The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
U.S. Route 136
U. S. Highway 136 is a spur of U. S. Highway 36, it runs from Edison, Nebraska, at U. S. Highway 6 and U. S. Highway 34 to the Interstate 74/Interstate 465 interchange in Indiana; this is a distance of 804 miles. US 136 never meets its parent, US 36. However, it does come within 2 miles of it at its interchange with I-465/I-74 at its eastern terminus. U. S. 136 passes through the following states: U. S. 136 parallels Nebraska's southern border from its western terminus near Edison to the Missouri River. It exits the state at Brownville via the Brownville Bridge, it is designated the Heritage Highway throughout Nebraska. US 136 enters Missouri on the west just east of Brownville, over the Missouri River, it leaves the state at Alexandria, Missouri, on the east concurrent with US 61. During its journey, it enters every county seat in the nine counties; the distance across Missouri is about 240 miles. US 136 is two lanes for the full distance. US 136 in Iowa consists of a 3.6-mile-long route which travels across the south-easternmost tip of Lee County.
It crosses the Des Moines River from Missouri with US overlapping for just over 1 mile. East of the US 61 split, US 136 is overlapped by US 61 Bus. through Keokuk. US 136 enters Keokuk along 7th Street. At the intersection with Main Street, the southern end of US 218, it turns to the southeast towards the Mississippi River. US 136 travels another 2⁄3 mile before crossing the Mississippi into Hamilton, Illinois via the Keokuk–Hamilton Bridge. US 136 spends 225.95 miles within the state of Illinois. It crosses the Mississippi River into Illinois from Iowa just past Keokuk, it travels through Illinois. It continues as an east–west route intersecting with I-155 and I-55 south of Bloomington-Normal and north of Lincoln in Central Illinois, it intersects with I-74, I-57 just outside Rantoul about 15 miles north of Champaign-Urbana. US 136 travels concurrent with Illinois Route 1 in far east central Illinois before entering Danville, Illinois. At Danville, it turns east to go into Indiana. Through most of its duration in Indiana, US 136 parallels I-74.
Within Indianapolis, the highway is called Crawfordsville Road, US 136 ends in the town of Speedway, Indiana, at the I-74/I-465 interchange where Crawfordsville Road continues without numbered designation. As part of Indiana's Accelerate 465 project, the I-74/I-465 interchange was being reworked to eliminate tight spiral ramps and to add a full interchange for US 136 with I-465, it was completed in 2014. The entire portion of US 136 in Indiana is part of the Dixie Highway. In Illinois, the designation of US 136 in 1951 replaced IL 10 from the Iowa state line in Keokuk to IL 119 in Havana, The route followed IL 119 to an intersection with IL 1, where it traveled south to IL 10, heading east to Danville and the Indiana state line. In Missouri, most of US 136 was designated as Route 4 in 1922; this highway began at St. Joseph and followed present US 169 to Stanberry, turning east there to the Iowa state line along US 136; the rest of US 136 was Route 1A, part of Route 1, Route 18. The east end was truncated to Wayland in 1926, when US 61 was designated over the part east to Iowa, that decade Route 4 absorbed the former Route 52 from St. Joseph southwest to Atchison, Kansas.
When this extension became part of US 59 in the early 1930s, the portion west of Stanberry was deleted in favor of US 59 and US 169. US 136 replaced Route 4 east of Stanberry in 1951 and the rest in 1960. In Nebraska, US 136 was "Route 3." US 136 replaced Route 3 in 1960. US 136 was proposed to use I-465 in Indiana to the US 36 interchange so US 136 could meet its parent, US 36. Nebraska US 6 / US 34 north-northwest of Edison US 183 north-northwest of Alma; the highways travel concurrently to Alma. US 281 in Red Cloud US 81 south-southeast of Hebron US 77 in Beatrice US 75 in Auburn Missouri I‑29 in Rock Port US 275 northwest of Rock Port US 59 south-southwest of Tarkio; the highways travel concurrently to Tarkio. US 71 east-southeast of Burlington Junction; the highways travel concurrently to Maryville. US 169 in Stanberry; the highways travel concurrently to north-northwest of Darlington. US 69 southwest of Bethany; the highways travel concurrently to Bethany. I‑35 in Bethany US 65 in Princeton; the highways travel concurrently through Princeton.
US 63 south-southeast of Glenwood. The highways travel concurrently to Lancaster. US 61 west-northwest of Alexandria; the highways travel concurrently to Iowa. Iowa US 218 in Keokuk Illinois US 67 in Macomb; the highways travel concurrently to east of Macomb. US 24 in Duncan Mills; the highways travel concurrently to south of Duncan Mills. I‑155 east-northeast of Emden I‑55 southeast of McLean US 51 in Heyworth I‑74 south-southeast of Le Roy US 150 southeast of Le Roy I‑57 in Rantoul US 45 in Rantoul US 150 in Danville Indiana US 41 in Veedersburg; the highways travel concurrently through Veedersburg. US 231 in Crawfordsville I‑74 / I‑465 on the Indianapolis–Speedway line. Illinois Route 336 List of U. S. Routes Endpoints of U. S. Highway 136
Central Time Zone
The North American Central Time Zone is a time zone in parts of Canada, the United States, Central America, some Caribbean Islands, part of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Central Standard Time is six hours behind Coordinated Universal Time. During summer most of the zone uses daylight saving time, changes to Central Daylight Time, five hours behind UTC; the province of Manitoba is the only province or territory in Canada that observes Central Time in all areas. The following Canadian provinces and territories observe Central Time in the areas noted, while their other areas observe Eastern Time: Nunavut: western areas Ontario: a portion of the northwest bordering southeastern Manitoba, in and around Kenora. Most of the province of Saskatchewan is on Central Standard Time year-round, never adjusting for Daylight Saving Time. Major exceptions include Lloydminster, a city situated on the boundary between Alberta and Saskatchewan; the city charter stipulates that it shall observe Mountain Time and DST, putting the community on the same time as all of Alberta, including the major cities of Calgary and Edmonton.
As a result, during the summer, clocks in the entire province match those in Alberta, but during the winter, clocks in most of the province match those in Manitoba. Nine states are contained in the Central Time Zone: Alabama Arkansas Illinois Iowa Louisiana Minnesota Mississippi Missouri WisconsinNote: Although all of Alabama is on Central Time, Phenix City and the nearby community of Smiths Station unofficially observe Eastern Time, as these areas are part of the metropolitan area of the larger city of Columbus, Georgia in the Eastern Time Zone. Lanett and Valley observe Eastern Time because they were textile mill towns and the original home office of their mills was in West Point, Georgia. Six states are split between the Central Time Zone and the Mountain Time Zone: Kansas – all, except for Sherman, Wallace and Hamilton counties Nebraska – eastern two thirds North Dakota – all, except for southwest regions and south part of McKenzie County, plus the majority of Dunn County and far western Sioux County Oklahoma – all, except for Kenton South Dakota – eastern half Texas – all, except for El Paso and Hudspeth countiesFive states are split between the Central Time Zone and the Eastern Time Zone: Florida – Florida Panhandle below Alabama border and the Dry Tortugas National Park in Monroe County west of the Florida Keys Indiana – northwest and southwest regions Kentucky – western half Michigan – Gogebic, Iron and Menominee counties Tennessee – West Tennessee and Middle Tennessee Most of Mexico—roughly the eastern three-fourths—lies in the Central Time Zone, except for six northwestern states and one southeastern state.
The federal entities of Mexico that observe Central Time: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua all use Central Standard Time year-round. The Galápagos Islands in Ecuador uses Central Standard Time all year-round. Both Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island in Chile uses Central Standard Time during the Southern Hemisphere winter and Central Daylight Time during the Southern Hemisphere summer. Daylight saving time is in effect in much of the Central time zone between mid-March and early November; the modified time is called "Central Daylight Time" and is UTC−05:00. In Canada, Saskatchewan does not observe a time change. One reason for Saskatchewan's lack of a time change is that, the entire province is closer to the Mountain Time Zone's meridian; the province elected to move onto "permanent" daylight saving by being part of the Central Time Zone. The only exception is the region surrounding the Saskatchewan side of the biprovincial city of Lloydminster, which has chosen to use Mountain Time with DST, synchronizing its clocks with those of Alberta.
In those areas of the Canadian and American time zones that observe DST, beginning in 2007, the local time changes at 02:00 local standard time to 03:00 local daylight time on the second Sunday in March and returns at 02:00 local daylight time to 01:00 local standard time on the first Sunday in November. Mexico decided not to go along with this change and observes their horario de verano from the first Sunday in April to the last Sunday in October. In December 2009, the Mexican Congress allowed ten border cities, eight of which are in states that observe Central Time, to adopt the U. S. daylight time schedule effective in 2010. Effects of time zones on North American broadcasting World time zone map Hismaime zones C conversion The official U. S. time for the GmTCentral Time Zone Cities in CST Official times across Canada
Mahomet is a town in Champaign County, United States. The population was 7,258 at the 2010 census. Mahomet is located ten miles northwest of Champaign at the junction of Interstate 74 and IL 47. Mahomet is located at 40°11′33″N 88°24′8″W. According to the 2010 census, Mahomet has a total area of 9.086 square miles, of which 9.02 square miles is land and 0.066 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,877 people, 1,654 households, 1,374 families residing in the village; this figure does not include surrounding subdivisions which would double the population. The population density was 711.6 people per square mile. There were 1,700 housing units at an average density of 248.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.18% White, 0.14% African American, 0.10% Native American, 0.59% Asian, 0.39% from other races, 0.59% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.94% of the population. There were 1,654 households out of which 51.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 70.9% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.9% were non-families.
14.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.95 and the average family size was 3.27. In the village, the population was spread out with 34.3% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 31.8% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, 6.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.0 males. The median income for a household in the village was $57,574, the median income for a family was $61,063. Males had a median income of $46,277 versus $30,956 for females; the per capita income for the village was $21,990. About 3.5% of families and 5.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.1% of those under age 18 and 3.9% of those age 65 or over. As of 2010 Mahomet had a population of 7,258; the ethnic and racial composition of the population was 95.9% white, 0.6% African-American, 0.2% Native American, 1.8% Asian, 0.4% reporting some other race and 1.1% reporting two or more races.
2.0 % of the population was Latino. The most popular tourist attractions in Mahomet are all Champaign County Forest Preserve District properties: Lake of the Woods Park and its award-winning Hartwell C. Howard Golf Course, the River Bend Forest Preserve. Lake of the Woods Forest Preserve is a 900 acres park along the Sangamon River; the park features a botanical garden, a lake, a picturesque covered bridge and offers activities like boating, cross country skiing, sledding. Within Lake of the Woods Park is the Museum of the Grand Prairie, which has a collection that features life in the 19th and early 20th century in East-Central Illinois; the park has a bell tower. The Hartwell C. Howard Golf Course is an 18-hole regulation course, a 9-hole par 3 course, a practice range; the River Bend Forest Preserve is 275 acres. The park has two large lakes, one of them being the largest lake in Champaign County and 2.5 miles of forest along the Sangamon River. The Mahomet School District has 183 instructors spread over five schools.
The village of Mahomet was first settled in 1832 on the banks of the Sangamon River. It was the first community to be established in modern-day Champaign County; the original village name was Middletown because it is half-way between the towns of Danville and Bloomington. In 1871, the name of the village was changed to Mahomet because there was another Middletown in Illinois, causing mail problems. Most early settlers came from Ohio, Virginia and Pennsylvania and chose to reside in Mahomet because there was abundant water from the Sangamon River and abundant trees. Most residents commute 10 miles to the city of Champaign to work, although the village has a thriving small business district. Another hypothesis is that the Illinois town's name derives from the "Mahomet Lodge," the local Masonic Lodge at the time the town was searching for a new name, its use as the name of the lodge was a manifestation of the Freemasons' liberal use of religious names and stonemason tools and symbols. An alternative theory states that the name Mahomet was arbitrarily assigned when the conflicting names were noted by the US Postal Service.
The town's own published account credits their founder Daniel T. Porter, who had Connecticut roots, as the one who denominated both the new village as Middletown and the post office as Mahomet. With the arrival of the railroad, the town embraced the name of its post office in 1871 because there was a Middletown, Illinois. Although the unusual spelling, French for Mohammed, sometimes confuses newcomers, the pronunciation of Mahomet is muh-HOMM-it. In 2007, the citizens of Mahomet voted to repeal the alcohol prohibition order, in place since World War II. Mabery Gelvin Botanical Garden Hazen Bridge - A registered historical bridge northeast on Mahomet. Mahomet Public Library Village of Mahomet Illinois, Web site Mahomet-Seymour Schools web site Mahomet-Seymour Alumni web site
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun