La Niña is a coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon, the counterpart of El Niño as part of the broader El Niño–Southern Oscillation climate pattern. The name La Niña originates from Spanish, meaning "the little girl", analogous to El Niño meaning "the little boy", it has in the past been called anti-El Niño, El Viejo. During a period of La Niña, the sea surface temperature across the equatorial Eastern Central Pacific Ocean will be lower than normal by 3 to 5°C. An appearance of La Niña persists for at least five months, it has extensive effects on the weather across the globe in North America affecting the Atlantic and Pacific hurricane seasons. La Niña is the positive phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation and is associated with cooler-than-average sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. However, each country and island nation has a different threshold for what constitutes a La Niña event, tailored to their specific interests. For example, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology looks at the trade winds, SOI, weather models and sea surface temperatures in the Niño 3 and 3.4 regions before declaring that a La Niña event has started.
However, the Japan Meteorological Agency declares that a La Niña event has started when the average five-month sea surface temperature deviation for the NINO.3 region is more than 0.5 °C cooler for six consecutive months or longer. A timeline of all La Niña episodes between 1900 and 2019. There was a strong La Niña episode during 1988–1989. La Niña formed in late 1983, in 1995, a protracted La Niña event that lasted from mid-1998 through early 2001; this was followed by a neutral period between 2001 and 2002. The La Niña which developed in mid-2007, lasted until 2009, was a moderate one; the strength of La Niña made the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season one of the five most active since 1944. A new La Niña episode developed quite in the eastern and central tropical Pacific in mid-2010, lasted until early 2011, it intensified again in mid-2011 and lasted until early 2012. This La Niña, combined with record-high ocean temperatures in the north-eastern Indian Ocean, was a large factor in the 2010–2011 Queensland floods, the quartet of recent heavy snowstorms in North America starting with the December 2010 North American blizzard.
The same La Niña event was a cause of a series of tornadoes of above-average severity that struck the Midwestern and Southern United States in the spring of 2011, drought conditions in the South Central states including Texas and Arkansas. Meanwhile, a series of major storms caused extensive flooding in California in December 2010, with seven consecutive days of non-stop rainfall, leading to one of the wettest Decembers in over 120 years of records; this is in contrast to the drier-than-normal conditions associated with La Niña in California in the south. In 2011, on a global scale, La Niña events helped keep the average global temperature below recent trends; as a result, 2011 tied with 1997 for the eleventh-warmest year on record. It was the second-coolest year of the 21st century to date, tied with the second-warmest year of the 20th century. A strong phase of La Niña opened the year, dissipated in the spring before re-emerging in October and lasted through the end of the year; when compared to previous La Niña years, the 2011 global surface temperature was the warmest observed.
The 2011 globally-averaged precipitation over land was the second-wettest year on record, behind 2010. Precipitation varied across the globe; this La Niña contributed to severe drought in East Africa and to Australia's third-wettest year in its 112-year period of records. La Niñas occurred in 1904, 1908, 1910, 1916, 1924, 1928, 1938, 1949–51, 1954–56, 1964, 1970–72, 1973–76, 1983–85, 1988–89, 1995–96, 1998–2001, 2007–08, 2008–09, 2010–12, 2016–17, 2017–18. La Niña impacts the global climate and disrupts normal weather patterns, which as a result can lead to intense storms in some places and droughts in others. Observations of La Niña events since 1950, show that impacts associated with La Niña events depend on what season it is. However, while certain events and impacts are expected to occur during events, it is not certain or guaranteed that they will occur. La Niña results in wetter-than-normal conditions in Southern Africa from December to February, drier-than-normal conditions over equatorial East Africa over the same period.
During La Niña years, the formation of tropical cyclones, along with the subtropical ridge position, shifts westward across the western Pacific Ocean, which increases the landfall threat to China. In March 2008, La Niña caused a drop in sea surface temperatures over Southeast Asia by 2 °C, it caused heavy rains over Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia. La Niña causes the opposite effects of El Niño, above-average precipitation across the northern Midwest, the northern Rockies, Northern California, the Pacific Northwest's southern and eastern regions. Meanwhile, precipitation in the southwestern and southeastern states, as well as Southern California, is below average; this allows for the development of many stronger-than-average hurricanes in the Atlantic and fewer in the Pacific. The synoptic condition for Tehuantepecer winds is associated with high-pressure system forming in Sierra Madre of Mexico in the wake of an advancing cold front, which causes winds to accelerate through the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.
Tehuantepecers occur during the cold season months for the regi
Phineas Banning was an American businessman and entrepreneur. Known as "The Father of the Port of Los Angeles," he was one of the founders of the town of Wilmington, in Los Angeles County, named for his birthplace, his drive and ambition laid the foundations for what would become one of the busiest ports in the world. Besides operating a freighting business, Banning operated a stage coach line between San Pedro and Wilmington, between Banning, named in his honor, Yuma, Arizona. During the Civil War, he ceded land to the Union Army to build a fort at Wilmington, the Drum Barracks, he was appointed a brigadier general of the First Brigade of the militia, used the title of general for the rest of his life. Banning was born in Wilmington, the seventh of 11 children to John Alford Banning and Elizabeth Lowber. At age 13, he moved to Philadelphia to work in his oldest brother's law firm. By his late teens, Banning was working on the dockyards of Philadelphia. At the age of 20, he signed up to work a passage to a then-exotic destination—Southern California.
Banning arrived in San Pedro, California, in 1851, after a long land and sea journey that included crossing the isthmus of Panama before taking another ship to California. The 21-year-old was ambitious and worked in the fishing village of San Pedro as a store clerk, as a stagecoach driver on the line that connected the hamlet with the pueblo of Los Angeles, a town of less than 2,000 people 20 miles to the north. Banning was elected to a one-year term on the Los Angeles Common Council, the governing body of that city, beginning May 10, 1858, ending May 9, 1859. Banning began his own shipping company. By the 1860s, Banning stagecoach wagons were traveling to Salt Lake City, the Kern River gold fields, the new military installation at Yuma, the Mormon settlement at San Bernardino, in an arc around the Southern California region. Banning was not content to consolidate business interests in staging, he began expanding the harbor and docks at San Pedro from their beginnings as illegal exchange sites for mission contraband during the Spanish and Mexican eras, made them efficient enterprises.
In the late 1850s Banning and a group of Southern California investors purchased 640 acres of land adjacent to San Pedro for port expansion. The land purchase was incorporated as Wilmington, after Banning's Delaware birthplace, his facility became known as Banning's Landing. Banning invested the profits from his trade networks into the development of a more sophisticated port complex and for the creation of roads and other connections to Los Angeles. In 1859, the first ocean-going vessel anchored in Los Angeles-Wilmington harbor, the 1860s saw the beginning of small-scale maritime trade between San Pedro and ships anchored in the deeper parts of the harbor. After government-funded dredging made a deep water harbor and breakwater a reality, the port continued to grow. In 1856, Banning married the younger sister of his first California employer. Phineas and Rebecca had eight children, of which three survived into adulthood—William Banning, Joseph Brent Banning, Hancock Banning. Family life was stable in the Banning household, Phineas was a doting, if distant father to his three boys, who grew up around the expanding docks in San Pedro.
Rebecca Banning died in childbirth in 1868, the infant, Vincent Banning, died as well. In 1870, Banning married Mary Hollister, a wealthy heiress whose family lent their name to the city of Hollister, California. Phineas and Mary had three children, two of which survived to adulthood—Mary Hollister Banning and Lucy Tichenor Banning. Following the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860, several Southern states broke away to form the Confederate States of America, which marked the beginning of the American Civil War; the effects of the war were felt in California, in Los Angeles, which had many Southern sympathizers, an alarming development for the new territory. An astute businessman and a vocal patriot and fellow Californian politician Benjamin Wilson donated adjacent plots of land in Wilmington for a military base; the outpost, named Drum Barracks, or Camp Drum, served as headquarters for the Union's Southwestern command for the state of California and territory of Arizona. The move brought Union troops to Wilmington.
He was nearly killed, along with his first wife Rebecca, when the boiler exploded on one of his packet steamers, the SS Ada Hancock, in 1863. After the end of the American Civil War in 1865, Drum Barracks was decommissioned, but the port and harbor continued to grow. Banning was an avowed Unionist and was friends with Winfield Scott Hancock when Hancock was stationed in Los Angeles. Phineas' son Hancock was named after the general; the American government presented Banning with an honorary title, that of Brigadier General of the California First Brigade. The title was purely honorary, with no basis in military service, yet Banning insisted on being referred to as "General Banning" for the remainder of his life. Between 1868 and 1869 he organized the construction of Southern California's first railroad, the Los Angeles & San Pedro Railroad which he sold to the Southern Pacific Railroad in 1873. Banning spent the 1870s in a frenzy of activity; as a California state senator, he campaigned for greater transportation connections to the city of Los Angeles and the growing port, his personal project.
Banning pushed through a plan for a small railroad linking Wilmington/San Pedro wi
Union Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific Railroad is a freight hauling railroad that operates 8,500 locomotives over 32,100 route-miles in 23 states west of Chicago and New Orleans. The Union Pacific Railroad system is the second largest in the United States after the BNSF Railway and is one of the world's largest transportation companies; the Union Pacific Railroad is the principal operating company of the Union Pacific Corporation. Union Pacific is known for pioneering multiple innovative locomotives the most powerful of their era; these include members of the Challenger-type, the Northern-type, as well as the famous Big Boy steam locomotives. Union Pacific ordered the first streamliner, the largest fleet of turbine-electric locomotives in the world, still owns the largest operational diesel locomotive; the Union Pacific legacy began in 1862 with the original company, called the Union Pacific Rail Road, part of the First Transcontinental Railroad project known as the Overland Route. The railroad would subsequently be reorganized thrice: as the Union Pacific Railway, as the Union Pacific "Railroad", as a renamed Southern Pacific Transportation Company.
The current Union Pacific corporation began in 1969 as the Southern Pacific Transportation Company, itself created in a reorganization of a railroad whose legacy dated to 1865. Over the years it would grow to include the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad and the St. Louis Southwestern Railway, in addition to its eponymous railroad; the 1998 Union Pacific-Southern Pacific merger was not UP's first: Union Pacific had merged with Missouri Pacific Railroad, the Chicago and North Western Transportation Company, the Western Pacific Railroad and the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad. However, because the merger with Southern Pacific changed the scope of the Union Pacific railroad, this article will refer to the unmerged system as Union Pacific, the merged system as Union Pacific. Union Pacific's main competitor is the BNSF Railway, the nation's largest freight railroad by volume, which primarily services the Continental U. S. west of the Mississippi River. Together, the two railroads have a duopoly on all transcontinental freight rail lines in the U.
S. The original company, the Union Pacific Rail Road was incorporated on July 1, 1862, under an act of Congress entitled Pacific Railroad Act of 1862; the act was approved by President Abraham Lincoln, it provided for the construction of railroads from the Missouri River to the Pacific as a war measure for the preservation of the Union. It was constructed westward from Council Bluffs, Iowa to meet the Central Pacific Railroad line, constructed eastward from Sacramento, CA; the combined Union Pacific-Central Pacific line became known as the First Transcontinental Railroad and the Overland Route. The line was constructed by Irish labor who had learned their craft during the recent Civil War. Under the guidance of its dominant stockholder Dr. Thomas Clark Durant, the namesake of the city of Durant, the first rails were laid in Omaha; the two lines were joined together at Promontory Summit, Utah, 53 miles west of Ogden on May 10, 1869, hence creating the first transcontinental railroad in North America.
Subsequently, the UP purchased three Mormon-built roads: the Utah Central Railroad extending south from Ogden to Salt Lake City, the Utah Southern Railroad extending south from Salt Lake City into the Utah Valley, the Utah Northern Railroad extending north from Ogden into Idaho. The original UP was entangled in the Crédit Mobilier scandal, exposed in 1872; as detailed by The Sun, Union Pacific's largest construction company, Crédit Mobilier, had overcharged Union Pacific. In order to convince the federal government to accept the increased costs, Crédit Mobilier had bribed congressmen. Although the UP corporation itself was not guilty of any misdeeds, prominent UP board members had been involved in the scheme; the ensuing financial crisis of 1873 led to a credit crunch, but not bankruptcy. As boom followed bust, the Union Pacific continued to expand; the original company was purchased by a new company on January 24, 1880, with dominant stockholder Jay Gould. Gould owned the Kansas Pacific, sought to merge it with UP.
Thusly was the original "Union Pacific Rail Road" transformed into "Union Pacific Railway."Extending towards the Pacific Northwest, Union Pacific built or purchased local lines that gave it access to Portland, Oregon. Towards Colorado, it built the Union Pacific and Gulf Railway: both narrow gauge trackage into the heart of the Rockies and a standard gauge line that ran south from Denver, across New Mexico, into Texas; the Union Pacific Railway would declare bankruptcy during the Panic of 1893. Again, a new Union Pacific "Railroad" was formed and Union Pacific "Railway" merged into the new corporation. In the early 20th century, Union Pacific's focus shifted from expansion to internal improvement. Recognizing that farmers in the Central and Salinas Valleys of California grew produce far in excess of local markets, Union Pacific worked with its rival Southern Pacific to develop a rail-based transport system, not vulnerable to spoilage; these efforts came culminated in the 1906 founding of
John C. Frémont
John Charles Frémont or Fremont was an American explorer and soldier who, in 1856, became the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States. During the 1840s, when he led five expeditions into the American West, that era's penny press and admiring historians accorded Frémont the sobriquet The Pathfinder. During the Mexican–American War, Frémont, a major in the U. S. Army, took control of California from the California Republic in 1846. Frémont was convicted in court-martial for mutiny and insubordination over a conflict of, the rightful military governor of California. After his sentence was commuted and he was reinstated by President Polk, Frémont resigned from the Army. Frémont led a private fourth expedition, which cost ten lives, seeking a rail route over the mountains around the 38th parallel in the winter of 1849. Afterwards, Frémont settled in California at Monterey while buying cheap land in the Sierra foothills; when gold was found on his Mariposa ranch, Frémont became a wealthy man during the California Gold Rush, but he was soon bogged down with lawsuits over land claims, between the dispossession of various land owners during the Mexican–American War and the explosion of Forty-Niners immigrating during the Rush.
These cases were settled by the U. S. Supreme Court allowing Frémont to keep his property. Frémont's fifth and final funded expedition, between 1853 and 1854, surveyed a route for a transcontinental railroad. Frémont became one of the first two U. S. senators elected from the new state of California in 1850. Frémont was the first presidential candidate of the new Republican Party, carrying most of the North, he lost the 1856 presidential election to Democrat James Buchanan. Democrats warned. During the American Civil War, he was given command of Department of the West by President Abraham Lincoln. Although Frémont had successes during his brief tenure as Commander of the Western Armies, he ran his department autocratically, made hasty decisions without consulting Washington D. C. or President Lincoln. After Frémont's emancipation edict that freed slaves in his district, he was relieved of his command by President Lincoln for insubordination. In 1861, Frémont was the first commanding Union general who recognized in Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant an "iron will" to fight and promoted him commander at the strategic base near Cairo, Illinois.
Defeating the Confederates at Springfield, Frémont was the only Union General in the West to have a Union victory for 1861. After a brief service tenure in the Mountain Department in 1862, Frémont resided in New York, retiring from the Army in 1864; the same year Frémont was a presidential candidate for the Radical Democracy Party, but he resigned before the election. After the Civil War, Frémont's wealth declined after investing and purchasing an unsuccessful Pacific Railroad in 1866, lost much of his wealth during the Panic of 1873. Frémont served as Governor of Arizona from 1878 to 1881 appointed by President Rutherford B. Hayes. Frémont retired from politics and died destitute in New York City in 1890. Historians portray Frémont as controversial and contradictory; some scholars regard him as a military hero of significant accomplishment, while others view him as a failure who defeated his own best purposes. The keys to Frémont's character and personality may lie in his being born illegitimately, his ambitious drive for success, self-justification, passive-aggressive behavior.
Frémont's published reports and maps produced from his explorations contributed to massive American emigration overland into the West starting in the 1840s. In June 1846, Frémont's and his army expedition's return to California, spurred the formation of the California Battalion, his military advice led to the capture of Sonoma, the formation of the Bear Flag Republic. Many people during his lifetime believed his court martial by General Kearny in 1848 was unjustified, his biographer Allan Nevins in 1939 believed that Frémont lived a dramatic lifestyle, one of remarkable successes, one of dismal failures. John Charles Frémont was born on January 21, 1813, the son of Charles Frémon, a French-Canadian immigrant school-teacher, Anne Beverley Whiting, the youngest daughter of prominent Virginia planter Col. Thomas Whiting. At age 17, Anne married a wealthy Richmond resident in his early 60s. In 1810, Pryor hired Frémon to tutor his young wife Anne. Pryor confronted Anne when he found out she was having an affair with Frémon.
Anne and Frémon fled to Williamsburg on July 10, 1811 settling in Norfolk, taking with them household slaves Anne had inherited. The couple settled in Savannah, where she gave birth to their son Frémont out of wedlock. Pryor published a divorce petition in the Virginia Patriot, charged that his wife had "for some time past indulged in criminal intercourse"; when the Virginia House of Delegates refused Anne's divorce petition, it was impossible for the couple to marry. In Savannah, Anne took in boarders while Frémon taught dancing. A woman enslaved in the household, Black Hannah, helped raise young John. On December 8, 1818, Frémont's father Frémon died in Norfolk, leaving Anne a widow to take care of John and several young children alone on a limited inherited income. Anne and her family moved to South Carolina. Frémont, knowing his origins and coming from modest means, grew up a proud, restless loner who although self-disciplined, was ready to prove himself and unwilling to play by the rules.
The young Frémont was considered to be "precious and daring," having the a
Butterfield Overland Mail
Butterfield Overland Mail was a stagecoach service in the United States operating from 1858 to 1861. It carried passengers and U. S. Mail from two eastern termini, Tennessee, St. Louis, Missouri, to San Francisco, California; the routes from each eastern terminus met at Fort Smith and continued through Indian Territory, New Mexico, Arizona and California ending in San Francisco. On March 3, 1857, Congress authorized the U. S. postmaster general, Aaron Brown, to contract for delivery of the U. S. mail from Saint Louis to San Francisco. Prior to this, U. S. Mail bound for the Far West had been delivered by the San Antonio and San Diego Mail Line since June 1857. John Butterfield was a descendant of Benjamin Butterfield, who brought his family from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1638, his father, Daniel Butterfield, lived at Berne, in the Helderberg, near Albany, N. Y. where John was born. He attended schools near his boyhood home. John's early involvement with stage lines started about 1820.
"John Butterfield was borne at Berne, in the Helderberg, near Albany, November 18, 1801. In early life we find him in the employment of Thorpe & Sprague, of that city, as a driver, through the solicitation of Mr. Theodore S. Faxton came to Utica, where he for a time was employed in picking up passengers from the taverns and boats for Parker's stages. After a time he started a livery with but small accommodations… His connection to Parker & Co. continued so long as they were still in business, was succeeded by lines of his own, wherein he was a leading manager in the State until staging was superseded by railroads." After his employment with other stage lines, John decided to use this experience for running his own stage lines in Upstate New York. "Mr. Butterfield devoted his attention to lines running North and South. At the height of stage coaching he had forty lines running from Utica as headquarters to Ogdensburg and Sacketts Harbor on the North, South to the Pennsylvania line, through Chemung and Susquehanna valleys."
By 1857, when John was awarded the Overland Mail Company contract, he had had 37 years of experience working for and running stage lines. This was one of the reasons. Through the 1840s and 1850s there was a desire for better communication between the east and west coasts of the United States. There were several proposals for railroads connecting the two coasts. A more immediate realization was an overland mail route across the west. Congress authorized the Postmaster General to contract for mail service from Missouri to California to facilitate settlement in the west; the Post Office Department advertised for bids for an overland mail service on April 20, 1857. Bidders were to propose routes from the Mississippi River westward. Nine bids were made by some of the most experienced stage men. None of the express companies, such as American Express, Adams Express, or Wells Fargo & Co. Express, bid on the contract because, as of yet, they had no experience running stage lines. A suggestion by The New York Times that the express companies could do a better job than the Overland Mail Company drew a sharp rebuttal from a Washington, D.
C. newspaper. Mail Contract No. 12,578 for $600,000 per annum for a semi-weekly service was assigned to John Butterfield of Utica, New York, president for the contract, named the Overland Mail Company. This was the longest mail contract awarded in the United States, it was a stockholding company and the main stockholders, besides John Butterfield who were the directors, were William B. Dinsmore of New York City. There were four others known as sureties. All of the stockholders were connected to other businesses in Upstate New York and most lived not far from Butterfield's home in Utica, New York. Alexander Holland was Butterfield's treasurer of the Overland Mail Company. Dinsmore was vice-president of the company; the office for the company was in New York City. Why John Butterfield was chosen was stated best by Postmaster General Aaron Brown:... a route which no contractor had bid for, but one which in the judgement of A. V. Brown, of Memphis, had more advantages than any other, and, as John Butterfield & Co. had, in the opinion of Brown, greater ability and experience than anybody else to carry out a mail service, John Butterfield & Co. was selected and preferred.
The route, known as the Oxbow Route because of its long curving route through the southwest, was 600 miles longer than the Central Overland Trail, but had the advantage of being snow free. The contract with the U. S. Post Office, which went into effect on September 16, 1858, identified the route and divided it into eastern and western divisions. Franklin, Texas to be named El Paso was the dividing point and these two were subdivided into minor divisions, five in the East and four in the West; these minor divisions were numbered west to east from San Francisco, each under the direction of a superintendent. John Butterfield Sr. turned to two of his most trusted and experienced employees to put in place the Butterfield Trail. In 1858, with expedition leader Marquis L. Kenyon, John Butterfield Jr. helped to select the route and sites for the stage stations. Kenyon was a stockholder/director of the Overland Mail Company and the only stockholder, other than John Butterfield, to have significant staging experience.
Marquis moved fr
Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States, its population is larger than that of 41 individual U. S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium and Taiwan, it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S, its county seat, Los Angeles, is California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people. Los Angeles County is one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850.
The county included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Inyo, Tulare and Orange counties. In 1851 and 1852, Los Angeles County stretched from the coast to the border of Nevada; as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, Orange County in 1889. Prior to the 1870s, Los Angeles County was divided into townships, many of which were amalgamations of one or more old ranchos, they were: Azusa El Monte Azusa and El Monte Townships were merged for the 1870 census. City of Los Angeles Los Angeles Township Los Nietos San Jose San Gabriel Santa Ana. For the 1870 census, Annaheim district was enumerated separately. San Juan. San Pedro. Tejon When Kern County was formed, the portion of the township remaining in Los Angeles County became Soledad Township According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, of which 4,058 square miles is land and 693 square miles is water. Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The Los Angeles River, Rio Hondo, the San Gabriel River and the Santa Clara River flow in Los Angeles County, while the primary mountain ranges are the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Gabriel Mountains. The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of the county. Most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley and Antelope Valley; the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, are contained within the Angeles National Forest. Most of the county's highest peaks are in the San Gabriel Mountains, including Mount San Antonio 10,068 feet ) at the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county lines, Mount Baden-Powell 9,399 feet, Mount Burnham 8,997 feet and Mount Wilson 5,710 feet.
Several lower mountains are in the northern and southwestern parts of the county, including the San Emigdio Mountains, the southernmost part of Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Pelona Mountains. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, which are part of the Channel Islands archipelago off the Pacific Coast. East: Eastside, San Gabriel Valley, portions of the Pomona Valley West: Westside, Beach Cities South: South Bay, South Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Gateway Cities, Los Angeles Harbor Region North: San Fernando Valley, Crescenta Valley, portions of the Conejo Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire, Northeast Los Angeles Angeles National Forest Los Padres National Forest Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Los Angeles County had a population of 9,818,605 in the 2010 United States Census; the racial makeup of Los Angeles County was 4,936,599 White, 1,346,865 Asian, 856,874 African American, 72,828 Native A
John Ford was an American film director. He is renowned both for Westerns such as Stagecoach, The Searchers, The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance, as well as adaptations of classic 20th-century American novels such as the film The Grapes of Wrath, his four Academy Awards for Best Director remain a record. One of the films for which he won the award, How Green Was My Valley won Best Picture. In a career that spanned more than 50 years, Ford directed more than 140 films and he is regarded as one of the most important and influential filmmakers of his generation. Ford's work was held in high regard by his colleagues, with Orson Welles and Ingmar Bergman among those who have named him one of the greatest directors of all time. Ford made frequent use of location shooting and long shots, in which his characters were framed against a vast and rugged natural terrain. Ford was born John Martin "Jack" Feeney in Cape Elizabeth, Maine, to John Augustine Feeney and Barbara "Abbey" Curran, on February 1, 1894.
His father, John Augustine, was born in Spiddal, County Galway, Ireland, in 1854. Barbara Curran was born in the town of Kilronan on the island of Inishmore. John A. Feeney's grandmother, Barbara Morris, was said to be a member of a local gentry family, the Morrises of Spiddal. John Augustine and Barbara Curran arrived in Boston and Portland in May and June 1872, they married in 1875 and became American citizens five years on September 11, 1880. They had eleven children: Mamie, born 1876. John Augustine lived in the Munjoy Hill neighborhood of Portland, with his family, would try farming, working for the gas company, running a saloon, being an alderman. Feeney attended Portland High School, Maine, where he was a successful fullback and defensive tackle, he earned the nickname "Bull" because of the way he would charge the line. A Portland pub is named Bull Feeney's in his honor, he moved to California and in 1914 began working in film production as well as acting for his older brother Francis, adopting "Jack Ford" as a professional name.
In addition to credited roles, he appeared uncredited as a Klansman in D. W. Griffith's 1915 The Birth of a Nation, he married Mary McBride Smith on July 3, 1920, they had two children. His daughter Barbara was married to singer and actor Ken Curtis from 1952 to 1964; the marriage between Ford and Smith lasted for life despite various issues, one of which could have proved problematic from the start, this being that John Ford was Catholic while she was a non-Catholic divorcée. What difficulty was caused by the two marrying is unclear as the level of John Ford's commitment to the Catholic faith is disputed. A strain would have been Ford's many extramarital relationships. John Ford began his career in film after moving to California in July 1914, he followed in the footsteps of his multi-talented older brother Francis Ford, twelve years his senior, who had left home years earlier and had worked in vaudeville before becoming a movie actor. Francis played in hundreds of silent pictures for filmmakers such as Thomas Edison, Georges Méliès and Thomas Ince progressing to become a prominent Hollywood actor-writer-director with his own production company at Universal.
John Ford started out in his brother's films as an assistant, handyman and occasional actor doubling for his brother, whom he resembled. Francis gave his younger brother his first acting role in The Mysterious Rose. Despite an combative relationship, within three years Jack had progressed to become Francis' chief assistant and worked as his cameraman. By the time Jack Ford was given his first break as a director, Francis' profile was declining and he ceased working as a director soon after. One notable feature of John Ford's films is that he used a'stock company' of actors, far more so than many directors. Many famous stars appeared in at least two or more Ford films, including Harry Carey Sr. Will Rogers, John Wayne, Henry Fonda, Maureen O'Hara, James Stewart, Woody Strode, Richard Widmark, Victor McLaglen, Vera Miles and Jeffrey Hunter. Many of his supporting actors appeared in multiple Ford films over a period of several decades, including Ben Johnson, Chill Wills, Andy Devine, Ward Bond, Grant Withers, Mae Marsh, Anna Lee, Harry Carey Jr.
Ken Curtis, Frank Baker, Dolores del Río, Pedro Armendáriz, Hank Worden, John Qualen, Barry Fitzgerald, Arthur Shields, John Carradine, O. Z. Whitehead and Carleton Young. Core members of this extended'troupe', including Ward Bond, John Carradine, Harry Carey Jr. Mae Marsh, Frank Baker and Ben Johnson, were informally known as the John Ford Stock Company. Ford enjoyed extended working relationships with his production team, many of his crew worked with him for decades, he made numerous films with the same major collaborators, including producer and business partner Merian C. Cooper, scriptwriters Nunnally Johnson, Dudley Nichols and Frank S. Nugent, cinematographers Ben F. Reynolds, John W. Brown and Georg