Landing Craft Utility
The Landing Craft Utility is a type of boat used by amphibious forces to transport equipment and troops to the shore. They are capable of transporting tracked or wheeled vehicles and troops from amphibious assault ships to beachheads or piers; the Engin de débarquement amphibie rapide landing catamaran or L-CAT, entered service in January 2011. They can carry a main battle tank like other European LCUs but are capable of much higher speeds, up to 30 knots. Germany has two Barbe-class utility landing craft, dating from the mid-1960s, which remain in service under the SEK-M Naval Special Forces' command. Germany is looking to acquire more such crafts. Five Barbe landing crafts were transferred to Greece at the end of the Cold War. India has three Kumbhir class LCU, two Mk III class LCU and four Mk IV class LCU; the first Mk III class LCU was commissioned on 18 July 1986.. Four more MK IV class of LCU are under construction at GRSE. With the launch of the amphibious transport ship HNLMS Rotterdam in 1998 there was a need for LCUs.
The Dutch LCUs are similar to the British LCU Mk.10 with the bridge being set to one side allowing for a roll-on roll-off design. Until 2005 the Netherlands Marine Corps used the LCU Mark I. In 2005 and 2006 the five vessels were modernized to the type Mark II; the vessels have been stretched by 9 meters to decrease their draft, which increased their load carrying capacity by 20 tons and allows them to come closer to shore. In addition they were fitted with a strengthened bow ramp, they can now accommodate the Royal Netherlands Army Leopard 2 A6 main battle tank; because of the lengthening of the Mark II, the Rotterdam can take two LCUs in its dock. The dock of Rotterdam's sister ship, HNLMS Johan de Witt, has the capacity to transport two LCUs, but carries four LCVPs in davits; the Dyugon-class landing craft are operated by the Russian Navy Sweden operates 16 small and fast water jet landing crafts with a displacement of 65 tones. They are armed with one 12,7 mm machine gun but can lay out mines and is equipped with armour for anti submarine warfare.
The vessel type has been exported to the United Arab Emirates. In addition, HSwMS Loke is a larger vessel at a displacement of 305 tones, capable of carrying 150 tones; the ship is armed with two 7,62 mm machine guns. The Armada has been exported to Australia and Turkey; the LCU Mk.9 was built for use on the LPDs Fearless and Intrepid where they were operated from the dock in the rear of the ships. Each ship carried four davit mounted LCVPs; the Mk.9 was to see many changes and upgrades during its service including a move from propeller to jet in many cases. The Mk.9 was capable of traveling as an ocean-going vessel and a number would be converted into a version, affectionately known as the "Black Pig", for use in Norway. The crew heads; the opinion that the successful British amphibious operations during the Falklands War were only possible because of the two LPDs and their landing craft is well documented. In the Falklands War during the Bluff Cove Air Attacks LCU F4 from Fearless was bombed and sunk in Choiseul Sound by an Argentine Air Force A-4B Skyhawk of Grupo 5.
The Mk.9, like the LPDs, served longer than anticipated, providing the backbone of Britain's amphibious assault capabilities. Three Mk.9s, pennant numbers 701, 705, 709, remained in service by 2012. However, by 2014, they had all been withdrawn from service; the LCU Mk.10 class vessels are operated by the Royal Marines. They are intended for use on board the new assault ships Albion and Bulwark and can use the Bay class landing ships. Deliveries of the class started from 1998 and the fleet consists of ten vessels, bearing pennant numbers 1001 to 1010. Both Albion and Bulwark are capable of carrying four LCUs each; these vessels are capable of operating independently for up to 14 days with a range of 600 nautical miles. They are capable of operating worldwide, from Arctic operating areas to tropical operating areas; the Mk.10 differs from the Mk.9 with the bridge being set to the side allowing for a roll-on roll-off design. This increases efficiency over the old Mk.9 as loading of the rear LCUs can take place without the LCUs being launched, the LPD having to dock down to do so, to change over and load up, a problem prior to the Falklands landings.
The LCU Mk.10 has a 7-man crew and can carry up to 120 Marines or alternatively 1 battle tank or 4 lorries. British assault ships carry smaller LCVPs on davits to transport troops and light vehicles. All ten Mk.10s, pennant numbers 1001 to 1010, remain in service as of 2012. The LCU 1466, 1610 and 1627 class vessels are operated by the United States Navy at support commands, they are a self-sustaining craft complete with living accommodations and mess facilities for a crew of thirteen. They have been adapted for many uses including salvage operations, ferry boats for vehicles and passengers, underwater test platforms; each LCU is assigned a non-commissioned-officer-in-charge, either a Chief Petty Officer or Petty Officer First Class in the Boatswain’s Mate, Quartermaster or Operations Specialist rating. These vessels have bow ramps for onload/offload, can be linked bow to stern gate to create a temporary pier-like structure, its welded steel hull provides high durability with deck loads of 800 pounds per square foot.
Arrangement of machinery and equipment has taken into account built-in redundancy in the event of battle damage. The craft features two engine rooms separated by a watertight bulkhead to permit limited operation in the event that one engine room is di
Royal Australian Navy
The Royal Australian Navy is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate colonial navies were integrated into a national force, called the Commonwealth Naval Forces. Intended for local defence, the navy was granted the title of'Royal Australian Navy' in 1911, became responsible for defence of the region. Britain's Royal Navy’s Australian Squadron was assigned to the Australia Station and provided support to the RAN; the Australian and New Zealand governments helped to fund the Australian Squadron until 1913, while the Admiralty committed itself to keeping the Squadron at a constant strength. The Australian Squadron ceased on 4 October 1913, when RAN ships entered Sydney Harbour for the first time; the Royal Navy continued to provide blue-water defence capability in the Pacific up to the early years of World War II. Rapid wartime expansion saw the acquisition of large surface vessels and the building of many smaller warships.
In the decade following the war, the RAN acquired a small number of aircraft carriers, the last of, decommissioned in 1982. Today, the RAN consists of 48 commissioned vessels, 3 non-commissioned vessels and over 16,000 personnel; the navy is one of the largest and most sophisticated naval forces in the South Pacific region, with a significant presence in the Indian Ocean and worldwide operations in support of military campaigns and peacekeeping missions. The current Chief of Navy is Vice Admiral Michael Noonan; the Commonwealth Naval Forces were established on 1 March 1901, two months after the federation of Australia, when the naval forces of the separate Australian colonies were amalgamated. A period of uncertainty followed as the policy makers sought to determine the newly established force's requirements and purpose, with the debate focusing upon whether Australia's naval force would be structured for local defence or whether it would be designed to serve as a fleet unit within a larger imperial force, controlled centrally by the British Admiralty.
In 1908–09, the decision was made to pursue a compromise solution, the Australian government agreed to establish a force that would be used for local defence but which would be capable of forming a fleet unit within the imperial naval strategy, albeit without central control. As a result, the navy's force structure was set at "one battlecruiser, three light cruisers, six destroyers and three submarines". On 10 July 1911, King George V granted the service the title of "Royal Australian Navy"; the first of the RAN's new vessels, the destroyer Yarra, was completed in September 1910 and by the outbreak of the First World War the majority of the RAN's planned new fleet had been realised. The Australian Squadron was placed under control of the British Admiralty, it was tasked with capturing many of Germany's South Pacific colonies and protecting Australian shipping from the German East Asia Squadron. In the war, most of the RAN's major ships operated as part of Royal Navy forces in the Mediterranean and North Seas, later in the Adriatic, the Black Sea following the surrender of the Ottoman Empire.
In 1919, the RAN received a force of six destroyers, three sloops and six submarines from the Royal Navy, but throughout the 1920s and early 1930s, the RAN was drastically reduced in size due to a variety of factors including political apathy and economic hardship as a result of the Great Depression. In this time the focus of Australia's naval policy shifted from defence against invasion to trade protection, several fleet units were sunk as targets or scrapped. By 1923, the size of the navy had fallen to eight vessels, by the end of the decade it had fallen further to five, with just 3,500 personnel. In the late 1930s, as international tensions increased, the RAN was modernised and expanded, with the service receiving primacy of funding over the Army and Air Force during this time as Australia began to prepare for war. Early in the Second World War, RAN ships again operated as part of Royal Navy formations, many serving with distinction in the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, the Indian Ocean, off the West African coast.
Following the outbreak of the Pacific War and the virtual destruction of British naval forces in south-east Asia, the RAN operated more independently, or as part of United States Navy formations. As the navy took on an greater role, it was expanded and at its height the RAN was the fourth-largest navy in the world, with 39,650 personnel operating 337 warships. A total of 34 vessels were lost during the war, including four destroyers. After the Second World War, the size of the RAN was again reduced, but it gained new capabilities with the acquisition of two aircraft carriers and Melbourne; the RAN saw action in many Cold War–era conflicts in the Asia-Pacific region and operated alongside the Royal Navy and United States Navy off Korea and Vietnam. Since the end of the Cold War, the RAN has been part of Coalition forces in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean, operating in support of Operation Slipper and undertaking counter piracy operations, it was deployed in support of Australian peacekeeping operations in East Timor and the Solomon Islands.
The strategic command structure of the RAN was overhauled during the New Generation Navy changes. The RAN is commanded through Naval Headquarters in Canberra; the professional head is the Chief of Navy. NHQ is responsible for implementing policy decisions handed down from the Department of Defence and for overseeing tactical and operational issues that are the purview of the subordinate commands. Beneath NHQ are two subordinate commands: Fleet Command: fleet comma
Manoeuvring thruster is a transversal propulsion device built into, or mounted to, either the bow or stern, of a ship or boat to make it more maneuverable. Bow thrusters make docking easier, since they allow the captain to turn the vessel to port or starboard side, without using the main propulsion mechanism which requires some forward motion for turning. A stern thruster is of the same principle, fitted at the stern. Large ships might have multiple bow thrusters and stern thrusters. Large vessels have one or more tunnel thrusters built into the bow, below the waterline. An impeller in the tunnel can create thrust in either direction. Most tunnel thrusters are driven by electric motors; these bow thrusters known as tunnel thrusters, may allow the ship to dock without the assistance of tugboats, saving the costs of such service. Ships equipped with tunnel thrusters have a sign marked above the waterline over each thruster on both sides, as a big cross in a red circle:. Tunnel thrusters increase the vessel's resistance to forward motion through the water, but this can be mitigated through proper fairing aft of the tunnel aperture.
Ship operators should take care to prevent fouling of the tunnel and impeller, either through use of a protective grate or by cleaning. During vessel design, it is important to determine whether tunnel emergence above the water surface is commonplace in heavy seas. Tunnel emergence hurts thruster performance, may damage the thruster and the hull around it. Instead of a tunnel thruster, boats from 30 to 80 feet in length may have an externally mounted bow thruster; as its name suggests, an external bow thruster is attached to the bow, making it suitable for boats where it is impossible or undesirable to install a tunnel thruster, due to hull shape or outfitting. Externally mounted bow thrusters have one or more propellers driven by a small reversible electric motor which provides thrust in either direction; the added control provided by a bow thruster helps the captain to avoid accidents while docking. A waterjet thruster is a special type of bow thruster that utilizes a pumping device instead of a conventional propeller.
The water is discharged through specially designed nozzles which increase the velocity of the exiting jet. Waterjets have the advantage of smaller hull penetrations for an equivalent size thruster. Additionally, the higher exit velocity of the discharged water increases the relative efficiency as speeds of advance, or currents, increase, as compared to standard tunnel thrusters; some waterjet bow thrusters can be configured to provide forward and aft auxiliary propulsion, or full 360 degree thrust. Reaction control system Nautic Expo on Bow Thrusters How Bow Thruster is Used for Maneuvering a Ship? by Marine Insight, September 13, 2012, By Amitava Chakrabarty Sail Magazine, on Upgrade: Installing a Bow Thruster, By Roger Marshall, Dec. 3, 2012
USS Manitowoc (LST-1180)
USS Manitowoc was the second ship of the Newport class LST in the United States Navy. LST 1180 was laid down at Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Pennsylvania on 27 February 1967. S. senator from Wisconsin. "Manitowoc" is Anishinaabe for "Home of the Great Spirit." Manitowoc conducted two deployments off Vietnam in 1971 and 1972. She carried troops to Lebanon in 1982 and 1983 during U. S. participation in the Beirut Multinational Peacekeeping Force, participated in the Operation Urgent Fury in October-November 1983. While off the coast of Beirut in 1983, comedian Bob Hope and other celebrities visited the ship as part of Hope's first USO tour since the Vietnam War; the show was broadcast on TV on Jan. 15, 1984 as "Bob Hope's USO Christmas in Beirut." It was nominated for a primetime Emmy award. Manitowoc participated in the Persian Gulf War before decommissioning on 30 June 1993; the ship was transferred to the Republic of China through the Security Assistance Program on 29 September 2000. Top row: Navy Unit Commendation Second row: Navy Battle "E" Ribbon - Navy Expeditionary Medal - National Defense Service MedalThird row: Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal - Vietnam Service Medal - Southwest Asia Service MedalFourth row: Humanitarian Service Medal - Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal - Kuwait Liberation Medal Thirteen Navy commanders served as commanding officer of the USS Manitowoc:CDR.
George Thomas Dyer Jr. 24 January 1970 - 21 May 1971CDR. George Delbert Bess, 21 May 1971 - 14 December 1972CDR. Elmer Francis Poyet, 14 December 1972 - 7 September 1974CDR. John Aubrey Chrisman Jr. 7 September 1974 - 30 September 1976CDR. John Francis Doyle, 30 September 1976 - 7 November 1978CDR. Thomas Terrence Triplett, 7 November 1978 - 17 October 1980CDR. Richard Montague Butler, 17 October 1980 - 30 November 1982CDR. John Dennis Kolata, 30 November 1982 - 11 January 1985CDR. Charles Paul Vion, 11 January 1985 - 27 February 1987CDR. Jerome Edward Schill, 27 February 1987 - 16 June 1989CDR. Robert Stanly Martin, 16 June 1989 - 16 November 1990CDR. Dale Arthur Rauch, 16 November 1990 - 9 June 1992CDR. Timothy James Concannon, 9 March 1992 - 30 June 1993 Notable officers and crew include: Capt. Robert A. Bellitto, USN, served as an ensign aboard the Manitowoc after graduating from the U. S. Naval Academy in 1981, he retired from active duty in 2008 as commanding officer of Training Support Center Hampton Roads.
His wife, served on the Virginia Beach City Council. "During his tour at, Bellitto achieved numerous milestones. Most notable among them was the record 200,000+ Sailors, Marines and Airmen who were honed for service in the fleet under his seasoned eye," The Flagship reported when Bellitto retired. "From the business perspective, Bellitto’s aggressiveness in eliminating unnecessary training facilities resulted in a reduction of nearly 300,000 square feet and at a cost avoidance to the Navy in excess of $33 million." During his Navy career, Bellitto served as commanding officer of USS Briscoe, as a division director at U. S. Joint Forces Command. After retiring from the Navy, he joined the Boeing Corporation as an analyst and in 2018 was serving as Boeing Global Services' managing director for Northeast Asia. Capt. Richard M. Butler, USN, served as commanding officer of the Manitowoc from 17 October 1980 to 30 November 1982, during the first landing of Marines supporting the NATO presence in Beirut.
He served as chief staff officer of Amphibious Squadron 4, based on the USS Guam, during Operation Urgent Fury in Grenada. His experience as a recreational sailor proved invaluable during the landing of Marines in Grenada. In "U. S. Marines in Grenada 1983," Lt. Col. Ronald H. Spector, USMC, reported: "Information about Grenada itself was sketchy. Marine ground units use military maps of 1:50,000 scale, but in the case of Grenada, no maps of any type were available on the ships; the Guam did have a full set of nautical charts. Lacking grid lines and other important information, these had limited usefulness for operations ashore. "By a fortunate coincidence, Commander Richard Butler, the chief staff officer of the amphibious squadron, was an amateur yachtsman. He had sailed in Grenadian waters six years earlier, was familiar with the area. Although Commander Butler's visit in 1977 had been purely recreational, his experienced sailor's eye had noted important features of the coast, tides and beach.
These would prove invaluable to the Marines. At the request of Colonel Faulkner, Commander Butler soon became involved with the MAU staff in examining options for Grenada." Prior to Capt. Butler's Navy career, he was a reporter for the Los Angeles Times. Cmdr. John D. Kolata, USN, served as commanding officer of the Manitowoc from 30 November 1982 to 11 January 1985 during the ship's involvement in the Beirut Multinational Peacekeeping Force and Operation Urgent Fury. After he retired from the Navy, he served as a city manager in Illinois, he ran for city council in Kewanee, Illinois, in 2011. In an October 2014 article for Veterans Life/Kitsap Military Times, Kolata wrote that Operation Urgent Fury stopped the expansion of communist Cuba and contributed to the end of the Cold War. "The entire amphibious task force that Manitowoc was part of during Operation Urgent Fury displayed true flexibility in carrying out the orders of our commander in chief, President Ronald Re
A derrick is a lifting device composed at minimum of one guyed mast, as in a gin pole, which may be articulated over a load by adjusting its guys. Most derricks have at least two components, either a guyed mast or self-supporting tower, a boom hinged at its base to provide articulation, as in a stiffleg derrick; the most basic type of derrick is controlled by three or four lines connected to the top of the mast, which allow it both to move laterally and cant up and down. To lift a load, a separate line runs up and over the mast with a hook on its free end, as with a crane. Forms of derricks are found aboard ships and at docking facilities; some large derricks are mounted on dedicated vessels, known as floating derricks and sheerlegs. The term derrick is applied to the framework supporting a drilling apparatus in an oil rig; the derrick derives its name from a type of gallows named after Thomas Derrick, an Elizabethan era English executioner. There are various types of derrick based on how the tower or mast is set up and the use of boom: In an A-frame derrick, the tower is set up from two poles or masts with their bottom ends spread from each other and their top ends joint together.
There are crossbars to connect the two poles. The tower is ground anchored to provide support. A boom extends outward and upward; the top end of the boom is connected to a pulley system, connected to the top of the tower. Manipulating the pulley system will allow the boom to change the angle against the tower. There is another pulley system to connect to the top of the boom for load lifting; when an A-frame derrick is used in a vessel, it is called floating A-frame derrick. A basket derrick is a derrick without a boom, supported by a rope-and-pole system that forms a basket; the basket is constructed from a group of poles to form a polygon. There are crossbars between the pole members to strengthen their support; the supporting ropes are tied to the top of the basket poles on one end and joined together on the other end at a lower elevation than the top of the basket poles to form the base for the derrick tower. The derrick tower can be a post with the bottom hinged at the base where all ropes meet.
The top of the tower is secured with multiple reeved guys to position the top of the tower to the desired location by varying the length of the upper guy lines. The load is lifted using a pulley system connected to the top of the tower. A breast derrick is a derrick without a boom with a mast constructed from two upright members; the upright members are more spread at their bottom ends than their top ends. There are crossbars to join the two members from the bottom to the top to form a mast. Without the use of boom, the top crossbar is used to connect to a sheave or a block, used for lifting the load; the mast is prevented from tipping forward by guys connected to its top. A Chicago boom derrick is a derrick with a boom, attached to an external structure; the external upright member of the structure serves as the mast, the boom is stepped in a fixed socket clamped to the upright. The boom is connected to at least three pulley systems to control the position of the boom. For example, a pulley system is connected to the top of the boom and the higher area of the external structure and two pulley systems near the top of the boom connected on either side of the boom to the external structure.
The position of the top of the boom can be controlled by manipulating these pulley systems. The load is lifted from a separate pulley system, connected to the top of the boom. Gin pole derrick is a derrick without a boom with single mast supported by 4 guy wires, its guys are so arranged from its top. The base of the tower is hinged and the top of the tower is connected to a pulley system for load lifting; as this is a simple derrick system, it is considered to be used by some agencies as an improvised rescue derrick in an emergency situation where no suitable rescue derrick or crane is available. Guy derrick is a fixed guyed mast derrick that can be connected to a boom; the mast is in upright position with the base that can make the mast rotate, but not to be lean in any direction. The top of the mast is connected to many guy wires which are anchored to the ground to support the load. At the base, the mast is connect to the bottom end of the boom; the boom extends upward to the desired position.
The top of the boom is a pulley system, connected to the top of the mast to control how far the boom is to be from the mast. When the mast is rotated, the connected boom is swung from to the side; the control of the lifting location is done by the manipulation of the top pulley system and the rotation of the mast at the base. The load is lifted by another pulley system connected to the top of the boom. In a medium load lifting, another construction method can be used. In this case, the mast is fixed without being rotated; this can be done by connecting the bottom of the boom with two boards on the opposite sides around the surface of the boom to form a fork. The fork and the bottom part of the boom is lashed to secure them together. Another lashing is between the fork area and the mast at a higher position to support the weight of the boom; the fork is put around the mast such that the bottom of the boom is rested on the mast without permanently fixed to it. The fork prevent the boom to come off the mast while swinging up to 180 degrees.
Shearleg derrick is similar to breast with an exception that instead of fixed guy wires that secure the top
The Peruvian Navy is the branch of the Peruvian Armed Forces tasked with surveillance and defense on lakes and the Pacific Ocean up to 200 nautical miles from the Peruvian littoral. Additional missions include assistance in safeguarding internal security, conducting disaster relief operations and participating in international peacekeeping operations; the Marina de Guerra del Perú celebrates the anniversary of its creation in 1821 on October 8 and commemorates the decisive Battle of Angamos, the final part of the naval campaign of the War of the Pacific between Peru and Chile at the end of 1879. The Marina de Guerra del Perú was established on 8 October 1821 by the government of general José de San Martín, its first actions were undertaken during the War of Independence using captured Spanish warships. The Peruvian Naval Infantry was formed during the war with Spain, performing in their first battle where they seized Arica from the Spanish. Shortly afterwards it was engaged in the war against the Gran Colombia during which it conducted a blockade against the seaport of Guayaquil and helped with the occupation of this city by Peruvian forces.
It saw further action during the wars of the Peru-Bolivian Confederacy and during the Chincha Islands War with Spain. The breakout of the War of the Pacific caught the Peruvian Navy unprepared and with inferior forces in comparison with the Chilean Navy. So, hit-and-run tactics carried out by Peruvian Admiral Miguel Grau, commander of the ironclad Huáscar, delayed the Chilean advance by six months until his death and defeat at the Battle of Angamos. Following the War of the Pacific, the Peruvian Navy had to be rebuilt from the ground up. In 1900 the force amounted to only one cruiser of 1,700 tons displacement, a screw-driven steamer, ten smaller ships – the latter described by a contemporary British publication as "of no real value"; the lengthy process of expansion and rebuilding started in 1907 with the acquisition in the United Kingdom of the scout cruisers Almirante Grau and Coronel Bolognesi, followed by the arrival of two submarines, Ferré and Palacios, from France in 1911. During the Presidency of Augusto B.
Leguía a Navy Ministry was established as well as a Navy Aviation Corps, both in 1920. Border conflicts with Colombia in 1911 and 1932 and a war with Ecuador in 1941 saw Peruvian warships involved in some skirmishes in support of the Army; the attack on Pearl Harbor brought World War II to the Pacific and though Peru did not declare war on the Axis until 1945, its Navy was involved in patrol missions against possible threats by the Imperial Japanese Navy from early 1942 up to mid-1945. During the 1970s and the first half of the 1980s the Peruvian Navy carried out a major buildup programme which allowed it to take advantage over its traditional rival, the Chilean Navy; the navy purchased one cruiser the BAP Almirante Grau from the Netherlands, eight Carvajal-class frigates from Italy – four newly purchased and four ex-Lupo-class frigates – as well as six PR-72P-class corvettes from France. The buildup proved to be temporary due to the economic crisis of the second half of the 1980s, forcing the decommissioning of several warships and resulting in a general lack of funds for maintenance.
The economic upturn of the 1990s and into the 2000s would permit some improvement, although at a reduced force level compared to the early 1980s. Into the 21st century, the Peruvian Navy began to modernize their ships. In 2008, the Type 209/1100 submarines were modernized while the Carvajal-class frigates began to be modernized in 2011; the Type 209/1200 submarines began to be modernized in late-2017 beginning with the BAP Chipana. SIMA has continued to construct ships for the Navy. In 2013, SIMA partnered with Posco Daewoo Corporation and Daesun Shipbuilding of South Korea to construct two Makassar-class landing platform docks; the BAP Pisco launched on 25 April 2017, as well as the BAP Paita, under construction will provide Peru with increased expeditionary warfare capabilities, with the ability to accommodate multiple Landing Craft Vehicle Personnel, newly purchased LAV IIs and helicopters. In 2018, a modernization program was initiated to upgrade Peru's Type 209/1200 submarines, the BAP Chipana, BAP Angamos, BAP Antofagasta and BAP Pisagua, with a contract with ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems being made for further assistance with SIMA.
The current Commander-in-Chief of the Peruvian Navy is Admiral Nicolas Rios Polastri. Naval Forces are subordinated to the Ministry of Defense and to the President as Commander-in-Chief of the Peruvian Armed Forces, they are organized as follows: Comandancia General de la Marina Estado Mayor General de la Marina Inspectoría General de la Marina Operational units are divided between three commands: Comandancia General de Operaciones del PacíficoPacific Operations General Command, it comprises the following units: Fuerza de Superficie Fuerza de Submarinos Fuerza de Aviación Naval Fuerza de Infantería de Marina Fuerza de Operaciones Especiales Comandancia General de Operaciones de la AmazoníaAmazon Operations General Command, tasked with river patrolling in the Peruvian portion of the Amazon Basin. Dirección General de Capitanías y GuardacostasDirective General of Captains and Coast Guard, oversees Coast Guard operations Coast Guard, tasked with law enforcement on Peruvian territorial waters and lakes.
The Peruvian Coast Guard performs anti-drug traf
USS Cayuga (LST-1186)
USS Cayuga is a Newport-class tank landing ship, in service with the United States Navy from 1970 to 1994. She was transferred to Brazil in 2001. A fictional version of the Cayuga was used as the set for the US TV Series JAG. Cayuga was laid down on 28 September 1968 at San Diego, California, by the National Steel & Shipbuilding Corporation. Heinz, wife of Vice Admiral Luther C. Heinz, Commander of Amphibious Forces, Atlantic, she was named after a county in New York. Following commissioning, Cayuga was assigned to the Amphibious Force, Pacific Fleet, with her home port at Long Beach, California, she alternated amphibious training operations along the west coast of the United States with regular, extended deployments to the Far East. Cayuga earned two battle stars for Vietnam service. In May 1972, Cayuga, USS Schenectady, USS Manitowoc, USS Duluth were part of Operation Song Than 6-72, an amphibious landing of Marines in support of the defense of Huế City. Cayuga and Duluth were fired on by NVA artillery during the assault on 24 May 1972.
USS Hanson and other gun fire support ships silenced the opposing guns. Cayuga received a Combat Action Ribbon for the incident. In 1976, Cayuga was filmed portraying a rescue ship in the disaster films Airport'77 and Gray Lady Down. In 1981, Cayuga rescued. In May 1983, Cayuga participated in a Marine Amphibious Battalion Landing Exercise transporting Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 1st Marines as part of a beach assault and simulated civilian evacuation training exercise. Cayuga and Amphibious Squadron 5 participated in Desert Shield and Desert Storm in 1990 / 1991, departing in July 1990 and returning to its port in Long Beach in April 1991 after an extended deployment, it carried elements of the 13th Marine Expeditionary Unit's Battalion Landing Team 1/4. Alongside Cayuga were USS Ft McHenry, USS Ogden and USS Iwo Jima. Cayuga became part of Naval Battle Force, under Rear Admiral Arthur K. Cebrowski, in October–November 1993. Other elements of the force included USS America, USS Simpson, USS New Orleans, USS Denver, USS Comstock, the 13th Marine Expeditionary Unit.
Cayuga received the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal and a Meritorious Unit Commendation for Somalia related operations from 18 October 1993 to 1 February 1994. Cayuga was decommissioned 26 August 1994 and leased to the Brazilian Navy from 30 November that year where she serves as NDCC Mattoso Maia, named for Admiral Jorge do Paço Mattoso Maia, Minister of the Navy 1958-1961. On 19 September 2000 the ship was purchased by Brazil. Cayuga received the following awards: Vietnam Service Medal for periods 20 March 1971 to 23 March 1971 and 3 May 1972 to 26 May 1972 Combat Action Ribbon for service 24 May 1972 Republic of the Philippines Presidential Unit Citation with MEDTMS for service from 21 July 1972 to 15 August 1972 relating to Typhoon Rita. Humanitarian Service Medal for 23 April 1981 and 8 May 1981 for rescuing Vietnamese boat people Navy Unit Commendation for 1 August 1990 to 30 April 1991 for service relating to Desert Storm Navy Unit Commendation as a part of PHIBREADYGRU A from 1 June 1990 to 1 April 1991 relating to Desert Storm Southwest Asia Service Medal for 5 September 1990 to 8 November 1990 and 12 January 1991 to 13 March 1991 Was nominated for a Combat Action Ribbon for service 17 January 1991 to 28 February 1991, but received no award Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal for service 18 October 1993 to 1 February 1994 relating to Operation Restore Hope, Somalia Meritorious Unit Commendation as part of 13 MEU SOC from 18 October 1993 to 2 February 1994, Somalia This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.
The entry can be found here. This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U. S. government publication, is in the public domain. The entry can be found here. Http://www.navsource.org/archives/10/16/161186.htm