Saint Piran's Flag
Saint Piran's Flag is the flag of Cornwall, United Kingdom. The earliest known description of the flag as the Standard of Cornwall was written in 1838, it is used by some Cornish people as a symbol of their identity. The flag is attributed to a 5th-century Cornish abbot. One early use of a white cross and black background design is the 15th-century coat of arms of the Saint-Peran family. There are claims that the design dates from prior to 1188 when the flag was used in the Crusades, an article in the Encyclopædia Britannica tells that the flag was carried by the Cornish contingent at the Battle of Agincourt. However, the reference given by the Encyclopædia Britannica seems to have been confused with one that comes from a 1590 poem entitled Poly-Olbion by Michael Drayton, it states that the banner carried by the Cornish men at Agincourt depicted two Cornish wrestlers in a hitch. The earliest known evidence of this flag was recorded by Davies Gilbert in his 1838 work: The Parochial History of Cornwall, in which he gives reference to a white cross on a black ground was the banner of St Perran and the Standard of Cornwall.
However, Gilbert did not leave a record of his background research, referred only to his "recollection". One of the oldest depictions of the flag can be seen in a stained glass window at Westminster Abbey, it was unveiled in memory of the famous Cornish inventor and engineer Richard Trevithick. The window depicts St Michael at the top and nine Cornish saints, Petroc, Germanus, Cyriacus, Constantine and Geraint in tiers below; the head of St Piran appears to be a portrait of Trevithick himself, the figure carries the banner of Cornwall. Saint Piran's Flag has similarities to the flag of Saint David; the cultural links between Brittany and Cornwall are well recorded. Saint Piran's Flag is the negative image of a black cross on a white field; the flag of Saint David shares a black background with Saint Piran's Flag, but is surmounted by a gold, rather than a white, cross. It has been suggested that it may have been based on the arms of the Earl of Cornwall, or the Duchy of Cornwall; the arms of the Saint-Peran family in Brittany, show a white cross pattee on a black field.
Several other French and Breton families had coats of arms that bear a striking resemblance to the St Piran's flag: Saint Peran or Saint Pezran of Brittany, is described as, "sable a cross patée argent". Geoffroy le Borgne of Brittany is described as "de sable à croix d'argent". Rossillon de Gex, coat of arms described: "De sable à la croix d'argent". Brunet, de la Besse, coat of arms described: "D'azur, à la croix d'argent". Arnèke Family coat of arms. Rouvroy de Saint-Simon of Picardy, described: "De sable à la croix d'argent chargée de cinq coquilles"; the flag is displayed on bumper stickers, flying from buildings, including those of Cornwall Council. It is flown at most Cornish gatherings, such as the Gorseth Kernow, St Piran's Day, Camborne's Trevithick Day, Padstow's'Obby'Oss festival, Helston's Flora Day, at Cornish rugby matches, it is seen around Cornwall on car stickers with the word Kernow, is used around the world as a symbol of the Cornish diaspora or overseas Cornish associations.
It has been adapted for use in the logos of a number of organisations, such as the Cornwall district of the Methodist Church, is used by a variety of Cornish businesses such as Ginsters, is seen on the design of the Cornish All Blacks rugby shirts as well as the Cornish Pirates rugby logo. At the Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant in June 2012, the flag was flown on the Royal Rowing Barge alongside the flags representing England, Northern Ireland and the City of London. One of the largest flags in the pageant was St Piran's Flag, flown by the St Ives mackerel lugger Barnabas; the flags of Smith Island and Tangier, Virginia incorporate St. Piran's cross in the upper-left canton in recognition of the early settlers who came to the islands from Cornwall and Devon. Outline of Cornwall List of Cornish flags Cornish heraldry The Flag of the Duchy of Brittany List of topics related to Cornwall St Piran's Day Flag of Devon Flags of the World – Speculations of the origins of this flag; the Flag Institute
Penzance is a town, civil parish and port in Cornwall, in England, United Kingdom. It is the most westerly major town in Cornwall and is about 64 miles west-southwest of Plymouth and 255 miles west-southwest of London. Situated in the shelter of Mount's Bay, the town faces south-east onto the English Channel, is bordered to the west by the fishing port of Newlyn, to the north by the civil parish of Madron and to the east by the civil parish of Ludgvan; the civil parish includes the town of Newlyn and the villages of Mousehole, Paul and Heamoor. Granted various royal charters from 1512 onwards and incorporated on 9 May 1614, it has a population of 21,200. Penzance—Pennsans. There are no early documents mentioning an actual dedication to St Anthony which seems to depend on tradition and may be groundless; the only remaining object from this chapel is a carved figure, now eroded, known as "St Raffidy" which can be found in the churchyard of the parish church of St Mary's near the original site of the chapel.
Until the 1930s this history was reflected in the choice of symbol for the town, the severed "holy head" of St John the Baptist. It can still be seen on the civic regalia of the Mayor of Penzance and on several important landmarks in the town. About 400 prehistoric stone axes, known as Group 1 axes and made from greenstone, have been found all over Britain, which from petrological analysis appear to come from west Cornwall. Although the quarry has not been identified, it has been suggested that the Gear, a rock now submerged half a mile from the shore at Penzance, may be the site. A significant amount of trade is indicated; the earliest evidence of settlement in Penzance is from the Bronze Age. A number of bronze implements such as a palstave, a spear-head, a knife, pins, along with much pottery and large quantities of charcoal were discovered when building a new housing estate, at Tredarvah, to the west of Alverton; the defensive earthwork known as Lescudjack Castle is not excavated, but certainly belongs to the Iron Age.
A single rampart encloses three acres of hilltop, would have dominated the approach to the area from the east. There are no signs of the additional ramparts reported by William Hals in about 1730, the site is now surrounded by housing with allotments. Excavations in 2008, 1 kilometre to the west at Penwith College found an enclosure ditch and pottery indicating a settlement, an evolving field system with ditches and interconnecting pits suggesting water management. There are traces of a rampart and ditch to the west of Penzance at Mount Misery, an oval rampart and ditch at Lesingey above the St Just road, which together with Lescudjack, overlook the coast of Penzance and Newlyn; until there was little evidence for anything but an early and short Roman occupation of Cornwall, there have so far been only three finds in Penzance. In August 1899 two coins of Vespasian were found in an ancient trench in Penzance Cemetery; the coins were eight feet below ground together with some cow bones, are now in the Penlee House Museum.
Another coin, found in 1934 in the Alverton area, depicts the Roman sun god. It is described as a ″coin of the reign of Constantine the Great″, was donated to the museum. A 30 mm sestertius was found on a building site in or around Penzance about ten years and was presented to the Royal Institution of Cornwall. Larger quantities of Roman coins have been found nearby, at Marazion Marsh and Kerris in Paul parish, but there is no evidence of any Roman settlement in the area, although nearby villages such as Chysauster were occupied at this time; the Hundred of Penwith had its ancient centre at Connerton, now buried beneath the sands of Gwithian Towans at Gwithian. A Hundred was a Saxon administrative unit, sub-divided into tithings; the Manor of Alverton, with an area of 64 Cornish acres, gave its name to the second largest tithing in Penwith. The manor included Penzance as well as parts of Paul, St Buryan and Sancreed. Although Penzance is not mentioned in the survey document the Domesday Book, it is that the area would have been included.
Domesday records that in 1066 the Manor of Alwarton was owned by Alward, dispossessed by Robert, Count of Mortain, a half-brother of William the Conqueror. The name Alward and tun, a personal name combined with a town or settlement suffix, indicate Saxon land ownership. In Cornwall the tun indicates a manorial centre such as Connerton; the change of ownership in 1066 was a change from one alien landlord to another, the name Alverton lives on as the western part of Penzance from St John’s Hall, to the housing estate on the west side of the River Laregan. The first mention of the name Pensans is in the Assize Roll of 1284, the first mention of the actual church that gave Penzance its name is in a manuscript written by William Borlase in 1750: ″The ancient chapel belonging to the town of Penzance may be seen in a fish cellar, near the key. In around 1800 the chapel was converted to a fish cellar. A carving in "Ludgvan granite" thought to be of St Anthony was removed in about 1830 and was used in the wall of a pig sty, further vandalised in 1850 when "a stranger... taking fancy to the stony countenance and rough hands
William Ayerst Ingram
William Ayerst Ingram or W. Ayerst Ingram RBA was a painter and member of the Newlyn School, he did notable Landscape art and Marine art. In 1906 he joined the Royal Institute of Oil Painters and in 1907 he joined the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours. William Ayerst Ingram was born on 27 April 1855 in Twickenham, England, his father was a vicar, born in Glasgow, Scotland named Rev. G. S. Ingram, at Staines in 1862 and the newly opened Vinewood Chapel in Richmond in 1871. Ingram was the third son born to Reverend G. S. Ingram and his mother, it was first accepted that he would become a businessman, so it was in his life that he began exploring artistic pursuits by studying with A. W. Weedon and John Steeple. In 1882 Ingram moved to the Cornwall town of Falmouth, he married May Martha Fay, an American, by 1896. The couple lived in Tregurrian in Falmouth in 1911. Ingram died on 20 March 1913 in Falmouth, he set up a studio in London. The same year he founded the Anglo-Australian Society and was established as its President.
By this time Ingram had well-travelled, including travels to Australia, according to a fellow artist and friend, George Percy Jacomb-Hood. He became the Royal British Colonial Society of Artists' President in 1888. Having moved to Cornwall in 1882, Ingram established friendships with people from the Newlyn School, including Laura and Harold Knight. In 1894 Ingram and two good friends Jack Downing and Henry Scott Tuke established the Falmouth Art Gallery. From 1902 to 1904 Ingram was the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society's Vice-President in Falmouth, his works for 1893 A P. & O. Voyage and 1902 Waters of the Old and New Worlds exhibits reflected his world-wide travel experiences. A Saturday Review of A P. & O. Voyage stated that Ingram was adroit at capturing the "convexity" of the sea waves, but fell short in capturing the reality of some of the scenes, such as of the Australian coast, which "for the most part is monotonous both in colour and scenery..." Ingram's works included outdoor scenes, such as seascapes and landscapes in oil and watercolour.
A partial list of Ingram's work is: His works, which have been compared to those of the painter Henry Moore have been in the collections of National Galleries in New South Wales and South Australia. Ingram was a member and Vice-President or President of some of the following organisations: Ingram exhibited at Dowdeswells, Royal Academy, Royal Society of British Artists, Whitechapel, NWS in 1886 and the Fine Art Society in 1888 and 1902. Harold Begbie; the life of General William Booth: the founder of the Salvation army. The Macmillan company. P. 303. Note: Sweet story of William Ayerst and his wife being moved by a Salvation Army worker when they lived in Falmouth. Charles Holme. International Studio. New York Offices of the International Studio. P. 271. Note: description of one of his works. Cornwall Polytechnic Society. Annual report. 1905. George Percy Jacomb Hood. With Brush and Pencil. J. Murray. William Ayerst Ingram, images of works Falmouth Art Gallery holds seven of Ingram's works, two of which are included in the exhibition "Hemy and friends" 24/11/2012 to 2/2/2013 The seven paintings are online at
Allantide known as Saint Allan's Day or the Feast of Saint Allan, is a Cornish festival, traditionally celebrated on the night of 31 October, as well as the following day time, known elsewhere as Allhallowtide. The festival, in Cornwall is the liturgical feast day of St Allan, the bishop of Quimper in the sixth century; as such, Allantide is known as Allan Night and Allan Day. The origins of the name Allantide probably stem from the same sources as Hollantide and Hallowe'en itself; as with the start of the celebration of Allhallowtide in the rest of Christendom, church bells were rung in order to comfort Christian souls in the intermediate state. Another important part of this festival was the giving of Allan apples, large glossy red apples that were polished, to family and friends as tokens of good luck. Allan apple markets used to be held throughout West Cornwall in the run up to the feast; the following is a description of the festival as it was celebrated in Penzance at the turn of the 19th century::"The shops in Penzance would display Allan apples, which were polished large apples.
On the day itself, these apples were given as gifts to each member of the family as a token of good luck. Older girls would place these apples under their pillows and hope to dream of the person whom they would one day marry. A local game is recorded where two pieces of wood were nailed together in the shape of a cross, it was suspended with 4 candles on each outcrop of the cross shape. Allan apples would be suspended under the cross; the goal of the game was to catch the apples in your mouth, with hot wax being the penalty for slowness or inaccuracy."Robert Hunt in his book'Popular romances of the West of England' describes Allantide in St Ives THE ancient custom of providing children with a large apple on Allhallows-eve is still observed, to a great extent, at St Ives. "Allan-day," as it is called, is the day of days to hundreds' of children, who would deem it a great misfortune were they to go to bed on "Allan-night" without the time-honoured Allan apple to hide beneath their pillows. A quantity of large apples are thus disposed of the sale of, dignified by the term Allan Market.
There are a number of divination games recorded including the throwing of wall nuts in fires to predict the fidelity of partners and the pouring of molten lead into cold water as a way of predicting the occupation of future husbands, the shape of the solidified lead somehow indicating this. In some parts of Cornwall "Tindle" fires were lit similar in nature to the Coel Coth of Wales. Prior to the 20th Century the parish feast of St Just in Penwith was known as Allantide. St Allen Hop-tu-Naa - Isle of Man Calan Gaeaf - Wales Nickanan Night
Marjorie Frances Bruford
Marjorie Frances Bruford known as Midge Bruford was a British artist associated with the Newlyn School of artists. Although born in Eastbourne, Bruford was an active participant in several of the artist groups based in Cornwall throughout her adult life. Bruford attended Badminton School in the Clifton area of Bristol. There she became friends with Mornie Birch, one of the daughters of the Cornwall artist Lamorna Birch; this connection led Bruford to taking art classes at Forbes School of Painting in Newlyn during the 1920s. Bruford took art lessons from other artists based in Newlyn including Ernest Procter and Harold Harvey and studied under Lamorna Birch in the 1930s. For a time Bruford lived at Treveneth near Paul before spending time studying in Paris and lived in a cottage between Paul and Mousehole. Bruford painted portraits and landscapes and was the subject of several portraits by Dod Proctor. Bruford and the Cornish artist Richard Weatherby lived together at Mullion Cove in the late 1920s but although at one point they were engaged they never married.
During her artistic career Bruford exhibited at the Newlyn Art Gallery during the 1920s, at the Goupil Gallery in London, the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool, with the New English Art Club and the Society of Women Artists. Bruford was a regular exhibitor at the Royal Academy, in total having some thirty-two works accepted for display there between 1924 and 1955. 3 paintings by or after Marjorie Frances Bruford at the Art UK site
Sir Alfred James Munnings, was known as one of England's finest painters of horses, as an outspoken critic of Modernism. Engaged by Lord Beaverbrook's Canadian War Memorials Fund, he earned several prestigious commissions after the Great War that made him wealthy. Alfred Munnings was born on 8 October 1878 at Mendham Mill, Suffolk, across the River Waveney from Harleston in Norfolk to Christian parents, his father was the miller and Alfred grew up surrounded by the activity of a busy working mill with horses and horse-drawn carts arriving daily. After leaving Framlingham College at the age of fourteen he was apprenticed to a Norwich printer and drawing advertising posters for the next six years, attending the Norwich School of Art in his spare time; when his apprenticeship ended, he became a full-time painter. The loss of sight in his right eye in an accident in 1898 did not deflect his determination to paint, in 1899 two of his pictures were shown at the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition, he painted rural scenes of subjects such as Gypsies and horses.
He was associated with the Newlyn School of painters, while there met Florence Carter-Wood, a young horsewoman and painter. They married on 19 January 1912 but she tried to kill herself on their honeymoon and did so in 1914. Munnings bought Castle House, Dedham, in 1919, describing it as'the house of my dreams', he used the house and adjoining studio extensively throughout the rest of his career, it was opened as the Munnings Art Museum in the early 1960s, after Munnings's death. Munnings remarried in 1920. There were no children from either marriage. Although his second wife encouraged him to accept commissions from society figures, Munnings became best known for his equine painting: he depicted horses participating in hunting and racing. Although he volunteered to join the Army, he was assessed as unfit to fight. In 1917, his participation in the war was limited to a civilian job outside Reading, processing tens of thousands of Canadian horses en route to France — and to death, he was assigned to one of the horse remount depots on the Western Front.
Munnings's talent was employed as a war artist to the Canadian Cavalry Brigade, under the patronage of Max Aitken, in the latter part of the war. During the war he painted many scenes, including in 1918 a portrait of General Jack Seely mounted on his horse Warrior. Munnings worked on this canvas a few thousand yards from the German front lines; when General Seely's unit was forced into a hasty withdrawal, the artist discovered what it was like to come under shellfire. In 1918 Munnings painted Charge of Flowerdew's Squadron. After what is known as "the last great cavalry charge" at the Battle of Moreuil Wood, Gordon Flowerdew was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross for leading Lord Strathcona's Horse in a successful engagement with entrenched German forces; the Canadian Forestry Corps invited Munnings to tour its work camps in France, in 1918 he produced drawings and oil paintings, including Draft Horses, Lumber Mill in the Forest of Dreux. This role of horses in the war was under-reported.
The Canadian War Records Exhibition at the Royal Academy after the Armistice of November 1918 included forty-five of Munnings's canvasses. After the war, Munnings began to establish himself as a sculptor, although he had no formal training in the discipline, his first public work was the equestrian statue of Edward Horner in Mells, Somerset, a collaboration with his friend Sir Edwin Lutyens, who designed a plinth for the statue. This work led to a commission from the Jockey Club for a sculpture of Brown Jack. Munnings was elected president of the Royal Academy of Arts in 1944, he was made a Knight Bachelor in July of the same year, was appointed a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order in the 1947 New Year Honours. His presidency is best known for the valedictory speech he gave in 1949, in which he attacked modernism; the broadcast was heard by millions of listeners to BBC radio. An evidently inebriated Munnings claimed that the work of Cézanne and Picasso had corrupted art, he recalled that Winston Churchill had once said to him, "Alfred, if you met Picasso coming down the street would you join with me in kicking his... something something?" to which Munnings said he replied, "Yes Sir, I would".
Munnings died at Castle House, Essex, on 17 July 1959. His ashes were interred with an epitaph by John Masefield. After his death, his wife turned their house in Dedham into a museum of his work; the village pub in Mendham is named after him. Munnings was portrayed by Dominic Cooper in the film Summer in February, released in Britain in 2013; the film is adapted from a novel by Jonathan Smith. His immensely popular sporting art works have enjoyed popularity in the United States as well as the United Kingdom and elsewhere. Represented by agents Frost & Reed of London while he was alive, Munnings's works were bought by some of the wealthiest collectors of the day; as of 2007, the highest price paid for a Munnings painting was $7,848,000 for The Red Prince Mare, far above his previous auction record of $4,292,500 set at Christie's in December 1999. It was one of four works by Munnings in the auction; the Red Prince Mare is a 40 by 60 inches oil on canvas, executed in 1921 and had an estimate of $4,000,000 to $6,000,000.
Munnings wrote an autobiography in thr
An art colony or artists' colony is a place where creative practitioners live and interact with one another. Artists are invited or selected through a formal process, for a residency from a few weeks to over a year. Beginning with the early 20th century models, such as MacDowell Colony and Yaddo, hundreds of modern-day artist colonies now offer the benefit of time and collaborative time away from the usual workaday world. Worldwide, the two primary organizations serving artist colonies and residential centres are Res Artis, based in Amsterdam, the Alliance of Artists Communities, based in Providence, Rhode Island; the Intra Asia Network, based in Taiwan, is a less formal body working to advance creative communities and exchanges throughout Asia. These consortia comprise most of the world's active artists' colonies; the art movement itself has only started to be investigated by scholars, with the chief historical studies consisting of Michael Jacobs's introductory The Good and Simple Life and Nina Lübbren's Artists’ Colonies in Europe 1870-1910.
Art colonies emerged as village movements in the 19th and early 20th century. It is estimated that between 1830 and 1914 some 3,000 professional artists participated in a mass movement away from urban centres into the countryside, residing for varying lengths of time in over eighty communities. There seem to have been three chief forms of these settlements, consisting of villages with transient and annually fluctuating populations of artists—mostly painters who visited for just a single summer season. In the latter villages, artists invariably built their own houses and studios. While artist colonies appeared across Europe, as well as in America and Australia, Lübbren has found that the majority of colonies were clustered in the Netherlands, Central Germany, France. Overall, artists of thirty-five different nationalities were represented throughout these colonies, with Americans and British forming the largest participating groups; this gave socialising a cosmopolitan flavour:'Russia, England, Germany, France and the United States were represented at our table, all as one large family, striving towards the same goal,' the painter Annie Goater penned in 1885 in an essay on her recent experiences at one French colony.
Villages can be classified according to the nationalities they attracted. Barbizon, Pont-Aven, Katwijk and Dachau drew artists from around the world and had a pronounced international flavour. Americans were always a major presence at Rijsoord, Egmond, Grèz-sur-Loing, St Ives. On the other hand, foreigners were rare at Sint-Martens-Latem, Nagybanya, Staithes and Willingshausen, while Skagen hosted Danes and a few other Scandinavians; some painters were renowned within artistic circles for settling down permanently in a single village, most notably Jean-François Millet at Barbizon, Robert Wylie at Pont-Aven, Otto Modersohn at Worpswede, Heinrich Otto at Willinghausen, Claude Monet at Giverny. They were not leaders, although these artists were respected and held a certain moral authority in their respective colonies. There were regular'colony hoppers' who moved about the art colonies of Europe in a nomadic fashion. Max Liebermann, for instance, painted at Barbizon, Etzenhausen and at least six short-lived Dutch colonies.
The greater number of early European art colonies were to be casualties of the First World War. Europe was no longer the same place politically and culturally, art colonies seemed a quaint anachronism in an abrasively modernist world. However, a small proportion did endure in one or another form, owe their continuing existence to cultural tourism; the colonies of Ahrenshoop, Fischerhude, Laren, Sint-Martens-Latem, Volendam and Worpswede not only still operate in a modest fashion, but run their own museums where, besides maintaining historic collections of work produced at the colony, they organise exhibition and lecture programs. If they have not fared as well, several former major colonies such as Concarneau and Newlyn are remembered via small yet significant collections of pictures held in regional museums. Other colonies succumbed during the late twentieth century to cultural entrepreneurs who have redeveloped villages in the effort to simulate, within certain kitsch parameters, the'authentic' appearance of the colony during its artistic heyday.
This is not always successful, with Giverny, Grèz-sur-Loing, Kronberg, Le Pouldu, Pont-Aven and Tervuren being among the most insensitively commercialised of the former art colonies. Some art colonies are organized and planned, while others arise because some artists like to congregate, finding fellowship and inspiration—and constructive competition—in the company of other artists; the American Academy in Rome, founded in 1894 as the American School of Architecture, which in the following year joine