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Newgate Prison

Newgate Prison was a prison at the corner of Newgate Street and Old Bailey just inside the City of London, England at the site of Newgate, a gate in the Roman London Wall. Built in the 12th century and demolished in 1904, the prison was extended and rebuilt many times, remained in use for over 700 years, from 1188 to 1902. In the early 12th century, Henry II instituted legal reforms that gave the Crown more control over the administration of justice; as part of his Assize of Clarendon of 1166, he required the construction of prisons, where the accused would stay while royal judges debated their innocence or guilt and subsequent punishment. In 1188, Newgate was the first institution established to meet that purpose. A few decades in 1236, in an effort to enlarge the prison, the king converted one of the Newgate turrets, which still functioned as a main gate into the city, into an extension of the prison; the addition included new dungeons and adjacent buildings, which would remain unaltered for two centuries.

By the 15th century, Newgate was in need of repair. Following pressure from reformers who learned that the women's quarters were too small and did not contain their own latrines – obliging women to walk through the men's quarters to reach one – officials added a separate tower and chamber for female prisoners in 1406; some Londoners bequeathed their estates to repair the prison. The building was collapsing and decaying, many prisoners were dying from the close quarters, rampant disease, bad sanitary conditions. Indeed, one year, 22 prisoners died from "gaol fever"; the situation in Newgate was so dire. The executors of Lord Mayor Dick Whittington were granted a licence to renovate the prison in 1422; the gate and gaol were rebuilt. There was a new central hall for meals, a new chapel, the creation of additional chambers and basement cells with no light or ventilation. There were three main wards: the Master’s side for those could afford to pay for their own food and accommodations, the Common side for those who were too poor, a Press Yard for special prisoners.

The king used Newgate as a holding place for heretics and rebellious subjects brought to London for trial. The prison housed both male and female debtors. Prisoners were separated into wards by gender. By the mid-15th century, Newgate could accommodate 300 prisoners. Though the prisoners lived in separate quarters, they mixed with each other and visitors to the prison; the prison was destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666, was rebuilt in 1672 by Sir Christopher Wren. His design extended the complex into new buildings on the south side of the street. In 1770, construction was begun to add a new sessions house. Parliament granted £50,000 towards the cost, the City of London provided land measuring 1,600 feet by 50 feet; the work followed the designs of George Dance. The new prison was constructed to an architecture terrible design intended to discourage law-breaking; the building was laid out around a central courtyard, was divided into two sections: a "Common" area for poor prisoners and a "State area" for those able to afford more comfortable accommodation.

Each section was further sub-divided to accommodate debtors. Construction of the second Newgate Prison was finished when it was stormed by a mob during the Gordon riots in June 1780; the building was gutted by fire, the walls were badly damaged. Dance’s new prison was completed in 1782. During the early 19th century the prison attracted the attention of the social reformer Elizabeth Fry, she was concerned at the conditions in which female prisoners were held. After she presented evidence to the House of Commons improvements were made. In 1858, the interior was rebuilt with individual cells; the prison closed in 1902, was demolished in 1904. All manner of criminals stayed at Newgate; some committed acts of petty crime and theft and entering homes or committing highway robberies, while others performed serious crimes such as rapes and murders. The number of prisoners in Newgate for specific types of crime grew and fell, reflecting public anxieties of the time. For example, towards the tail end of Edward I's reign, there was a rise in street robberies.

As such, the punishment for drawing out a dagger was 15 days in Newgate. Upon their arrival in Newgate, prisoners were chained and led to the appropriate dungeon for their crime. Those, sentenced to death stayed in a cellar beneath the keeper’s house an open sewer lined with chains and shackles to encourage submission. Otherwise, common debtors were sent to the "stone hall" whereas common felons were taken to the "stone hold"; the dungeons were so depraved that physicians would not enter. The conditions did not improve with time. Prisoners who could afford to purchase alcohol from the prisoner-run drinking cellar by the main entrance to Newgate remained perpetually drunk. There were lice everywhere, jailers left the prisoners chained to the wall to languish and starve; the legend of the "Black Dog", an emaciated spirit thought to represent the brutal treatment of prisoners, only served to emphasize the harsh conditions. From 1315 to 1316, 62 deaths in Newgate were under investigation by the coroner, prisoners were always desperate to leave the prison.

The cruel treatment from guards did nothing to help the unfortunate prisoners. According to medieval statute, the prison was to be managed by two annually elected sheriffs, who in turn would sublet the admi

My Bad (Dexter)

"My Bad" is the premiere of the fifth season of the Showtime series Dexter and the show's forty-ninth episode overall. It was written by Chip Johannessen, the show's former executive producer and showrunner, directed by Steve Shill, it aired on September 26, 2010. It brings the final resolution to the Trinity Killer plot, present in season four and features the last performance by Julie Benz as Rita. After discovering his wife Rita murdered in their bathtub, a victim of the Trinity Killer, Dexter Morgan sits on his front lawn in a state of shock, while holding his infant son Harrison in his arms; the police along with Debra arrives at the house, but Dexter registers it, only responds by whispering "It was me", as he blames himself for not killing Arthur Mitchell when he first had the chance, but this comment attracts the suspicion of the FBI, who have arrived at the scene. Seeing as the murder is the work of the Trinity Killer, LaGuerta announces that Miami Metro must hand over the case to the FBI, much to the resentment of most of the department, who feel that Rita's death has hit them close to home.

Meanwhile, Dexter manages to regain his senses enough to notice that the spirit of Harry has failed to appear and give him advice. At the same time Quinn catches a glimpse of the neighbor, Elliot, in tears over the murder, finds it puzzling compared to Dexter's relative lack of response. Faced with the arrangements for Rita's funeral, having to talk with the FBI and telling the bad news to Rita's children, Dexter walks around in an absent-minded state, while he reminisces about the first time he met Rita, leaving it to Debra to make all the arrangements. While she cleans the site of the murder together with Quinn, the emotional pressure gets to her, breaking down in front of him, the two end up having sex. Meanwhile, Dexter breaks it to Astor and Cody, who have arrived home from a trip to Disney World with their grandparents, that Rita has been killed. Astor takes it the hardest of the two, angrily accuses Dexter of failing to protect Rita and tells him "We are better off without you!" Meanwhile, about to leave Dexter's house with Debra, talks to Elliot, finds out about Dexter punching him for kissing Rita.

He tries to tell this to LaGuerta, but she reprimands him, both for interfering with a FBI investigation and for suspecting Dexter. Dexter, taking Astor's words to heart, decides to abandon the city, leaving Harrison in the care of Debra, skipping out on his FBI interview and Rita's funeral, but as he sails out from the bay, he runs out of gas, stops at a refuelling station. Being alone at the station with Rankin, an unpleasant, loud-mouthed customer who insults him, Dexter follows him to the bathroom, kills him in a fit of rage. Harry's spirit appears before Dexter again, surprised by his sudden outburst of raw human emotion and tells him that it is okay to let his feelings out, which leads Dexter to break down in a primal scream, he realizes that he genuinely loved Rita, returns to Miami to appear at her funeral, giving her a heartfelt eulogy before she is put to rest. On its original broadcast, "My Bad" attracted 1.77 million American viewers, up 16% from the season four premiere. A second broadcast at 11:00 p.m. garnered an additional 575,000 viewers, bringing the night's total to 2.34 million, making the episode the highest rated Showtime series premiere in 15 years and the most watched premiere in the show's history.

The fifth-season premiere ranks as the top telecast for the network in 2010. The episode received positive reviews from critics; the A. V. Club gave the episode an A- grade, stating "There's no real sense of where Dexter goes from here - unlike in the other seasons, the show doesn't introduce a major new arc or villain - but as a season premiere, this works fantastically. Dealing with a character's death when that character had worn out his or her welcome, can be a tricky proposition for a long-running show, but Dexter finds a way to do it that suggests the darkness just over the horizon and that there will be no redemption for this man. For as goofy as the show can play him, it hasn't forgotten that he's a force of pure destruction, that's a relief". "My Bad" on IMDb "My Bad" at TV.com

Plicosepalus sagittifolius

Plicosepalus sagittifolius is a woody, photosynthesising, parasitic plant species that grows on the branches of Acacia-species, by means of tapping roots. It has glaucus, entire, 1–6 cm long leaves set oppositely along the stem, with umbels of long up-curved pale greenish-yellow buds, that open explosively, the petals bright yellow curling, long stamens and style clear red, orange or pink, falling after fertilisation; the green oval berries color red when ripe. The species is assigned to the showy mistletoe family. In the Afar language it is called hatote, while the vernacular name in the Oromo language is dertu dedacha. Plicosepalus sagittifolius is a small hemiparasitic shrub of around 1 m in diameter, that grows on the branches of different Acacia-species, sometimes on Albizia and Commiphora, it has eighteen chromosomes. The species is related to P. curviflorus. Branches are greyish brown and carry opposite pairs of light greenish grey leaves, with three obvious or obscure veins each, that come in two different types.

Seated leaves, about 4–5 cm long and ⅔-1 cm wide, lanceolate to oval in shape, with an arrow- or heart-shaped foot 6–8 mm long, clasping the branch they sit on, occur on the long shoots, are spaced about 3–4 cm from the neighboring pairs. Shorter leaves on short stalks are arranged on the short shoots, that may carry the inflorescences. One or a few umbels of three to seven flowers each on a dull purple common stalk of ½–1⅔ cm long are set at the tip of the short shoots, which are leafy at their base; the dull purple stalks of the individual flowers are ½–1 cm long. The developed flowerbuds are 4½–5 cm long, have a thickened, green receptacle of 2½–4 mm long, on top of, an inconspicuous green ring-shaped calyx of ½–1 mm high; the corona is a greenish yellow, in the lower 6–8 mm widened and S-shaped, further to the tip an up-curved tube of 3–3½ cm long, again wider at the tip. The corona opens into free petals that are curled at the receptacle bright yellow and sometimes reddish at the foot, remaining yellow or aging to orange-red.

When open, the orange, pink or red filaments topped by 7–9 mm long anthers become visible. Style and stigma are bright red as the stamens; the receptacles develop into smooth oval berries of 1 cm long and ⅔ cm in diameter green but becoming red when ripe. Adolf Engler described Loranthus undulatus var. sagittifolius in 1895. Thomas Archibald Sprague regarded this plant sufficiently different from Loranthus undulatus to raise its rank to species, so created Loranthus sagittifolius. Benedictus Hubertus Danser, who revised the subfamily Loranthoideae in 1933, reassigned the species to the genus Plicosepalus, making the new combination P. sagittifolius. The simple translation of the root words in Plicosepalus is "plied sepal"; the species epithet sagittifolius is derived from Latin words, sagitta meaning "arrow", folium meaning "leaf" because some of its leaves are arrow-shaped. Plicosepalus sagittifolius occurs in a wide zone in the east of tropical Africa, from South Africa, Malawi, coastal regions from southern Somalia via Kenya and Tanzania to northern Mozambique, inland to the Rift Valley region from southern Ethiopia via Kenya and Uganda to southern Tanzania.

Plicosepalus sagittifolius grows at altitudes of 30-2300 m. In Ethiopia, Plicosepalus sagittifolius can be found in coastal and deciduous bushland and Acacia-Commiphora bushland and woodland; the most common hosts are Acacia mellifera and other Acacia-species, but it sometimes parasitises on Albizia or Commiphora. The caterpillars of Iolaus jacksoni, Jackson's sapphire, feed on Plicosepalus-species, including P. sagittifolius. In Tanzania, Plicosepalus sagittifolius has been used in traditional medicine to treat cancer; the plant is used to soften leather, while branches are utilised as firewood