuffs. This regulation ensures that only products genuinely originating in that region are allowed to be identified as such in commerce; the legislation first came into force in 1992. The purpose of the law is to protect the reputation of the regional foods, promote rural and agricultural activity, help producers obtain a premium price for their authentic products, eliminate the unfair competition and misleading of consumers by non-genuine products, which may be of inferior quality or of different flavour.
These laws protect the names of wines, hams, seafood, olive oils, balsamic vinegar, regional breads, raw meats and vegetables. Foods such as Gorgonzola, Parmigiano-Reggiano, the Waterford blaas, Herve cheese, Melton Mowbray pork pies, Piave cheese, Asiago cheese, Herefordshire cider, cognac and champagne can only be labelled as such if they come from the designated region. To qualify as roquefort, for example, cheese must be made from milk of a certain breed of sheep, matured in the natural caves near the town of Roquefort-sur-Soulzon in the Aveyron region of France, where it is colonised by the fungus Penicillium roqueforti that grows in these caves; this system is similar to appellation systems used throughout the world, such as the appellation d'origine contrôlée used in France, the denominazione di origine controllata used in Italy, the denominação de origem controlada used in Portugal, the denumire de origine controlată system used in Romania and the denominación de origen system used in Spain.
In many cases, the EU PDO/PGI system works parallel with the system used in the specified country, in some cases is subordinated to the appellation system, instituted with wine, for example, in France with cheese, for example Maroilles has both PDO and AOC classifications, but only the AOC classification will be shown. In countries where Protected Geographical Status laws are enforced, only products which meet the various geographical and quality criteria may use the protected indication, it is prohibited to combine the indication with words such as "style", "type", "imitation", or "method" in connection with the protected indications, or to do anything which might imply that the product meets the specifications, such as using distinctive packaging associated with the protected product. Protected indications are treated as intellectual property rights by the Customs Regulation 1383/2003, infringing goods may be seized by customs on import. Within the European Union, enforcement measures vary: infringement may be treated as counterfeit, misleading advertising, passing off or as a question of public health.
Outside Europe, the protection of PGS products require bilateral agreements between the EU and the importing countries, while protected indications may not always supersede other intellectual property rights such as trademarks. On 15 November 2011, the European Court of Auditors presented its report Do the design and management of the Geographical Indications Scheme allow it to be effective? to the European Parliament. The preambles to the regulations cite consumer demand for quality foodstuffs, identify a number of goals for the protection regimes: the promotion of products with specific characteristics those coming from less-favoured or rural areas; the provision of a recompense for efforts to improve quality and the need for consumer protection are cited as justifications for trade mark protection in other domains, geographical indications operate in a similar manner to trademarks. The general regime governs the use of protected designations of origin and protected geographical indications for food and certain other agricultural products.
There are separate regimes for aromatised drinks as well as for wines. The origin of the product is only one of the criteria for use of the protected terms: the product must meet various quality criteria; the label "Traditional Specialities Guaranteed" is a similar protected term which does not impose any restrictions on the geographical origin of the product. The protection of geographical indications was extended to foodstuffs and other agricultural products in 1992. Given the different national provisions, this "general regime" gives much more power to the European Commission to ensure a harmonised protection across the European Union
Alcohol licensing laws of the United Kingdom
The alcohol licensing laws of the United Kingdom regulate the sale and consumption of alcohol, with separate legislation for England and Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland being passed, as necessary, by the UK parliament, the Northern Ireland Assembly, the Scottish Parliament respectively. Throughout the United Kingdom, the sale of alcohol is restricted—pubs, restaurants and other premises must be licensed by the local authority. In England and Scotland the authority to sell alcohol is divided into two parts – the Premises Licence, which prescribes the times and conditions under which alcohol can be sold, a Personal Licence which allows individuals to sell alcohol or authorise its sale by others; every Premises Licence which authorises the sale of alcohol must name a Designated Premises Supervisor who must hold a valid Personal Licence – otherwise alcohol cannot be sold at that premises. The DPS has day-to-day responsibility for the sale of alcohol at licensed premises. Premises licences, in as far as they concern the sale of alcohol, can be categorised to include on-licences and off-licences.
However, these distinctions are not explicitly made in the Licensing Act 2003, the position in Scotland and Northern Ireland is more complex. Many on-licensed premises permit off-sales; the age at which people are allowed to purchase alcohol is 18 or over in most circumstances. Adults purchasing alcohol on behalf of a person under 18 in a pub or from an off-licence are liable to prosecution along with the vendor. However, legislation does allow for the consumption of alcohol by those under 18 in the following circumstances: The individual is aged 5 or older, is at home or other private premises; the individual is aged 16 or 17 and the alcohol, which can only be beer, wine or cider, is consumed with a table meal. The person making the purchase must themselves be 18 or over; the Licensing Act 2003 revised and consolidated into one Act all the many separate legislative provisions that covered licensed premises in England and Wales. The Licensing Act 2005 brought the same reforms to Scotland; the same reforms have not been enacted.
In the mid-18th century, gin became popular as it was much cheaper to buy than beer. This was known as the'gin epidemic'. By 1740, six times more gin than beer was being produced, of the 15,000 drinking establishments in London, half were gin-shops; the Gin Act 1736 imposed a prohibitively high duty on gin, but this caused rioting, so the duty was reduced and abolished in 1742. The Gin Act 1751 was more successful: instead of a tax it restricted gin producers to selling only to licensed premises. During the 19th century, licensing laws began to restrict the opening hours of premises; the Sunday Closing Act 1881 required the closure of all public houses in Wales on Sundays. After the outbreak of World War I the Defence of the Realm Act was passed by Parliament in 1914. One section of the Act concerned the hours pubs could sell alcohol, as it was believed that alcohol consumption would interfere with the war effort, it restricted opening hours for licensed premises to supper. In the late 1980s the licensing laws in England and Wales became less restricted and allowed pubs to allow the consumption of alcohol on the premises from 11:00 until 23:00, although nightclubs were allowed to stay open much later.
Revised rules were introduced in November 2005, when hour limits were scrapped, pubs were allowed to apply for licences as permissive as "24 hours a day". In practice, most pubs chose not to apply for licences past midnight. Traditionally, the phrase "Last orders!" is still used to announce the last opportunity to purchase drinks ten or fifteen minutes in advance and is announced via a bell. At the point when the bar will no longer serve drinks, the bar staff will announce "Time Please!", either shouted or by use of a bell. The wartime restrictions in Scotland were not repealed until 1976; as a result, Scottish laws were less restrictive, with local authorities being allowed to determine opening hours. Most Scottish pubs now open until midnight. On-licence describes an establishment where alcohol must be consumed at the point of sale, such as a pub, nightclub or café; the name derives from the distinction between types of licence which could be granted—a distinction now repealed in England and Wales, repealed in Scotland in 2009.
In England and Wales, the magistrates would grant either an "off" licence permitting the sale of intoxicating liquor for consumption only off the premises, or an "on" licence permitting sale for consumption on the premises—which permitted, to a limited extent, off sales too: many public houses were permitted off sales, to sell sealed alcoholic drinks for consumption elsewhere. A restaurant licence was an on-licence with a restaurant condition attached; until 2009, in Scotland the types of licence were Hotel, Public House, Restricted Hotel, Entertainment, Off-Sale, Refreshment licences. In Northern Ireland, there are numerous types of licence. Under the Licensing Act 2003 and the Licensing Act 2005, there is only one type of premises licence, though the conditions placed on each one will determine whether on sales or off sales are permitted; the premises licence is granted to a person, not to the establishment. Bef
Mash ingredients, mash bill, mashbill, or grain bill are the materials that brewers use to produce the wort that they ferment into alcohol. Mashing is the act of creating and extracting fermentable and non-fermentable sugars and flavor components from grain by steeping it in hot water, letting it rest at specific temperature ranges to activate occurring enzymes in the grain that convert starches to sugars; the sugars separate from the mash ingredients, yeast in the brewing process converts them to alcohol and other fermentation products. A typical primary mash ingredient is grain, malted. Modern-day malt recipes consist of a large percentage of a light malt and, smaller percentages of more flavorful or colored types of malt; the former is called "base malt". The grain bill of a beer or whisky may vary in the number and proportion of ingredients. For example, in beer-making, a simple pale ale might contain a single malted grain, while a complex porter may contain a dozen or more ingredients. In whisky production, Bourbon uses a mash made from maize, single malt Scotch uses malted barley.
Each particular ingredient has its own flavor that contributes to the final character of the beverage. In addition, different ingredients carry other characteristics, not directly relating to the flavor, which may dictate some of the choices made in brewing: nitrogen content, diastatic power, color and conversion; the nitrogen content of a grain relates to the mass fraction of the grain, made up of protein, is expressed as a percentage. Brewers favor lower-nitrogen grains, while distillers favor high-nitrogen grains. In most beermaking, an average nitrogen content in the grains of at most 10% is sought. However, this is a cosmetic desire dating from the mass production of glassware for presenting serving beverages; the quantity of high-mass proteins can be reduced during the mash by making use of a protease rest. In Britain, preferred brewers' grains are obtained from winter harvests and grown in low-nitrogen soil. Distillers, by contrast, are not as constrained by the amount of protein in their mash as the non-volatile nature of proteins means that none is included in the final distilled product.
Therefore, distillers seek out higher-nitrogen grains to ensure a more efficiently-made product. Higher-protein grains have more diastatic power. Diastatic power called the "diastatic activity" or "enzymatic power", is a property of malts that refers to the malt's ability to break down starches into simpler fermentable sugars during the mashing process. Germination produces a number of enzymes, such as amylase, that can convert the starch present in barley and other grains into sugar; the mashing process activates these enzymes by soaking the grain in water at a controlled temperature. In general, the hotter a grain is kilned, the less its diastatic activity; as a consequence, only colored grains can be used as base malts, with Munich malt being the darkest base malt available. Diastatic activity can be provided by diastatic malt extract or by inclusion of separately-prepared brewing enzymes. Diastatic power for a grain is measured in degrees Lintner; the two measures are related by ∘ Lintner = ∘ WK + 16 3.5 ∘ WK = − 16.
A malt with enough power to self-convert has a diastatic power near 35 °Lintner. Until the most active, so-called "hottest", malts available were American six-row pale barley malts, which have a diastatic power of up to 160 °Lintner. Wheat malts have begun to appear on the market with diastatic power of up to 200 °Lintner. Although with the huskless wheat being somewhat difficult to work with, this is used in conjunction with barley, or as an addition to add high diastatic power to a mash. In brewing, the color of a grain or product is evaluated by the Standard Reference Method, American Society of Brewing Chemists or European Brewery Convention standards. While SRM and ASBC originate in North America and EBC in Europe, all three systems can be found in use throughout the world; the darkness of grains range from as light as less than 2 SRM/4 EBC for Pilsener malt to as dark as 700 SRM/1600 EBC for black malt and roasted barley. The quality of starches in a gra
A medal bar or medal clasp is a thin metal bar attached to the ribbon of a military decoration, civil decoration, or other medal. It most indicates the campaign or operation the recipient received the award for, multiple bars on the same medal are used to indicate that the recipient has met the criteria for receiving the medal in multiple theatres; when used in conjunction with decorations for exceptional service, such as gallantry medals, the term "and bar" means that the award has been bestowed multiple times. In the example, "Group Captain Leonard Cheshire, VC, OM, DSO and two bars, DFC", "DSO and two bars" means that the Distinguished Service Order was awarded on three separate occasions. A British convention is to indicate bars by the use of asterisks. Bars are used on long service medals to indicate the length of service rendered; the two terms are used because terms. Prior to the early 19th century and decorations were only awarded to ranking officers. One exception was the Army Gold Medal issued to higher ranking participants in the Peninsular War.
A medal was given with a clasp for each battle fought. After four clasps were earned the medal was turned in for a cross with the battle names on the arms, additional clasps were added; the maximum was achieved with a cross and nine clasps. Over the next 40 years, it became customary for governments to present a medal to all soldiers and officers involved in a campaign; these medals were engraved with the names of the major battles the recipient had fought in during the campaign. The main disadvantages of this system were that new medals had to be created for each campaign or war, that it was impossible to tell at a glance if the recipient was only a participant in the campaign overall, or if he had been involved in one or several major actions; the Sutlej Medal was the earliest medal. It was awarded to British Army and Honourable East India Company soldiers who fought in the First Anglo-Sikh War between 1845 and 1846; the first battle the recipient participated in would be engraved on the medal itself.
If the recipient had participated in multiple engagements, silver bars bearing the name of each additional battle were attached to the medal's ribbon. This method of notation evolved again on the Punjab Campaign medal, where the standard medal was awarded to all that had served during the campaign, with bars produced for the three major battles; the creation of bars led to the development of'General Service' medals, which would be presented to any soldier serving in a general region or time frame. Bars would be awarded to denote the particular war the recipient fought in; the 1854 India General Service Medal was awarded to soldiers over a 41-year period. Twenty-three clasps were created for this award, becoming one of the more extreme uses of this system; the British Naval General Service Medal, was authorised in 1847 with some 231 clasps for actions ranging from minor skirmishes to certain campaigns and all full-fledged battles between 1793 and 1840. The Crimea Medal was issued with ornate battle bars.
Since the general trend has been to have simple horizontal devices. Campaign bars or battle bars are used to denote the particular campaign, battle, or region the recipient operated in to receive the award; this is the most common use of medal bars on military decorations. In the United Kingdom, campaign bars are known as clasps and when the ribbon alone is worn they are sometimes indicated by rosettes, although this is not authorised. Examples of ones that were issued are the "under enemy fire" clasp on the 1914 Star and the Battle of Britain clasp on the 1939-45 Star. In the United States Military, Service stars are used to indicate participation in multiple battles or campaigns, although the World War I Victory Medal had an extensive system of bars. Starting with World War II the Arrowhead device was authorized for assault landings. In this conflict a unique variation of the Service star was the Wake Island Device, a "W" placed on the ribbons of the Navy and Marine Corps Expeditionary Medals.
This was issued to represent the medal bar for fighting in the Battle of Wake Island. Achievement bars are used to indicate a additional feat associated with the medal; as an example, the Wintered Over Device attached to the United States Antarctica Service Medal indicates that the recipient performed a tour of duty during the Antarctic winter. Service bars indicate the length of service a person has provided to the organisation presenting the award; this type of bar is most found on long service medals for the military and emergency services. Multiple award bars display the number of times a decoration for merit or distinguished service has been awarded. In the United States, Oak Leaf Clusters and Stars, rather than bars, are issued for receiving the same award multiple times. In the United Kingdom, each bar is indicated by a rosette. Dorling, Henry Taprell. Ribb
Hartlepool is a town in County Durham, England. The town lies on the North Sea coast, 7 1⁄2 miles north of Middlesbrough and 17 miles south of Sunderland; the town is governed as part of the Borough of Hartlepool, a unitary authority which controls outlying villages such as Seaton Carew and Elwick. Hartlepool was founded around the monastery of Hartlepool Abbey; the village grew in the Middle Ages and its harbour served as the official port of the County Palatine of Durham. After a railway link from the north was established from the South Durham coal fields, an additional link from the south, in 1835, together with a new port, resulted in further expansion, with the new town of West Hartlepool. Industrialisation and the start of a shipbuilding industry in the part of the 19th century caused Hartlepool to be a target for the Imperial German Navy at the beginning of the First World War. A bombardment of 1,150 shells on 16 December 1914 resulted in the death of 117 people. A severe decline in heavy industries and shipbuilding following the Second World War caused periods of high unemployment until the 1990s when major investment projects and the redevelopment of the docks area into a marina saw a rise in the town's prospects.
The place name derives from Old English heort, referring to stags seen, pōl, a pool of drinking water which they were known to use. Records of the place-name from early sources confirm this: 649: Hereteu. 1017: Herterpol, or Hertelpolle. 1182: Hierdepol. The 8th Century Northumbrian chronicler Bede referred to the spot on which today's town is sited upon as "the place where deer come to drink", in this period the Headland was named by the Angles as Heruteu. At the beginning of the 11th Century the name had evolved into Herterpol, post Norman Conquest the name of the village sited there evolved in Middle English as: Hart-le-pool. Archaeological evidence has been found below the current high tide mark that indicates that an ancient post-glacial forest by the sea existed in the area during this period. Hartlepool is located in north of Middlesbrough and south of Sunderland. Nearby towns and cities include: Billingham: Darlington; the monument at Eston Nab can be seen, to the south. After the Roman Empire abandoned its province of Britannia in the early 5th Century, its North-Eastern sea coast began to be piratically raided by the Angles from across the North Sea in Scandinavia.
They subsequently began crossing the North Sea and settled in the area, creating the Kingdom of Northumbria. Hartlepool began as an Anglian settlement, a town developed in the 7th Century A. D. sited around Hartlepool Abbey, founded in 640 A. D. by the Irish Christian priest Saint Aidan upon a headland overlooking a natural harbour and the North Sea. The monastery became powerful under St Hilda, who served as its abbess from 649–657 A. D; the Abbey fell into decline with the loss of Northumbrian power in the early 8th Century, it was destroyed during a sea raid by Vikings on Hartlepool in the 9th Century. In March 2000, the archaeological investigation television programme Time Team located the foundations of the lost monastery in the grounds of St Hilda's Church. During the Norman Conquest the De Brus family gained over-lordship of the land surrounding Hartlepool. William the Conqueror subsequently ordered the construction of Durham Castle, the villages under their rule were mentioned in records in 1153 when Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale became Lord of Hartness.
The town's first charter was received before 1185, for which it gained its first mayor, an annual two-week fair and a weekly market. By the Middle Ages Hartlepool was growing into an important market town, one of the reasons for its escalating wealth being that its harbour was serving now as the official port of the County Palatine of Durham; the main industry of the town at this time was fishing, Hartlepool in this period established itself as one of the primary ports upon England's Eastern coast. In 1306, Robert the Bruce was crowned King of Scotland, became the last Lord of Hartness. Angered, King Edward I confiscated the title to Hartlepool, began to improve the town's military defences in expectation of war. In 1315, before they were completed, a Scottish army under Sir James Douglas attacked and looted the town. In the late 15th Century a pier was constructed to assist in the harbour's workload. Hartlepool was once again militarily occupied by a Scottish incursion, this time in alliance with the Parliamentary Army during the English Civil War, which after 18 months was relieved by an English Parliamentarian garrison.
In 1795 Hartlepool artillery emplacements and defences were constructed in the town as a defensive measure against the threat of French attack from seaborne Napoleonic forces. During the Crimean War two coastal batteries were constructed close together in the town to guard against the threat of seaborne attacks from the Imperial Russian Navy, they were entitled the Lighthouse Battery and the Heugh Battery. Hartlepool in the 18th Century became known as a town with medicinal springs the Chalybeate Spa near the Westgate; the poet Thomas Gray visited the town in July 1765 to "take the waters", wrote to his friend Dr. Wharton: A few weeks he wrote in greater detail: By the early nineteenth century, Hartlepool was still a small town of around 900 people, with a de